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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology
The sustained research at Hubbard Brook has been invaluable in providing continuity in pursuit of patterns and trends, in identifying extreme observations, and in catalyzing significant new research questions. These long-term data also have influenced policy decisions regarding management of natural resources (see G. E. Likens et al., 1978; G. E. Likens, 1992). More than 100 senior scientists have worked at the site. Hubbard Brook research has generated more than 800 published papers, 5 books, 63 Ph.D. theses, 30 M.S. theses, and 22 undergraduate honor theses. A listing of all publications can be found in P. C. Likens (1994).
Gene E. Likens, Professor
Institute of Ecosystems Studies
Millbrook, New York
Ecosystems'' at the end of this report). Examples of research stations, of which government and academic limnologists work in tandem include
Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (see Box 5-2), which was founded by scientists from Dartmouth College and is now supported by the U.S. Forest Service and the National Science Foundation;
the Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy research station at Dorset, Ontario, which is supported by the Canadian government but draws scientists from the Universities of Toronto, Trent, Waterloo, and York;
the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina, where University of Georgia and Virginia Tech scientists work closely with the U.S. Forest Service to study stream processes;
the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest in Oregon, which supports collaborative stream research by the Universities of Oregon and Washington and the Forest Service;
the Freshwater Institute at Winnipeg, Manitoba, where University of Manitoba researchers work with funding from the Canadian government; and
the University of Wisconsin Trout Lake Station in Boulder Junction, Wisconsin, which has dedicated space for research programs of the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources and the U.S. Geological Survey.
One of the most productive partnership models to emulate has been that of the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), near Kenora, Ontario (see Box 5-3). This field research station is operated by the Canadian government and staffed with agency and university scientists alike. From the late 1960s through the 1980s, research conducted at ELA on the causes and effects of major water pollution problems, such as lake eutrophication and acid deposition, was followed closely by agency resource managers.