. "Use of Materials Balances to Estimate Aggregate Waste Generation in the United States." Measures of Environmental Performance and Ecosystem Condition. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, 1999.
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aged rice, etc.) from all grain mills in 1988 amounted to 17.37 MMT. This does not include grain consumed by the fermentation industries, which produce both alcoholic beverages and fuel alcohol. We estimate that about 19 MMT of grains, mostly corn, were used for fermentation products in 1988. In addition to grain products, 6.4 MMT of vegetable oils and 7.64 MMT of corn syrup were produced by grain and oilseed mills. The fermentation industries, in turn, produced 2.2 MMT of beverage alcohol and 5 MMT of ethanol for fuel, 1 MMT of animal feed concentrates, and an estimated 1 MMT of beverage carbohydrates. To make up the balance, we estimate outputs of 7 MMT CO2 and 3 MMT of water vapor.
Cotton is a major agricultural product that contributes little to feed and nothing to food. In 1988, the United States produced a net of 9.2 MMT of raw cotton. This was ginned to yield 3.36 MMT of cotton fiber (lint), 5.5 MMT of cottonseed, and 0.27 MMT of linters. Linters are a fibrous material used for felting and cellulosic chemical manufacturing and so are not wasted. The cottonseed was allocated to mills and "other uses," including exports. Mills purchased 4.38 MMT of seeds, of which 3.38 MMT were actually crushed (United States Department of Agriculture, 1992, table 141). The mill product was 0.56 MMT of oil, 1.53 MMT of high-protein cottonseed oilcake, used for animal feed, and 1.29 MMT of milling waste. (The latter is included with overall milling waste in Figure 1.)
Sugar cane weighing 27.13 MMT was reduced to 2.88 MMT of refined cane sugar; similarly, sugar beets weighing 22.51 MMT yielded 2.97 MMT of beet sugar. (About 0.69 MMT of lime was also used in the latter process.) Sugar refining also yielded about 0.59 MMT of molasses (equivalent dry weight), mostly fed to animals. The remainder of the sugar cane waste was mostly cellulosic bagasse. The sugar beet process produces large quantities of pulpy material; about 1 MMT (dry) of this was used for animal feed in 1988 (United States Department of Agriculture, 1992, table 73). The mass disappearance from these two processes alone amounted to about 42.1 MMT. At least half of this mass loss, perhaps as much as 60 percent, or 25 MMT, is water vapor from the various evaporation stages in sugar production. The remaining dry mass is probably burned for energy recovery, although some residues may be discharged into rivers by sewage plants.
Truck crops (vegetables and berries) and tree crops (fruits and nuts) accounted for a harvest weight of 67.5 MMT. Exports took 4.06 MMT and imports added 8.21 MMT, for a total domestic supply of 71.6 MMT. Final consumption, on an as-purchased basis accounted for 51.9 MMT. The difference, 20 MMT, was presumably waste, at both food processing plants and retail stores. We estimate that 60 percent of this mass loss (12 MMT) was evaporative water loss from freeze-drying (e.g., of orange juice) and other processing. The bulk of the food process waste goes into waterways or municipal waste facilities. Some is recovered for other uses, and a small amount may be burned for energy.
Animal products in the United States can be divided into red meats, poultry, and eggs and dairy. The live weight of animals slaughtered for red meat in 1988