University, where he was introduced to aquatic studies during a summer research program, and he was hired to work with Birge at a time when administrative duties were limiting Birge's research efforts. Juday continued at the Geological Survey during his career and served on the faculty of the University of Wisconsin and as director of the Trout Lake Limnological Station. He supervised the graduate training of 13 Ph.D.s, several of whom have made substantial contributions to limnology. Juday was instrumental in establishing the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography and was its first president.

One of Juday's last Ph.D. students, Arthur D. Hasler, was hired by the University of Wisconsin to continue limnological activities. Hasler himself became a major figure in limnology, contributing substantially to the development of limnology as an experimental science (in contrast to its origins as an observational science). During his career at the University of Wisconsin (1940–1975), Hasler supervised the training of numerous M.S. and Ph.D. limnologists, including several who have attained international status in limnology and ecology.

been broadened and refined as twentieth century science has become more sophisticated (see the background paper "Organizing Paradigms for the Study of Inland Aquatic Ecosystems" at the end of this report). Today, limnological studies focus on lakes as "mirror images of the landscape around them" (A.D. Hasler, quoted in Beckel, 1987)—in other words, as open systems that receive inputs of water, solar energy, and chemical substances from terrestrial and atmospheric sources.

Limnology began to take its place as a recognized field for research and scholarly activities near the turn of the century. The first limnological research institute in Germany was founded at Plön in 1891; it still is one of the major centers for limnological research (Overbeck, 1989). Edward Birge and his colleague Chancey Juday (see Box 2-3), usually regarded as the founders of academic limnology in North America, began their limnological studies at about the same time. Both spent their careers at the University of Wisconsin in Madison, and they began a rich limnological tradition that continues at that university to the present (Mortimer, 1956; Frey, 1963; Beckel, 1987; Kitchell, 1992). Birge was a zoologist and was attracted to lake studies during his student days in the 1870s in the context of the life cycles of microscopic animals (zooplankton). Juday also was trained as a biologist and was hired by Birge in 1897 to help conduct lake surveys. Birge and Juday soon branched into the physics and chemistry of lakes as they realized that the dynamics of plankton could not be understood without knowledge of these subjects. Their studies on temperature stratification and dissolved gases provided limnologists with information needed to understand virtually all biological cycles in lakes. Birge and Juday sought collaboration with physicists and chemists to study



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