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--> BIOGRAPHICAL DATA BRADEN R. ALLENBY is vice president for environment, health, and safety at AT&T. He joined AT&T in 1983 as a telecommunications regulatory attorney and was an environmental attorney for AT&T from 1984 to 1993. During 1992, he was the J. Herbert Hollomon Fellow at the National Academy of Engineering in Washington, D.C. Allenby is currently the vice-chair of the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers Committee on the Environment; a member of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Task Force on Alternative Futures for the DOE national laboratories; a member of the National Research Council Committee on Research and Peer Review in the Environmental Protection Agency; a member of the Advisory Committee on the United Nations Environmental Programme Working Group on Product Design for Sustainability; a member of the editorial boards of The Journal of Industrial Ecology and Total Quality Environmental Management; and a former member of the Secretary of Energy's Advisory Board. He is coeditor of The Greening of Industrial Ecosystems (National Academy Press, 1994) and is coauthor of two engineering texts, Industrial Ecology (Prentice-Hall, 1995) and Design for Environment (Prentice-Hall, 1996). Allenby teaches industrial ecology at the Yale University School of Forestry and Environmental Studies, design for environment at the University of Wisconsin, and has lectured at a number of universities, including Dartmouth College, Harvard, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Princeton, Rutgers, and Tufts. He is a fellow of the Royal Society for the Arts, Manufactures and Commerce. Allenby holds a J.D. from the University of Virginia Law School and a Ph.D. in environmental sciences from Rutgers University.
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--> JESSE H. AUSUBEL is director of the Program for the Human Environment and senior research associate at The Rockefeller University, as well as a program officer of the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. His interests include environmental science and technology and industrial evolution. From 1989 to 1993, Ausubel served concurrently at The Rockefeller University and as director of studies for the Carnegie Commission on Science, Technology, and Government. From 1983 to 1988, he served as director of programs for the National Academy of Engineering. Prior to that, Ausubel served as a staff officer with the National Research Council Board on Atmospheric Sciences and Climate. He was one of the principal organizers of the first U.N. World Climate Conference held in Geneva in 1979. From 1979 to 1981, Ausubel led the Climate Task Force of the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, an East-West think-tank in Laxenburg, Austria, created by the U.S. and Soviet academies of sciences. LESLIE W. AYRES worked as a systems and computer scientist at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, IBM, and UNIVAC from 1953 through 1969. In 1970, she joined a small consulting firm in Washington, D.C., as an applications programmer, mainly on energy and environmental analysis. From 1977 to 1986, Ayres was president of Variflex Corp. and worked on various other projects, mainly in association with Robert U. Ayres. From 1987 to 1990, she was employed in the computer services department at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxenburg, Austria. Since 1992, Ayres has been a research associate in the Center for Management of Environmental Resources at the European Business School INSEAD, Fontainbluau, France, where she has coauthored several papers and a book, Industrial Ecology: Towards Closing the Materials Cycle (Edward Elgar Publishers, 1996). ROBERT U. AYRES is Sandoz Professor of Environment and Management, professor of economics, and director of the Centre for the Management of Environmental Resources at the European Business School INSEAD in Fontainebleau, France. From 1979 to 1992, he was professor of engineering and public policy at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. Ayres holds a Ph.D. in mathematical physics from Kings College, University of London. He has been affiliated with the Hudson Institute, Resources for the Future, and the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Ayres has published more than 150 journal articles and book chapters and has authored or coauthored 12 books on topics ranging from technological change, manufacturing, and productivity, to environmental and resource economics. His most recent books are Industrial Metabolism: Restructuring for Sustainable Development (UNU Press, 1994), Information, Entropy, and Progress: A New Evolutionary Paradigm (AIP Press, 1994), and Industrial Ecology: Towards Closing the Materials Cycle (Edward Elgar Publishers, 1996).
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--> NEIL E. CARRIKER is the quality manager for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Water Management Division. Previously, he was a senior environmental engineer in the same organization with responsibilities for a variety of activities focusing on monitoring the quality of water in the Tennessee River and its reservoirs and tributaries, and interpreting the data to identify trends and relate water quality to land use, natural processes, and pollution impacts. Carriker represents TVA on several interagency committees and task groups. CRAIG COX is special assistant to the chief of the Natural Resource Conservation Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), where he is responsible for strategic planning and natural resource assessment. He was formerly a senior staff officer at the Board on Agriculture of the National Research Council (NRC), where he directed three major studies, including Soil and Water Quality: An Agenda for Agriculture, and Rangeland Health: New Methods of Classifying, Inventorying, and Monitoring Rangelands. Between his stints at the NRC and USDA, Cox was on the staff of the Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition and Forestry, where he led work on natural resource and environmental issues. He holds an M.S. in agricultural and applied economics from the University of Minnesota. JOHN R. EHRENFELD is senior research associate in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Center for Technology, Policy, and Industrial Development. At MIT since 1985, he directs the Program on Technology, Business, and Environment. Ehrenfeld also serves as a core faculty member in the MIT Technology and Policy Program. His research examines the way businesses manage environmental concerns; systems for introducing design for environment into the product development process; the impacts of voluntary codes of corporate environment management on strategy development and culture change; and industrial ecology. Ehrenfeld is a member of the American Chemical Society, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Air & Waste Management Association, and the Society for Risk Analysis. He is an editor of the new Journal of Industrial Ecology and a member of the editorial advisory board of Environmental Science & Technology. Ehrenfeld holds a B.S. and Sc.D. in chemical engineering from MIT and is author or coauthor of over 100 papers, reports, and other publications. PAUL FAETH is a senior associate in the World Resources Institute (WRI) Program in Population and Economics. He directs a project area on the economics of sustainable agriculture. The first phase of this research involved a multi-country effort examining the impact of agricultural policies on the adoption and generation of resource-conserving agricultural technologies. The second phase was a national natural resource accounting study of U.S. agriculture—the first ever of its kind. Faeth is WRI's liaison to the Sustainable Agriculture Task Force
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--> of the President's Council on Sustainable Development. He directed WRI's effort to help a power company mitigate its CO2 emissions through forestry activities in developing countries. This effort resulted in the first project ever to be funded with the intention of balancing such emissions. He worked previously with the International Institute for Environment and Development, where he applied methods of systems analysis to examine the environmental impacts of development projects. Faeth has also worked for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Economic Research Service on issues related to agricultural trade policy. He is a member of the American Society of Agricultural Engineering, the American Agricultural Economics Association, and the American Economic Association. Faeth holds degrees in agricultural engineering from the University of Florida and in resource policy from Dartmouth College. FRANK R. FIELD III is senior research engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT's) Center for Technology, Policy, and Industrial Development. He is also director of the Materials Systems Laboratory, a leading research group in the development of analytical methods in materials systems analysis, which is the application of engineering and economic principles to problems in materials use, substitution, and processing. Field's research focuses on the development and application of decision analysis tools to problems in materials selection and substitution. He has examined problems of materials competitiveness in a wide range of engineering areas, including automotive, aerospace, and electronic applications. Field, who holds a Ph.D. from MIT, also teaches strategic planning and materials systems analysis and materials policy. He was appointed as lecturer in technology and policy at MIT in 1994. ROBERT A. FROSCH is a senior research fellow at the John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University. He recently retired as vice president of the General Motors Research Laboratories. Frosch' s career combines varied research and administrative experience in industry and government service. He has been involved in global environmental research and policy issues at both the national and the international level. From 1951 to 1963, Frosch was employed at the Hudson Laboratories of Columbia University, first as a research scientist and then as director from 1956 to 1963. In 1963, he became director for nuclear test detection in the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the U.S. Department of Defense and in 1965 became ARPA deputy director. In 1966, Frosch was appointed assistant secretary of the Navy for research and development. He served in that position until January 1973, when he became assistant executive director of the United Nations Environment Programme. In 1975, Frosch assumed the post of associate director for applied oceanography at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. From 1977 to 1981, he served as administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Frosch served as president of the American Association of Engineering Societies from 1981 to 1982 and is a
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--> member of the National Academy of Engineering. He holds a Ph.D. in theoretical physics from Columbia University. CLYDE E. GOULDEN is a full curator of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and an adjunct professor of biology at the University of Pennsylvania. His research focuses on zooplankton nutrition and ecotoxicology. Recently, Goulden's nutritional research has emphasized the importance of dietary lipids. During the past 15 years, he has used several different bioassay protocols to study the toxicity of effluents to Daphnia, and he has participated in several Environmental Protection Agency workshops on developing aquatic bioassay protocols. THOMAS E. GRAEDEL is a distinguished member of the technical staff at Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies (formerly AT&T), where he has been employed for 27 years. He serves currently as co-chair of Lucent's Design for Environment Assessment Team. Graedel's areas of specialty, in which he has more than 200 publications, including 7 books, are atmospheric corrosion, atmospheric chemistry, and environmentally conscious manufacturing. He was the first atmospheric chemist to perform computer-model studies of the gas-phase chemistry of sulfur and the interactive chemistry of raindrops, and to study the reactions involved in atmospheric corrosion. In connection with this latter specialty, Graedel served as corrosion consultant to the Statue of Liberty Restoration Project from 1984 to 1986. Graedel is the coauthor of the textbook Atmospheric Change: An Earth System Perspective (W.H. Freeman, 1993), which is being used at more than 25 universities around the world. His latest books, Industrial Ecology (Prentice Hall, 1995) and Design for Environment (Prentice Hall, 1996), coauthored by B. R. Allenby, are the first engineering-design texts to consider environmental impacts over the entire product and process life-cycle. MARTIN B. HOCKING is an associate professor in the Department of Chemistry at the University of Victoria in British Columbia. He has teaching and research interests in the areas of industrial and environmental chemistry, organic chemistry, and polymer synthesis, and has published numerous papers related to these interests. Hocking holds nine patents in the fields of monomers, process chemistry, and medical devices. He chaired the senate committee that initiated the Environmental Studies Program at the University of Victoria and headed the new program for a year. Hocking's experience in industry prior to his appointment at the University of Victoria was the source of some of the material assembled in his book, Modern Chemical Technology and Emission Control (Springer-Verlag, 1985). He was associate editor and a contributor to the volume Effects of Mercury in the Canadian Environment, a publication of the National Research Council of Canada. Hocking has also conducted research at the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada, McGill University, University College
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--> London, and the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Southampton. SUSAN E. OFFUTT is administrator of the U.S. Department of Agriculture Economic Research Service (ERS). Prior to heading ERS, Offutt was the executive director of the Board on Agriculture and assistant executive officer at the National Research Council. Before taking over at the board in 1992, she was chief of the agriculture branch at the Office of Management and Budget. Offutt has taught econometrics and public policy in the agricultural economics department at the University of Illinois. Her research interests include commodity market instability and structure and the economics of the development and adoption of new technologies. Offutt holds a B.S. from Allegheny College and an M.S. and Ph.D. from Cornell University. EDWARD T. RANKIN is a stream ecologist with the Ecological Assessment Unit of the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency. His responsibilities include developing biological criteria for streams, developing habitat assessment methods, and compiling the Ohio Water Resource Inventory. Rankin holds an M.S. in zoology from Ohio State University. ROBERT C. REPETTO is vice president of the World Resources Institute (WRI) and directs its Program in Economics and Population. He is the author of numerous publications on the environment and economics. Repetto is a member of the Environmental Protection Agency's Science Advisory Board and the National Research Council's Board on Sustainable Development. Before joining WRI in 1983, he was an associate professor in the School of Public Health at Harvard University. Previously, Repetto was a resident advisor for the World Bank Mission in Indonesia, economic advisor to the planning and development board for the government of East Pakistan, staff economist for the Ford Foundation in New Delhi, and an economist for the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. He holds a Ph.D. in economics from Harvard University. LOUIS SAGE was formerly the vice president of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia and director of its Division of Environmental Research. In those positions, he had responsibility for the Stroud Center, Patrick Center, Benedict Center, and the Maritza Center in Costa Rica. Sage has served in numerous capacities on the Chesapeake Bay Program, including as a member of the Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee for 11 years. His present activities include service on the boards of various organizations, among them the Institute for Cooperation in Environmental Management, the National Water Alliance, and the Alliance for the Chesapeake Bay, where he is currently serving as president.
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--> PETER C. SCHULZE is assistant professor of biology, Austin College, Sherman, Texas. He teaches courses in ecology and environmental studies. Before joining the faculty of Austin College, Schulze held a postdoctoral appointment at Lehigh University and taught at Dartmouth College and Harvard University. He was the 1993-1994 J. Herbert Hollomon Fellow of the National Academy of Engineering. Schulze's primary interests are in aquatic ecology and impacts on the environment. He edited the volume Engineering within Ecological Constraints (National Academy Press, 1996). Schulze holds a Ph.D. in biology from Dartmouth College and has been recognized by Harvard University for distinction in teaching. ARTHUR J. STEWART is a senior research staff member in the Environmental Sciences Division at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and an adjunct faculty member of the University of Tennessee's Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology. He was previously an Oak Ridge Associated Universities postdoctoral fellow and an assistant professor in the Department of Botany and Microbiology at the University of Oklahoma. Stewart's research focuses on ecotoxicology, biological monitoring, bioassay development, and stream ecology. He has authored or coauthored more than 50 journal articles and numerous technical manuscripts and reports. Stewart is on the editorial boards of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry and Ecotoxicology. He has won numerous prizes for his poetry and is presently editing his first book of poems, which will be published under the title Random Holes in Darkness. Stewart holds a Ph.D. in limnology from Michigan State University. RICHARD STRANG is a technical associate with Eastman Chemical. His work with the company's Health, Safety and Environmental Services organization includes environmental studies for Eastman facilities in Arkansas, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Texas. Strang represents Eastman in the Water Environment Federation, The Society for Risk Analysis, and on environmental risk committees for the American Industrial Health Council and the Chemical Manufacturer's Association. REBECCA TODD is associate professor of accounting in the Boston University Graduate School of Management. Previously, she taught in graduate programs at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and the Stern School at New York University. Todd has developed MBA courses in financial statement analysis as well as executive programs in accounting and financial analysis, analysis of derivatives disclosures, international financial statement analysis, analysis of financial institutions, and other topics. She is especially interested in the use of environmental accounting and financial analysis to track, analyze, and report on environmental costs in order to better manage wastes and other substances. A number of Todd's case studies and analyses have been published in journals and
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--> handbooks. She received her CFA (Chartered Financial Analyst) charter in 1990 and since that time has taught Level I and Level II financial statement analysis in CFA review programs in the United States, Zurich, and the Far East. Todd is chief consultant for the development of the Association of Investment Management's Equity Specialization Program, a post-CFA curriculum. She holds a Ph.D. in business administration from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. IDDO K. WERNICK is associate research scientist at the Earth Institute, Columbia University. His current research covers long-term patterns of natural resource use in the United States and the resulting environmental effects. This work concentrates on analyzing the flows of materials in the U.S. economy. He has also investigated environment-related causes of mortality and the technical and political context for community risk assessment. Wernick was formerly a research associate with the Program for the Human Environment at The Rockefeller University. He holds a Ph.D. in applied physics from Columbia University. JOHN WESTRA is a graduate research assistant in the Department of Applied Economics at the University of Minnesota, where he is studying the adoption of conservation tillage practices by farmers along the Minnesota River. From 1992 to 1994, he worked as a research analyst in the Economics and Population Program of the World Resources Institute (WRI). In that capacity, Westra helped develop an economic model that incorporated the on-site and off-site environmental impacts of conventional and sustainable production practices. Before joining WRI, he worked as an agricultural economist with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and as a freshwater fisheries technician for the Peace Corps in Guatemala. Westra holds an M.S. in agricultural and resource economics from the University of Maine. CHRIS O. YODER is environmental manager, ecological assessment, for the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency's Division of Surface Water. He is responsible for the ecological evaluation of Ohio's streams, rivers, and wetlands. Yoder has developed biological, chemical, and physical assessment methods and criteria for these habitats and Lake Erie. He holds an M.A. in zoology. THOMAS W. ZOSEL is manager, environmental initiatives, for 3M Corporate Environmental Technology and Services. He has been with 3M for 29 years, 23 of which have been in the environmental area. Zosel is responsible for following major environmental legislative and regulatory activity, communicating its impact on 3M, and developing a proactive response to assure beyond-compliance performance. He also interfaces with 3M's marketing community to develop customer-related initiatives and coordinate 3M's environmental stakeholder com-
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--> munications. Zosel currently serves on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Clean Air Act Advisory Committee, is past chair of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers Center for Waste Reduction Technologies, chairs the National Pollution Prevention Center Advisory Board, and is a frequent author and speaker on pollution prevention and industry's proactive response to environmental issues.
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