not supplant them (Figure 1). Most of the existing educational routes, largely through departments of biological sciences, would continue their traditional programs in aquatic biology, water resources, fisheries management, etc. Freshwater resources are of such value to the economy and health of the country (Francko and Wetzel, 1983; Benke, 1990; Thornton et al., 1990; van der Leeden et al., 1990; Wetzel, 1992; Callow and Petts, 1993; Gleick, 1993; Rogers, 1993) that expanded training of limnological leaders to enhance the understanding and invigorate the management of fresh waters is greatly needed.
The interdisciplinary nature of limnology mandates that programs or schools of limnology consist of integrated instruction from disciplines not normally aggregated into a single department or even division. Rigorous