• 30.

    Feedstock data are from International Energy Agency (1991); consumption data for sulfuric acid, ammonia, fertilizer chemicals, and sodium carbonate (soda ash) are from Bureau of Mines (1988, 1989); data on shipments of inorganic chemicals from are Chemical and Engineering News (1997); and data on production and shipments of synthetic organic chemicals are from either Chemical and Engineering News (1997) or from United States International Trade Commission (ITC) (1989). The annual ITC reports, formerly a valuable source of data, unfortunately ceased publication in 1993.

  • 31.

    Carbon black is used mainly in tires, of which it constitutes roughly 29 percent by weight (Ecoplan International, 1992). Total tire production in the United States in 1988 was roughly 2.2 MMT, accounting for 0.64 MMT of carbon, or 0.7 MMT of hydrocarbon feeds. There are other significant uses of carbon black, such as printing ink. However, most carbon black is made directly from natural gas. We do not include it as a chemical product.

  • 32.

    Note that soluble cellulose is used to manufacture viscose rayon, cellulose acetate, and cellophane, among other products. Production in 1988 was 1.24 MMT, of which about 60 percent was used for rayon. Rayon is not counted as a product of the organic chemical industry.

  • 33.

    Although about 0.2 MMT of phosphorus was used in detergents, most of it was inorganic: STPP and tetrasodium pyrophosphate.

  • 34.

    Taking account of the availability of small amounts of other acids (HCl, HF, HBr, HNO3, P2O5), it might seem that the need for sulfuric acid would be reduced somewhat. However, to the extent that other acids were used, the neutralization products would be sodium or ammonium salts of chlorine, fluorine, etc. Since these elements are actually embodied in products, they cannot also be a major constituent of the waste stream.

  • 35.

    Unless otherwise specified, data for this section are from Bureau of Mines (1989, 1991).

  • 36.

    Assuming that the iron in ore is mostly in the form Fe2O3, the 57.5 MMT of iron content in ore (1988) would be combined with 25.55 MMT of oxygen.

  • 37.

    Unless otherwise specified, data for this section were taken from United States Bureau of Mines (1989).

  • 38.

    Unless otherwise specified, data for this section were taken from United States Bureau of Mines (1989).

  • 39.

    U.S. coal is unusually low in ash, most of which is recovered. By contrast, most other countries burn coal that has a much higher ash content, 15-25 percent or more, very little of which is recovered. Therefore, the problem of heavy-metal pollution from coal burning will be far more serious in eastern Europe, the former Soviet Union, China, and India.

References

Brown, L. R., and E. C. Wolf. 1984. Soil Erosion: Quiet Crisis in the World Economy. Worldwatch Paper (60). Washington D.C.: Worldwatch Institute.

Bureau of Mines. 1987. Minerals Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Bureau of Mines. 1988. Minerals Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Bureau of Mines. 1989. Minerals Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Bureau of Mines. 1991. Minerals Yearbook. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Bureau of the Census. 1983. Census of Manufactures. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Bureau of the Census. 1988. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1988, 108 ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Bureau of the Census. 1990. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1990, 110 ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Bureau of the Census. 1991. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1991, 111 ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.



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