charges and the added complication of river flow regulation immediately upstream of Kingsport. Because of these physical constraints, ANS studies have focused on documenting changes in water-quality brought about by investments in water protection by area facilities responsible for discharges into the river.
Thackston et al. 1990 assert that improvements in water-quality downstream of Kingsport are a success story for Tennessee. ANS studies conducted in 1965, 1974, 1977, 1980, and 1990 confirm this claim, with comprehensive data on the increases in species diversity from the improved water-quality conditions. By 1990, BOD was reduced to less than 6,000 lb/day.
Construction of Arkansas Eastman began in 1975, and the facility was in full operation in early 1977. Today, the manufacturing operation occupies 40 acres and employs approximately 700 people. The plant's design was conceived at a time when attitudes toward the environment were heavily influenced by events such as Earth Day, the creation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the passage of the Clean Water Act. Lessons learned at Eastman's facility in Tennessee on the protection of water-quality were incorporated into the design of the Arkansas plant.
Arkansas Eastman is located in a rural area; the nearest point source on the White River is over 9 miles upstream. The facility is equipped with an activated-sludge waste-water treatment plant and an incinerator for the combustion of concentrated wastes. All runoff from manufacturing areas is collected and routed through a large holding basin. If an accident were to happen, chemical spills or deluge water could be captured and prevented from reaching the river.
ANS conducted the first of its river studies for Arkansas Eastman in 1974 and 1976, before the facility began to operate. These studies were designed to provide baseline data. Later studies, conducted in 1980 and 1991, involved data collection upstream and downstream of the Arkansas Eastman discharge. Unlike the work in Tennessee, which sought to document improvements in water-quality, the studies in Arkansas were intended to evaluate critically any changes in water-quality that could be attributed to Arkansas Eastman's presence. To date, the studies reflect positively on the water-quality management system at Arkansas Eastman. The data indicate no adverse impacts due to plant operations.
The ANS studies provide both qualitative and quantitative data on the health of aquatic communities near Eastman facilities. Information on species diversity has been collected throughout the 25-year history of the program. This information is particularly useful for comparing trends in water-quality with changes in management systems.