Index

A

Academics, see Education;

Universities

Acid rain and acidification, 19, 88, 90-93, 97, 273

assessment of damage from, 4, 20

neutralization, 90, 91, 206, 282

organic sources, 208, 209-210, 211-212

paleolimnological analysis, 40, 92, 306

research studies, 43, 91-93, 188, 195, 206, 208, 209, 211-212, 276 -277, 280

Adaptive management, 255

Agriculture and farmlands, 73, 249, 297

runoff, 11, 78, 87, 238, 249, 250, 297

wetlands impacts, 71, 238, 250

Air pollution, 4, 90, 93-97, 273

Alewife, 98, 100, 101, 102

Algal blooms, see Cultural eutrophication

Alkalinity, 91, 270-271

research studies, 43

Aluminum, 208

American Fisheries Society, 59

American Institute of Hydrology, 170-171

American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), 29, 31, 54, 56, 59, 205, 213, 230, 345

Andrews, H. J., Experimental Forest (HJAEF), 147, 149, 163, 284-285

Anions, 270

Apalachicola-Chattachoochee-Flint River Basin, 295

Applied research, 175, 176, 247-255

Arizona State University, 124, 145, 146, 330

Artificial channels, 195

Artificial ponds, 186

Atchafalaya Delta, 67

Atmospheric transport and deposition, 17, 19, 90, 93-94, 98, 273

B

Bachelor's degree, see Undergraduate education

Bacteria, 268, 270

Baseline data collection, 21, 37, 237

Basic research, 7, 66, 175-176, 257-277

Beavers, 208

Bennett Dam, 67, 68

Benthic organisms, 48, 194, 267-268, 304, 306

Bioaccumulation, of toxins, 3-4, 14, 19, 68, 87-88, 94-97, 208

Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 78-79, 80

Biodiversity, 210-211, 251-252, 268-270, 293, 304-311

Biogeochemistry, 192, 219, 223

Biological integrity, 289, 290-291, 296-315

Biological sciences, 4, 11, 48, 58-69, 193-194, 222, 224, 226

Biological status and changes, 47, 97-104, 296-298

assessment and monitoring, 289-296, 298-317

exotic species introduction, 97-103

experimental lake studies, 35-36, 37

extinction of species, 103-104

functional attributes, 311-315

metrics and indices, 307-311

nonequilibrium processes, 302-303

seasonal variations, 302

structural attributes, 304-311

time and spatial scales in, 298-302

Biomanipulation, 87, 192

Bioremediation, 210

Birds, accumulation of toxins in, 3, 96-97

Birge, Edward A., 28, 29-30, 184-185, 281-282



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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology Index A Academics, see Education; Universities Acid rain and acidification, 19, 88, 90-93, 97, 273 assessment of damage from, 4, 20 neutralization, 90, 91, 206, 282 organic sources, 208, 209-210, 211-212 paleolimnological analysis, 40, 92, 306 research studies, 43, 91-93, 188, 195, 206, 208, 209, 211-212, 276 -277, 280 Adaptive management, 255 Agriculture and farmlands, 73, 249, 297 runoff, 11, 78, 87, 238, 249, 250, 297 wetlands impacts, 71, 238, 250 Air pollution, 4, 90, 93-97, 273 Alewife, 98, 100, 101, 102 Algal blooms, see Cultural eutrophication Alkalinity, 91, 270-271 research studies, 43 Aluminum, 208 American Fisheries Society, 59 American Institute of Hydrology, 170-171 American Society of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), 29, 31, 54, 56, 59, 205, 213, 230, 345 Andrews, H. J., Experimental Forest (HJAEF), 147, 149, 163, 284-285 Anions, 270 Apalachicola-Chattachoochee-Flint River Basin, 295 Applied research, 175, 176, 247-255 Arizona State University, 124, 145, 146, 330 Artificial channels, 195 Artificial ponds, 186 Atchafalaya Delta, 67 Atmospheric transport and deposition, 17, 19, 90, 93-94, 98, 273 B Bachelor's degree, see Undergraduate education Bacteria, 268, 270 Baseline data collection, 21, 37, 237 Basic research, 7, 66, 175-176, 257-277 Beavers, 208 Bennett Dam, 67, 68 Benthic organisms, 48, 194, 267-268, 304, 306 Bioaccumulation, of toxins, 3-4, 14, 19, 68, 87-88, 94-97, 208 Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), 78-79, 80 Biodiversity, 210-211, 251-252, 268-270, 293, 304-311 Biogeochemistry, 192, 219, 223 Biological integrity, 289, 290-291, 296-315 Biological sciences, 4, 11, 48, 58-69, 193-194, 222, 224, 226 Biological status and changes, 47, 97-104, 296-298 assessment and monitoring, 289-296, 298-317 exotic species introduction, 97-103 experimental lake studies, 35-36, 37 extinction of species, 103-104 functional attributes, 311-315 metrics and indices, 307-311 nonequilibrium processes, 302-303 seasonal variations, 302 structural attributes, 304-311 time and spatial scales in, 298-302 Biomanipulation, 87, 192 Bioremediation, 210 Birds, accumulation of toxins in, 3, 96-97 Birge, Edward A., 28, 29-30, 184-185, 281-282

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology Blue Plains sewage plant, 14 Boating, 15, 249 Bogs, see Wetlands Boundary Waters Canoe Area, 19 Bureau of Land Management, 173, 292, 296 Bythotrephes cederstroemi, 100-101 C Calcium carbonate, 37, 90 Canada collaborative research programs, 163-165 Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), 76, 83, 91, 148, 163-165, 188-189, 254, 281 fish contamination, 94, 97 Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science, 55, 205 Carbon and carbon dioxide (CO2), 74 as cause of eutrophication, 83-84, 86 cycling of, 68, 70, 188-189, 197, 237 Careers, see Employment opportunities Cations, 270-271 Center for Great Lakes Studies, 147-148 Certification, professional, 7-8, 170-172, 176 CFSTR (continuous-flow, stirred-tank reactor), 190 Chemical budgets, 207 Chemical changes and regulation, 77-97, 210-211, 270-274 and acid rain, 88, 90-93 and air pollution, 90, 93-97 anions and cations, 270-271 and climate change, 273-274 detrital organic material, 272-273 experimental lake studies, 35 long-range transport and deposition, 19, 273 stream studies, 46, 48 trace metals, 93-97, 208, 271-272 and waste discharges, 78-88 Chemistry, 44, 192 Classification of inland waters, 258-260 lakes, 31, 185 rivers and streams, 48, 194 Clean Water Act, 1, 2, 4, 10, 13, 292, 294-295, 296 Lake Erie recovery under, 16-17 and point-source discharges, 15, 80-81 Potomac River improvements under, 14 state water quality assessments, 248-249, 250, 294 wetlands provisions, 10, 72, 240 Climate change, 74-77, 273-274, 298 research, 3, 209 wetlands impacts, 76-77, 209, 211, 242 see also Greenhouse gases Coarse-filter approach, 251-252 Coarse particulate organic matter, 272 Columbia River Basin, 17, 293, 296, 301 Committee on Aquaculture, 31 Conservancies, 155-156 Continuing education, 8, 168-169 Cooperative and collaborative programs among professional societies, 173-174, 176, 213 student internships, 6-7, 165-167 see also Interdisciplinary programs Copper, 269-270, 306 Coweeta Experimental Forest, 149, 284 Cultural eutrophication, 20, 81-87, 297 carbon-phosphorus controversy, 83-84, 86, 189 control and prevention, 3, 83-84, 85, 87 research programs, 36-37, 43, 81-84, 87, 188, 206, 281 role of phosphorus in, 16, 83-84, 86, 103, 189, 190, 281 Curriculum, 134-147, 223-231 doctoral programs, 144-145, 229-230 laboratory and field methods, 139-142 master of science programs, 7, 142-144, 229-230 postdoctoral programs, 145-147 reforms, 127-128, 213 synthesis courses, 137, 139 undergraduate programs, 134-142, 227, 228 for wetlands study, 234-243 see also Introductory courses Cycling of elements carbon, 68, 70, 188-189, 197, 237 greenhouse gases, 51, 71, 74, 197 nutrients, 49, 192, 196, 204, 211, 301, 313 D Dams and reservoirs, 3, 17, 46, 66-70, 297 Daphnia, 100 Dartmouth University, 124, 141, 162 DDT, 87, 93, 209, 237, 273 Degree programs, see Doctoral (Ph.D.) programs; Graduate education; Master of science programs; Undergraduate education

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology Diel cycles, 264 Dioxins, 87, 93, 273 Dissolved organic carbon, 272-273 Doctoral (Ph.D.) programs, 144-145, 160, 229-230 Drinking water, 13, 14-15 Ducks, 209 E Ecological energetics, 194-195 Ecological health, 291 Ecological Society of America (ESA), 54, 59, 171, 230, 345 Ecology of Running Waters, The, 48, 49, 194 Ecosystem Center, Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory, 159, 283 Ecosystems, 258-261 biodiversity of, 210-211, 251-252, 268-270, 293, 304-311 energy flows, 192-193, 194-195 human impacts, 65, 274-276 lakes as integrated, 25, 27, 183-185 linkages among diverse, 195, 203-213, 219, 266-267 management, 219, 220, 291-292. species relationships within, 104, 267-269 studies of diverse, 203-214 sustainability, 291-292 Edmondson, W. T., 58, 83, 84, 140, 141, 283-284 Education, 118-119, 151-153, 218-232 continuing and professional, 8, 168-169 current status of, 4-5, 56, 119-127, 223-224 departmental fragmentation, 4-5, 56, 58-61, 119, 124, 126-127, 221, 222-223 field research sites role in, 147-151 interecosystem studies, 213-214 of the public, 6, 8, 152, 174-175, 225, 253 recruitment programs, 232 of resource managers, 6-7, 152, 154, 220-221, 253 student interest in limnology, 5, 55, 121, 328, 330-343 see also Curriculum; Faculty; Graduate education; Undergraduate education; Universities Electric power generation, 297. See also Hydroelectric facilities Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 166 Elodea canadensis, 102-103 Embodied energy (emergy), 35 Employment opportunities, 155-160 in academia, 155, 159-160 in government, 157-158, 172-173 placement programs, 232 preparation for, 137, 143, 144, 170-172 in private sector, 155-157 in research centers, 144, 158-159 Endangered Species Act (ESA), 291, 293, 296 Energy flows, 35, 192-193, 194-195 Engineering, 44, 222-223 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP), 294 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 43, 57-58, 173, 212, 248, 249, 293-295 Europe, institutes of limnology in, 31, 128-130, 222, 227 Eutrophication, see Cultural eutrophication Exotic species, 4, 19, 97-103, 104, 240 Experimental lakes, 35-37, 185-189, 282-283 Canada program, 76, 83, 91, 148, 163-165, 188-189, 254, 281 Experimental Lakes Area (ELA), Canada, 76, 83, 91, 148, 163-165, 188-189, 254, 281 Extinction of species, 17, 103-104, 240 prevention, 4, 293 F Faculty adjunct appointments to government agencies, 167, 176 departmental affiliations, 4-5, 44, 45, 119, 131-134, 329 doctoral candidates on, 145 employment opportunities, 155, 159-160 government scientists and managers as, 8, 161 publication activity, 346 strengths and dispersal, 58-59, 328-343 Farms, see Agriculture and farmlands Federal government job classification, 8, 172-173, 176 legislative and policy actions, 291-293 monitoring and assessment programs, 293-295 postdoctoral programs, 146-147, 152

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology regional school support, 231 research programs, 7, 43, 57, 222 research scientists in, 144, 158 student internships, 6-7, 152, 166-167 zebra mussel research, 99-100 see also Environmental Protection Agency; Forest Service; National Research Council; National Science Foundation; Office of Personnel Management; Tennessee Valley Authority; U.S. Geological Survey Field camps, 7, 141-142, 152 Field research in continuing education programs, 168-169 education in methods, 139-142 in graduate education, 143-144, 150 support, 5, 151, 152 in undergraduate education, 7, 121, 123, 149, 150, 227 see also Research Centers Fine-filter approach, 251-252 Fine particulate organic matter, 272 Fish and fisheries, 19, 296, 297 accumulation of toxins in, 3-4, 14, 19, 68, 88, 94-96, 97, 208 acidification effects on, 90-91 dam impacts, 17, 67 research, 59, 188, 191, 304-305, 306-307 restrictions, 13-14, 94-95, 96, 248-249 stocking of exotic species, 19, 98-99, 101-102 Flood-pulse model, 50, 196 Florida Everglades, 18, 96 Florida panthers, 96 Fluid mechanics, 192, 264-265 Food chains and webs, 43, 191-192, 208, 211, 219, 224, 283 and eutrophication, 85, 87 and exotic species, 101-102 Forbes, Stephen Alfred, 24, 25, 27, 183 Forel, Francois Alphonse, 25, 26, 184 Forestry and timber harvest, 73-74, 280, 297 Forest Service, 162, 163, 173, 280, 292, 296 Fossil fuels, 88, 90, 93 Fossil studies, 37, 40, 41, 189, 190, 206, 236-237, 262 Fragmentation of studies, 205, 221, 222 within schools, 4-5, 56, 58-61, 119, 124, 126-127, 221, 222-223 Freshwater Imperative, 56 Freshwater Institute, 163 Frey, D. G., 58 G Generalists, 205, 213 Genetic variation within ecosystems, 210-211, 251-252, 268-270, 293, 304-311 within species, 269-270, 314-315 Geomorphology, 46, 193, 194 Global warming, see Climate change; Greenhouse gases Goldman, Charles, 89 Government agencies collaboration with universities, 161-165, 167, 176 employment opportunities, 157-158, 172-173 publication activity of limnologists in, 346 research scientists in, 144 see also Federal government; names of individual agencies; State government Graduate education, 55, 123-124, 126, 136, 137, 152-153, 160, 218, 224 curriculum, 7, 227, 229-230 field studies, 143-144, 150 see also Doctoral programs; Master of science programs Great Lakes atmospheric deposition, 93-94, 96-97 exotic species in, 4, 19, 98-102 research programs, 46, 59, 148 role of limnology in management of, 105 and zebra mussel, 4, 19, 98, 99-100 Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, 16, 105 Great Plains, 209, 231 Greenhouse gases, 74-75 from flooded areas, 68, 70 wetlands role in cycling, 51, 71, 74, 197 H Hasler, Arthur D., 29, 36, 186, 282 History of limnology, 24-51, 183-185, 219 Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), 149, 162-163, 195, 206, 280 Hutchinson, G. Evelyn, 31, 33, 58, 91, 186 Hydraulic properties, dam and dam releases impacts on, 67, 68 Hydroelectric facilities, 67, 297 environmental managers, 155, 156 Hydrology, 8, 193, 231 Hynes, H. B. Noel, 48, 49, 194

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology I Impoundments, see Dams and reservoirs Indiana University, 58, 222 Indicator species, 48, 194, 306 Indigenous peoples, 67, 68, 97 Industrial discharges, 10, 11, 15, 78, 297 toxic releases, 87 Institute of Ecosystem Studies, 159, 175 Interdisciplinary programs, 28, 29-30, 44, 57, 253-255 and interecosystem studies, 203-214 linkages among major fields, 44, 206-207 in universities, 6, 119, 121, 128, 131-134, 151, 213-214, 221, 225-227 Interecosystem studies, 203-214 Intergovernmental Personnel Act, 167 Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality, 294 Internal alkalinity generation, 91 International Association for Great Lakes Research (IAGLR), 54, 59, 345 International Association for Theoretical and Applied Limnology, see Societas Internationalis Limnologiae (SIL) International Biological Program, 50 Introductory courses, 6, 135-136, 138-139, 152 offerings at universities, 55, 328, 330-343 Iron, 208, 271, 276-277 Isle Royale, 93-94 Ivanov, Konstantin E., 52 J Journal of Great Lakes Research, 55, 59 Journal of the North American Benthological Society, 55, 205, 346 Journals, 54, 55, 59, 60, 173, 205 home institutions of authors publishing in, 346 Juday, Chancey, 28-30, 45, 184-185, 281-282 K Kent State University, 131, 132, 134, 175 Kentucky Division of Water, 253 L Laboratory studies, 5, 7, 121, 123, 144, 149, 150, 152, 227 Lake and Reservoir Management, 55 Lake Erie, eutrophication recovery, 16-17 Lake George, New York, eutrophication problems, 82 Lake Laberge, Yukon Territories, 94 Lake Mendota, Wisconsin, 76, 87, 89, 282 Lakes, 24-25, 183 acid neutralization, 90, 91, 206, 282 as chemical reactors, 190 classification of, 31, 185 and climate change, 76, 209 as components of watersheds, 190-191 experimental, 185-189, 282-283 as microcosms, 25, 27, 31, 183-185 paleolimnological studies, 189-190 paradigms for study of, 25-46, 183-193 water quality problems, 2, 13, 15, 250 see also under names of individual lakes Lake Superior, 93 Lake Tahoe, California, 89 Lake Washington, Washington State eutrophication recovery, 83, 84-85, 283-284 research center, 283-284 Land-Margin Ecosystems programs, 283 Landscape management, 252-253, 299-300 Land use patterns and changes, 3, 73, 274 Legislation, 291-293 sulfur emission controls, 92-93 see also Clean Water Act; Endangered Species Act; National Environmental Protection Act; Water Quality Act (Le) Leman: Monographic Limnologique, 25, 26, 184 Limnoenclosures, 37, 188 Limnological Society of America, 31 Limnology, definition of, 1, 11, 12, 181-182 Limnology and Oceanography, 31, 55, 56, 205, 346 Lindeman, Raymond L., 34 Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) program, 149, 150, 212, 254, 280, 282, 283 M Macroscopic scales, hydrologic processes, 264-265 Mammals, 211 accumulation of toxins in, 88, 96 Management, see Water resources management

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology Manufacturing, see Industrial discharges Maryland, student internships, 165-166 Maryland International Institute for Ecological Economics, 158 Master of science (M.S.) programs, 7, 55, 136, 142-144, 152-153, 160, 229-230 field studies, 143-144 Mathematical modeling, 44 Mayflies, 268 Mead Corporation, 169 Mentoring programs, 145, 146 Mercury levels, 93, 94-97, 208, 237-238, 250, 273 dam and reservoir impacts on, 68, 69 Mesocosms, 37, 188 Methane (CH4), 68, 70, 74 Methylmercury, 97, 208, 238 Michigan Department of Natural Resources (DNR), 157, 166 Microbial loop, 267 Midwest Benthological Society, 54 Mining, 276-277, 297 Minneapolis, Minnesota, 79 Minnesota, fish mercury levels and advisories, 94-96 Mississippi River, 79 Monitoring and assessment programs, 19-20, 248-249, 255 biological status, 289-296, 298-317 citizen-based, 175, 250 federal, 293-295 Municipal waste discharges, 15, 78, 80-81 diversion to wetlands, 51, 72, 198 toxic releases, 87 N National Academy of Sciences, 225 National Biological Service (NBS), 173, 293, 295, 296 National Environmental Protection Act (NEPA), 291, 292-293, 295, 296 National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits, 80 National Research Council (NRC), 146-147, 152 National Science Foundation (NSF), 7, 43, 57-58, 149, 150, 161, 162, 163, 212, 213, 222, 231, 280, 283 National Water Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA), 158, 173, 293-294, 295-296 Native American tribal governments, 158, 166 Naumann, Einar, 31, 32 New York City, drinking water filtration, 14-15 Nitrogen, 84, 85, 89, 90, 93, 210, 237, 238, 271, 273, 281 Nonequilibrium processes, 302-303 North American Benthological Society (NABS), 54, 155, 205, 230, 345 journal, 55, 205, 346 North American Lake Management Society (NALMS), 54, 59, 171-172, 230-231, 250, 345 Northern pike, 208 Nutrient concentrations, 20, 191, 250, 271 cycling and spiraling, 49, 192, 196, 204, 211, 301, 313 dam and reservoir impacts on, 46, 67 see also Cultural eutrophication; Nitrogen; Phosphorus O Odum, Eugene, 35 Odum, Howard Thomas (H. T., Tom), 34-35 Office of Personnel Management (OPM), 172-173 Oil pollution, 210 Ontario Ministry of the Environment and Energy, 163 Organic matter, 20, 192, 210, 224, 313 as acidification source, 208, 209-210, 211-212 in sediment record, 37, 189 Organochlorine compounds, 87-88, 93, 94, 96-97, 209, 237, 250, 273 Otters, 96 Oxygen concentrations, and biochemical demand, 78-79, 80 dam and reservoir impacts on, 67 waste discharge impacts on, 20, 78-81 Ozone, 273 P Paleolimnology, 37-42, 261-262 acidification studies, 40, 92, 306 eutrophication studies, 206

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology sediment studies, 21, 37-38, 40-42, 189-190, 262 wetlands in, 197, 236-237 Patch dynamics, 49-50, 196, 300 Patrick, Ruth, 47 PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls), 87, 93, 237, 250, 273 Peace-Athabasca Delta, 67, 68 Pearsall, William Harold, 53 Peatlands, 207, 208, 209-210, 211-212, 235, 237, 238, 239, 240, 242, 258 Pesticides, 87, 88, 93, 250, 273 Phelps, E. B., 78, 80 Phosphorus, 271 in Lake Erie, 16-17 role in eutrophication, 16, 83-84, 86, 103, 189, 190, 281 Photosynthesis, 263, 264, 312 Physical characteristics and changes, 66-77 and climate change, 74-77 dams and impoundments, 66-70 experimental lake studies, 35 wetlands impacts, 70-73 Physical sciences, 11, 44 Phytoplankton, 263, 269-270 Placement programs, 232 Plankton, 87, 100-101, 263, 268, 269-270, 306 Plants and vegetation, 73-74, 211, 236, 237, 240 exotics, 19, 97-98, 102-103 fossil studies, 37, 40, 41, 190 Plug-flow reactors, 194 Point sources, see Industrial discharges; Municipal waste discharges; Waste discharges Pollen, 40, 41, 190 Pollution, see Air pollution; Organochlorine compounds; Toxic pollutants; Trace metals; Water quality and pollution Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 93, 273 Postdoctoral programs, 145-147, 152, 159 Potomac River, 14 Prairie potholes, 209 Predator and prey interactions, 191-192, 219, 224, 267-268 Principal components analysis (PCA), 309-311 Private sector employment opportunities, 155-157 publication activity of limnologists in, 346 student internships, 6-7, 152 Professional societies, 54, 56, 59, 60, 153, 205, 212-213, 230-231, certification programs, 7-8, 170-172, 176 composition of membership, 345 cooperation among, 173-174, 176, 213 see also under names of individual societies Publications, 55-56, 212. See also Journals Textbooks Public outreach and education, 6, 8, 152, 169, 174-175, 225, 232, 253 monitoring and assessment programs, 175, 250 Purple loosestrife, 211, 240 R Radioisotope dating methods, 41, 189-190, 206 Radiotracer experiments, 186, 187 Rainbow smelt, 102 Reactor concepts, 190 Recreational uses, 13, 15, 249 Recruitment and placement programs, 232 Red Lake Peatland, Minnesota, 39-40 Regional aquatic science schools, 6, 128-131, 151, 218, 225-227, 231 Regional scales, 31, 211, 265-267 Research on acid rain and acidification, 43, 91-93, 188, 195, 206, 208, 209, 211-212, 276-277, 280 applied aquatic ecosystems science, 175, 176, 247-255 basic, 7, 66, 175-176, 257-277 on ecosystem linkages, 195, 203-213, 219 employment preparation, 144-145 federal programs, 7, 43, 57, 222 funding and support, 56-58 role in educational programs, 221-223, 225, 229, 230, 231 university-government collaboration, 161-165, 167, 176 Research centers, 30, 161-165, 279-285 employment opportunities, 144, 158-159 Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program, 150, 159 Reservoirs, see Dams and reservoirs Restoration programs, 18, 21, 241

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology Review boards and panels, 7, 205 River Continuum Concept (RCC), 48-50, 195-196, 284, 300 Rivers and streams, 182 classification of, 48, 194 experimental studies, 195 paradigms for study of, 46, 48-50, 193-196 textbook coverage of, 121, 124 water quality problems, 2, 13, 15, 249, 297 Runoff agricultural, 11, 78, 87, 238, 249, 250, 297 diversion to wetlands, 51, 72, 198, 239 and eutrophication, 17 of toxic pollutants, 87-88 urban, 11, 15, 17, 78, 297 S St. Paul, Minnesota, 79 Salmon, 101-102 Saprobien system, 48, 194 Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, 158, 166 Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, 159 Sea Grant program, 46, 99-100 Sea lamprey, 98, 101 Seasonal variations, 262-263, 277, 302 oxygen depletion, 206 in sediment record, 189 Sediments and suspended solids dam and dam releases impacts on, 67, 70 paleolimnological studies of, 21, 37-38, 40-42, 189-190, 262 Sewage discharges, 10, 78, 297 impacts on oxygen levels, 78-81 Shagawa Lake, Minnesota, 39 Siskiwit Lake, 93-94 Societas Internationalis Limnologiae (SIL), 31, 54 Society of Wetland Scientists (SWS), 54-55, 171, 205, 213, 345 Sociology, 274 South Florida Water Management District, 166 Spatial heterogeneity, 265-266 Spatial scales, 211, 265-267, 298-302 Species biodiversity, 210-211, 251-252, 268-270, 293, 304-311 genetic variation within, 269-270, 314-315 niches in ecosystems, 267-269 in wetlands, 236 State government employment opportunities, 157-158 federal mandates, 248-249, 250, 294, 295 student internships, 6-7, 152, 165-166 zebra mussel research, 99-100 Stone flies, 268 Streams, see Rivers and streams Stress-response experiments, 35, 186 Student internships, 6-7, 152, 165-167, 176 Sulfur, 88, 90, 92-93, 210, 237, 268, 273, 281 Suspended solids, see Sediments and suspended solids Swimming, 13, 15, 249 Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, 129, 130, 133-134 Synergistic interactions, 97, 273, 298 Synthesis courses, 137, 139 T Teaching, see Education; Faculty Temperature, 67, 70, 302. See also Climate change Tennessee Valley Authority, 158 Textbooks, 55, 121, 124, 206 Thienemann, August, 31, 32, 45 Timber, see Forestry and timber harvest Time scales, 211-212, 298-302 diel cycles, 264 historical, 261-262 seasonal variations, 262-263, 302 see also Paleolimnology Total Ecosystem Management Strategies (TEMS) program, 169 Toxaphene, 87, 95, 209, 237 Toxic pollutants, 271, 305-306 algal sources, 270 bioaccumulation, 3-4, 14, 19, 68, 87-88, 94-97, 208 Trace metals, 93-97, 208, 250, 271-272 Tracer additions, 35 Trent University, 121, 123, 140 Trophic dynamics, 31, 34, 185, 191, 192-193, 267 tropical studies, 45-46, 285 Trout Lake Limnological Station, 28, 147, 163, 175, 254, 281-282

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology U Undergraduate education, 5, 7, 119-122, 159, 170, 218 laboratory and field studies, 7, 121, 123, 149, 150, 227 Unionid mussels, 295 Universities access to field stations, 328-343 administrative reforms, 5-6, 127-138, 153, 218, 225-232 collaborative programs, 160-169, 176 degrees awarded, 328, 330-343 interdisciplinary programs, 6, 119, 121, 128, 131-134, 151, 213-214, 221, 225-227 publication activity of limnologists in, 346 regional aquatic science schools, 6, 128-131, 151, 218, 225-227, 231 see also Education; Faculty; under names of individual institutions University of Alabama, 123-124, 134, 330 University of Colorado, Boulder, 121, 122, 332 University of Georgia, 158-159, 333 University of Minnesota, 119, 124, 131, 147, 175, 336 University of Notre Dame, 147, 158, 283 University of Washington, 58, 126, 141, 163, 222, 284 University of Wisconsin-Madison, 28-29, 36, 121, 123, 125, 134, 147, 161, 163, 166, 168, 175, 254, 281-283, 342 University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 148 University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, 120 Uppsala University, Sweden, 129 Urban development, 73, 297 wetlands impacts, 71 Urban runoff, 11, 15, 17, 78, 297 diversion to wetlands, 51, 72, 198, 239 toxic releases, 87 U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 158, 163, 167, 173, 293-294 Utah State University, 131, 133, 213, 341 V Vallentyne, Jack, 105 Vollenweider, Richard, 105, 190 W Waste discharges, 10, 19-20, 78-88, 274 sources, 2-3, 11, 15, 17, 19-20, 78 to wetlands, 51, 72, 198, 207-208, 238, 239, 277 see also Industrial discharges; Municipal waste discharges; Runoff Water and Watersheds research initiative, 57-58 Water budgets, 191, 208 Water Quality Act, 290 Water quality and pollution, 2-4, 10-11, 13-15 assessment of, 19-20, 248-249 chemical parameters of, 270-274 paleolimnological studies, 41-42 recreational impacts, 13, 15, 249 see also Toxic pollutants; Waste discharges Water resources management, 220-221 education in, 6-7, 152, 154, 220-221, 253 employment opportunities, 154-158 monitoring strategies, 255 professional development in, 169-175, 230 research needs, 191, 251-255, 274 role of limnology in, 2-4, 104-106, 221 see also Dams and reservoirs Water Resources Research Institutes (WRRI), 167 Watersheds, 50 management, 3, 155-156, 191, 252 Wayne State University, 141-142 Wetlands, 182, 207-212, 234-237 climate change impacts, 76-77, 209, 211, 242 dam impacts, 67 destruction of, 17, 70-73, 239-240, 250-251 drainage and dredging, 11, 50-51, 71-72, 198, 238 ecological functions, 51, 70-71, 237-238 human valuation of, 51, 70, 197-198, 238-239 management of, 3, 20, 241 ''no-net-loss" policy, 72, 241 paradigms for study of, 50-51, 196-198 restoration and construction of, 72, 240-241 species extinction, 104, 240 textbook coverage of, 121, 124 as waste treatment systems, 51, 72, 198, 207-208, 238, 239, 277 Wetlands (journal), 55, 205 White Mountain National Forest, 162

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Freshwater Ecosystems: Revitalizing Educational Programs in Limnology Winter, 262-263, 277 Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (DNR), 89, 157-158, 161, 163, 166, 168, 175 Woods Hole Marine Biological Laboratory, 159, 283 Workshops and symposia, 168, 212-213 Y Yale University, 33, 58, 222, 343 Z Zebra mussels, 4, 19, 98-100 Zoology, 224 Zooplankton, 87, 100-101