INDEX

A

Academy of Natural Sciences, 4, 219

Accounting methods, 64-173

agricultural sector, 8, 75-83, 89-92, 93, 96, 97-112

air pollution, 66, 68, 69, 84-85, 97, 99, 101, 106, 108-109

chemical indicators, 69, 89, 90-91, 102

chemicals industry, 123, 125-138, 151

developing countries, 71-72, 73-76

electric power, 8, 84-86, 119

energy resource extraction and processing, 118-123, 124, 137, 148, 158

fish processing industry, 72-73, 75, 78, 98, 104, 105, 107, 108

food and feed processing, 105-108, 150, 164

forest and wood products, 73, 74, 96, 97, 108-112, 113, 149, 150, 158, 161

fossil fuel combustion, 146-148, 149, 151

industrial ecology, national material metrics, 157-173

limitations of, 66, 78-79

managerial decision support, 5-6, 177-187 (passim)

materials balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 96-156

metals smelting and refining, 138-145, 149, 151, 158, 162-164

mining, not energy minerals, 112-118, 148, 150, 158, 161, 169

multifactor productivity, 71, 84-86

natural resource accounting, 7-8, 70-83

rangelands, 89, 92-95, 101

standards, 72-73, 91-92

stone, clay, and glass industries, 145-146, 150, 151

3M's waste ratio, 6, 8, 66-69

toxic substances, 6, 65-66, 68, 69, 78, 89, 96, 99-100

water pollution, 68, 69, 91-92, 109, 114, 118, 120

see also Cost and cost-benefit factors

Aesthetics and recreation, 15, 26, 27, 35, 77, 93, 260, 281, 283

noise, 59

Agricultural chemicals, 8, 99, 101-103, 115, 125, 128, 129, 170

bioassays, 192, 266

Agricultural sector, 8, 75-83, 89-92, 93, 96

accounting methods, 8, 75-83, 89-92, 93, 96, 97-112

air pollution, 97, 99, 101, 106, 108, 149, 150

import/export, 98, 105, 106, 107, 162, 169

materials balances and aggregate waste generation, 97-112, 148, 149 , 150, 158



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--> INDEX A Academy of Natural Sciences, 4, 219 Accounting methods, 64-173 agricultural sector, 8, 75-83, 89-92, 93, 96, 97-112 air pollution, 66, 68, 69, 84-85, 97, 99, 101, 106, 108-109 chemical indicators, 69, 89, 90-91, 102 chemicals industry, 123, 125-138, 151 developing countries, 71-72, 73-76 electric power, 8, 84-86, 119 energy resource extraction and processing, 118-123, 124, 137, 148, 158 fish processing industry, 72-73, 75, 78, 98, 104, 105, 107, 108 food and feed processing, 105-108, 150, 164 forest and wood products, 73, 74, 96, 97, 108-112, 113, 149, 150, 158, 161 fossil fuel combustion, 146-148, 149, 151 industrial ecology, national material metrics, 157-173 limitations of, 66, 78-79 managerial decision support, 5-6, 177-187 (passim) materials balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 96-156 metals smelting and refining, 138-145, 149, 151, 158, 162-164 mining, not energy minerals, 112-118, 148, 150, 158, 161, 169 multifactor productivity, 71, 84-86 natural resource accounting, 7-8, 70-83 rangelands, 89, 92-95, 101 standards, 72-73, 91-92 stone, clay, and glass industries, 145-146, 150, 151 3M's waste ratio, 6, 8, 66-69 toxic substances, 6, 65-66, 68, 69, 78, 89, 96, 99-100 water pollution, 68, 69, 91-92, 109, 114, 118, 120 see also Cost and cost-benefit factors Aesthetics and recreation, 15, 26, 27, 35, 77, 93, 260, 281, 283 noise, 59 Agricultural chemicals, 8, 99, 101-103, 115, 125, 128, 129, 170 bioassays, 192, 266 Agricultural sector, 8, 75-83, 89-92, 93, 96 accounting methods, 8, 75-83, 89-92, 93, 96, 97-112 air pollution, 97, 99, 101, 106, 108, 149, 150 import/export, 98, 105, 106, 107, 162, 169 materials balances and aggregate waste generation, 97-112, 148, 149 , 150, 158

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--> standards, 89-92, 93-95 technology comparisons, sustainability, 79-80, 81 water pollution standards, 91-92 see also Food and feed processing; Forestry and wood products Air pollution accounting methods, 66, 68, 69, 84-85, 97, 99, 101, 106, 108-109 agricultural sector, 97, 99, 101, 106, 108, 149, 150 chemical indicators, 124, 135, 151 chemicals industry, 124, 135, 151 emission control technologies, 42, 49-50, 56, 57, 146 energy requirements and, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 150 food processing, 150 forestry and wood products, 108-109, 111, 112, 149, 150 fossil fuel combustion, 146-148, 149, 151 greenhouse gases, 2, 40, 46, 58, 82, 101-102, 146 just-in-time inventory practices, 50 life-cycle analyses, 27, 36, 48, 50, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61 material metrics, 157, 158, 160, 162 metals processing, 140-141, 142 mineral fuels extraction/processing, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 150 mining, other, 114, 150 ozone layer, 2, 43 net energy expenditure analyses, 27 stone, clay and glass industry, 145-146, 150 Ambient bioassays, 10, 199-216 chemical indicators, 203, 209, 210-211, 214 fish and fisheries, 204, 211 Analysis of variance methods, 205-210 (passim) Aquatic ecosystems, see Benthic communities; Bioassays; Fish and fisheries; Rivers and streams; Water pollution Automobiles, see Motor vehicles B Benthic communities, 11, 233, 261, 263, 266, 267, 270-273, 274, 278 , 280, 282 Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity, 233, 278 Best management practices, 92, 94-95, 244 Bioassays, 191-284 ambient, 10, 199-216 chemical indicators vs, 228-230, 231, 254 effluent, 3, 4, 7, 10, 199-201 fish, 11, 193, 194, 204, 211, 233, 261, 263, 266, 267, 270, 273-276, 279, 280, 282 history of, 191-192, 217, 222, 223 limitations of, 194-197, 202, 213 Tennessee Valley Authority, ecological health assessment, 11, 260-284 see also Reservoirs; Rivers and streams Biodiversity, 10, 189-284 (passim) ambient toxicity testing, 199-216 life-cycle analysis, 35, 39, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48 multimetric biotic indices, 11, 233-234 types of, defined, 4, 7, 10, 192-193, 199-202 Biological integrity, 9, 11, 89, 92, 227-256 Clean Water Act, 227, 230, 231-232, 243 defined, 233 Bureau of Mines, 114, 158 C Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, 147 Chalmers Institute of Technology, 35 Chemical indicators, 6, 9 accounting methods, 69, 89, 90-91, 102 air pollution, 124, 135, 151 ambient toxicity testing, 203, 209, 210-211, 214 bioassays vs, 228-230, 231, 254 effluent bioassays, 191, 192, 194, 195, 196 life-cycle analysis, 27, 38 TVA ecological assessment program, 261, 262, 267-277, 280, 282 Chemicals industry, 123, 125-138, 151 import/export, 125, 134, 135, 169 Chemical toxins, see Agricultural chemicals; Bioassays; Toxic substances Chlorofluorocarbons, see Ozone layer Clay industry, 145-146, 151 Clean Water Act, 42, 90, 91, 93, 191, 193, 217, 227, 230, 231-232, 243, 260, 262 biological integrity, 227, 230, 231-232, 243 see also Federal Water Pollution Control Act Clean Water Initiative (TVA), 260 Coal mining, see Energy resource extraction and processing

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--> Computer applications, 3 agricultural sustainability, 79-80, 81-83 national environmental metrics, 169-170 rivers, 220-221, 241, 247 Tennessee Valley Authority, 273 3M waste ratio, 68 Concordance ranks, 208-209 Consumer behavior, life-cycle analysis, 28, 29, 39-40, 44 Consumption metrics, 8 agricultural products, 98, 102 energy-based life-cycle analyses, 5, 15-28 forest products, 110, 111, 112 global measures, 9 linear valuation, 35-36, 37, 40 materials balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 96-156 (passim) national metrics for industrial ecology, 157-171 (passim) Contingency-table analysis methods, 206-207, 208, 209 Cost and cost-benefit factors, 3, 67 bioassays, 199, 201, 217 just-in-time inventory practices, 49, 50 life-cycle analyses, 16-28, 36, 37-39, 49, 50-51, 52 managerial decision support, 5-6, 177-187 (passim) recycling and reuse of materials, 21-25, 66-67 see also Accounting methods Cropping Practices Survey, 80 D Data sources, see Computer applications; Information sources Decision analysis and support, 30, 31-35 managerial decision support, 5-6, 177-187 measurement error, 96, 136, 180-182, 183 multiple-objective decision making, 32 value functions, 32-33, 35-40, 46 see also Computer applications; Information sources; Life-cycle assessment Department of Agriculture, 80-81, 102, 104, 107 Department of Energy, 199, 203-204 Department of the Interior, see Bureau of Mines Design-for-environment approaches, 43-62 defined, 43 Developing countries, 71-72, 73-76 Diseases and disorders accounting methods, 66, 84 life-cycle analysis, 36, 38 Distribution of goods, see Transportation/ distribution issues Dose-response relation, 203 E Eastman Chemical Company, 4, 218-226 Economic factors decision support, managers, 177-187 (passim) developing countries, 71-72, 73-76 life-cycle analysis, 29-30, 36-40, 42-43, 52 national materials use and waste production, 8 natural resource accounting, 7-8, 70-83 sustainable development, 70-88 see also Accounting methods; Consumption metrics; Cost and cost-benefit factors; Employment issues; Funding Economic Research Service, 80, 81 Ecosystem monitoring, general, 2-4, 10-12, 47, 56, 57-58, 59, 60 biological integrity, 9, 11, 89, 92, 231-256 metrics, examples, 9-11 TVA, Vital Signs, 260-263 see also Bioassays; Biodiversity; Habitat; Physical and chemical metrics Effluent bioassays, 3, 4, 7, 10, 199-201 chemical indicators, 191, 192, 194, 195, 196 fish, 193, 194 Electric power accounting methods, 8, 84-86, 119 life-cycle analyses, 19-20, 26, 50-51 net energy expenditure, 19-20, 26 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, 6 Emission control technologies, 42, 49-50, 56, 57, 146 Employment issues, 71, 72, 73 motivation, 47, 50, 51, 56, 60, 67-68, 69, 178, 179-180, 183 Energy requirements, 162, 164 air pollution, 118, 119, 120, 122, 123, 124, 150 life-cycle analyses, 5, 15-28, 50-51, 54, 56, 58, 59, 60 technology comparisons, 5, 15-28

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--> Energy resource extraction and processing, 118-123, 124, 137, 148, 158 import/export, 121, 162 water pollution, 118, 120, 149 see also Organic chemicals industry; Oil products Environmental Load Index, 36, 38 Environmentally responsible facilities, 5, 42-62, 185 Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program, 231, 247 Environmental performance, general, 2-4, 11-12 metrics, examples, 4-9, 20-25 see also Bioassays; Life-cycle assessment; Natural resource accounting; Raw-flux measurements; 3M's waste ratio Environmental Priority Strategies, 33, 35-40 Environmental Protection Agency, 31, 40, 51, 108, 111, 123, 145-146, 277 bioassays, 191, 192, 193-195, 199, 203, 231-234 (passim), 247, 255 Erosion and sedimentation, 72, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 81, 83 farming and ranching, 91, 92, 94, 95 materials balance and aggregate waste, 97, 105, 118 see also Sediment quality Erosion Productivity Impact Calculator, 81 Error of measurement, see Measurement error Exports, see Imports and exports F Farm Costs and Returns Survey, 80 Farming, see Agricultural sector Federal government funding, 38-39, 94 national material metrics, 169-170 rangelands, 92 see also Legislation; Regulatory issues; specific departments and agencies Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 192 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 232 see also Clean Water Act Fertilizers, see Agricultural chemicals Fish and fisheries, 10, 11, 42, 48, 227-263 (passim) accounting methods, 72-73, 75, 78, 98, 104, 105, 107, 108 ambient toxicity testing, 204, 211 benthic communities, 11, 233, 261, 263, 266, 267, 270-273, 274, 278 , 280, 282 bioassays, 11, 193, 194, 204, 211, 233, 261, 263, 266, 267, 270, 273-276, 279, 280, 282 effluent bioassays, 193, 194 processing industry, 72-73, 75, 78, 98, 104, 105, 107, 108 Tennessee Valley Authority, 266, 267, 270, 273-276, 279, 280, 282 Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act, 83 Food and feed processing, 105-108, 150, 164 see also Agricultural sector Foreign countries, see International perspectives; specific countries Foreign trade, see Imports and exports Forest and wood products, 73, 74, 96, 97, 108-112, 113, 149, 150, 158, 161 air pollution, 108-109, 111, 112, 149, 150 import/export, 109, 111, 112, 162 Fossil fuel combustion, 146-148, 149, 151 Funding, 38-39, 94 G Gas, natural, see Energy resource extraction and processing Gaseous waste, see Air pollution Geological Survey, see U.S. Geological Survey Glass, 132, 145-146 energy costs, 19, 21, 25 Global measures, 8-9, 42, 43, 44, 161 greenhouse gases, 2, 40, 46, 58, 82, 101-102, 146 green payments, 83 ozone layer, 2, 43 see also Import and exports Greenhouse gases, 2, 40, 46, 58, 82, 101-102, 146 Green payments, 83 Gross domestic investment, 73, 74, 75 Gross domestic product, 73, 74, 159, 164, 166, 170 Gross national product, 7 H Habitat, 51, 54, 55, 59, 255 see also Bioassays; Biodiversity; Fish and fisheries; Rivers and streams

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--> Health effects, see Diseases and disorders Heating systems, 16-18 Heavy metal pollutants, 50, 147, 167-168, 266 Histological measures, 10 Historical perspectives, 1, 44, 86 bioassays, 191-192, 217, 222, 223 electric power generation, 85 natural resource accounting, 70-72 I Imports and exports, 72, 85, 96, 156, 158, 168-169 agricultural/food products, 98, 105, 106, 107, 162, 169 chemicals, 125, 134, 135, 169 energy products, 121, 162 forest products, 109, 111, 112, 162 metals, 138, 162, 169 minerals, 114, 115, 117, 162, 169 petroleum products, 120, 169 Index of Biotic Integrity, 9, 11, 233, 234, 234-237, 240-252 Index of Well-Being, 233, 251, 252 Indicators, see Bioassays; Chemical indicators; Leaks and leak indicators; Physical indicators Indicator species, 10, 11 multimetric biotic indices, 11, 233-234 Indonesia, 7, 73-76 Information sources agricultural sustainability, 79-80, 81-83 life-cycle analysis, 18-20, 30-31 material metrics, 160-170 net energy expenditure, 18-20 proprietary, 66 see also Computer applications; Decision analysis and support Inorganic chemicals industry, 123-134 Insecticides, see Agricultural chemicals Intensity-of-use metrics, 164 Intergovernmental Task Force on Monitoring Water Quality, 3 International perspectives, 7 developing countries, 71-72, 73-76 evolution of environmental regulation, 44 Index of Biotic Integrity, 11 life-cycle analyses, 21, 22, 23, 33, 35-40, 44, 48-49 national material metrics, 159 net energy expenditure, 21, 22, 23 Swedish Environmental Priority Strategies, 33, 35-40 Inventory analysis, 27, 30-31, 49, 50 Invertebrate Community Index, 233, 234, 250 J Just-in-time inventory practices, 49, 50 L Landfills, 24, 48, 68, 107, 112, 146 Land use, see Agricultural sector; Ranching and rangelands; Site selection Leaks and leak indicators, 58, 120, 167-168 Legislation, 42, 90, 217 Clean Water Act, 42, 90, 91, 93, 191, 193, 217, 227, 230, 231-232, 243, 260, 262 Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act, 6 Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act, 192 Federal Water Pollution Control Act, 232 Food, Agriculture, Conservation and Trade Act, 83 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 68, 192 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, 65-66 see also Regulatory issues Life-cycle assessment, 3, 5-6, 14-62 air pollution, 27, 36, 48, 50, 56, 57, 58, 60, 61 biodiversity, 35, 39, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48 chemical indicators, 27, 38 consumer behavior, 28, 29, 39-40, 44 cost-benefit factors, 16-28, 36, 37-39, 49, 50-51, 52 decision analysis, 5-6, 30, 31-35 defined, 5, 30 design-for-environment approaches, 43-62 electric power, 19-20, 26, 50-51 energy requirements, 5, 15-28, 50-51, 54, 56, 58, 59, 60 environmentally responsible facilities, 42-62 impact analysis, 30 improvement analysis, 30, 31

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--> international perspectives, 21, 22, 23, 33, 35-40, 44, 48-49 inventory analysis, 27, 30-31, 49, 50 limitations of, 5, 31, 32, 35-41, 46, 52 technology comparisons, 5, 15-28, 31-32, 43, 57-58 water pollution, 27, 48, 55, 57, 58, 59-60, 61 Lighting of facilities, 51 Linear index method, 33, 34 Liquid waste, see Water pollution Local conditions, 10, 29, 30, 42, 43, 45, 47, 48 national material metrics and, 159 M Mass measurements linear valuation, 35 materials balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 96-156 3M's waste ratio, 6, 8, 66-69 Materials selection and metrics air pollution, 157, 158, 160, 162 design-for-environment approaches, 43, 46, 50, 56, 57 industrial ecology, 43, 44, 157-173 materials balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 96-156 net energy expenditure, 5, 15-28 see also Imports and exports; Recycling and reuse Measurement error bioassays, 194-197, 241 managerial decision support, 180-182, 183 material balances and aggregate waste generation, 96, 109, 110, 136 Metals smelting and refining, 138-145, 149, 151, 158, 162-164 air pollution, 140-141, 142 import/export, 138, 162, 169 Mining, energy minerals, see Energy resource extraction and processing Mining, not energy minerals, 112-118, 148, 150, 158, 161, 169 air pollution, 114, 150 Bureau of Mines, 114, 158 import/export, 114, 115, 117, 162, 169 Motor vehicles, 16, 17, 35 Multifactor productivity, 71, 84-86 Multimetric biotic indices, 11, 233-234 Multiple-objective decision making, 32 Multivariate analysis, 209-211, 233-234 N National Agricultural Statistical Service, 80 National Coastal Pollution Discharge Inventory, 168 National-level conditions biological integrity, 237 income and resource accounting, 7-8, 70-76 Indonesia, 7, 73-76 U.S., industrial ecology, national material metrics, 157-173 U.S., materials balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 96-156 see also Imports and exports National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 168 National Pollution Discharge Elimination System, 193 Natural resource accounting, 7-8, 70-83 Net domestic investment, 73-74, 75 Net energy expenditure, 5, 15-28 Noise, 59 Nonpoint-source pollution, 10, 42, 91, 93, 94, 254, 255 O Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 147 Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, 11, 228-254, 255 Oil products, 3, 16, 118, 120-124, 124, 147, 150 heating systems, 16-18 import/export, 120, 169 motor vehicles, 16, 17, 35 Organic chemicals industry, 134-138 Organic waste, 58, 68-69, 122, 123, 135 Organization-based measurements, see Bioassays; Raw-flux measurements; 3M's waste ratio Ozone layer, 2, 43 P Packaging, 50 Pesticides, see Agricultural chemicals

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--> Physical indicators, 9, 35, 89, 90, 191, 195, 202, 210-211, 261, 262, 263, 266, 267 Plant-based measurements, see Bioassays; Raw-flux measurements; 3M's waste ratio Precautionary principle, 31 Principal component analysis, 209 Q Quality management process, 217-226 R Ranching and rangelands, 89, 92-95, 101 Rapid Bioassessment Protocols, 233, 234 Recreation, see Aesthetics and recreation Recycling and reuse accounting methods, 66, 68 chemicals industry, 128, 130-131 cost-benefit factors, 21-25, 66-67 energy expenditure, 21-25, 27 forest products, 109-110, 112, 165, 166 industrial facility siting and, 48-49, 54 life-cycle analyses, 21-25, 27, 48-49, 50, 51, 54-55, 57-58, 60-61 managerial decision support, 184, 186 material balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 109-110, 112, 128, 130-131 material metrics, 157, 160-161, 164-167 metals, 140-141, 142, 161, 165-166 oil refining, byproducts, 120, 122-123 raw materials use vs, 164-166 Regional conditions, 7-8, 43, 44, 48 agricultural sustainability, 81, 82 biotic integrity, 236-237, 240 Indonesia, 7, 73-76 Tennessee Valley Authority, 11, 260-284 Regression analysis, 209, 210, 211, 214 Regulatory issues agricultural sector, 89 bioassays, 3, 7, 193-197, 199, 200-201, 203, 213 decision analysis, 32 evolution of environmental regulation, 44 life-cycle analysis, 29, 32, 42, 44, 47-48 managerial decision support, 180, 181-182, 183, 186 national material metrics and, 159 productivity and, 86 urban siting of facilities, 47-48 waste accounting, 170 water pollutants, bioassays, 3, 191, 193, 217 , 227, 230, 231-232, 243, 260, see also Standards Reservoir Fish Assemblage Index, 273 Reservoirs, TVA's ecological health assessment, 260-276, 279-283 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, 68, 192 Reuse, see Recycling and reuse Rivers and streams, 4 ambient toxicity testing, 199-216 comprehensive studies, 217-226 reservoirs, 260-276 sediment quality, 213, 261, 266, 270-272, 274, 277, 280, 282 TVA ecological health assessment, 260-284 watersheds, 89, 90, 93, 230, 236, 252, 255 see also Erosion and sedimentation; Fish and fisheries; Water pollution S Science Applications International Corporation, 108, 142, 145 Sedimentation, see Erosion and sedimentation Sediment quality, 213, 261, 266, 270-272, 274, 277, 280, 282 Site selection, industrial facilities, 47-49, 54 Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, 30, 40 Solid waste, see Waste and waste treatment Soils, see Agricultural sector; Erosion and sedimentation; Ranching and rangelands Species diversity, see Multimetric biotic indices Standards accounting methods, 72-73, 91-92 agricultural pollution, 89-92, 93-95 bioassays, 3, 7, 193-197, 199, 200-201, 203, 213, 231-256 (passim) biological integrity, 9, 11, 89, 92, 231-256 environmentally responsible facilities, 46-62 life-cycle analysis, linear valuation, 35 rangelands, 92-93, 94 Tennessee Valley Authority, 260-284 (passim)

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--> Toxic Release Inventory, 6, 65-66 water pollutants, 3, 91-92, 191, 193, 217, 227-256 see also Regulatory issues Statistical methodology, bioassays, 192-193, 205-214 see also Measurement error Stone industry, 145-146, 150, 151 Streams, see Rivers and streams Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act, 65-66 Sustainable development, 70-88 defined, 70, 76 Swedish Environmental Research Institute, EPS system, 33, 35-40 System of National Accounts, see United Nations System of National Accounts T Technology comparisons agricultural sustainability, 79-80, 81 design-for-environment approaches, 43 emission control, 42 life-cycle analysis, 5, 15-28, 31-32, 43, 57-58 net energy expenditure, 5, 15-28 proprietary information, 66 Tennessee Valley Authority, 11, 260-284 chemical indicators, 261, 262, 267-277, 280, 282 fish, 266, 267, 270, 273-276, 279, 280, 282 3M's waste ratio, 6, 8, 66-69 Total factor productivity, see Multifactor productivity Toxic Release Inventory, 6, 65-66 Toxic substances accounting methods, 6, 65-66, 68, 69, 78, 89, 96, 99-100 forest products, 110-112 life-cycle analyses, 6, 27, 36, 48, 50, 54, 55, 56, 61 mass flows and, 96 see also Agricultural chemicals; Bioassays Transportation/distribution issues, 9, 47, 48, 55, 56 just-in-time inventory practices, 49, 50 motor vehicles, 16, 17, 35 natural gas, 120, 124 U United Nations System of National Accounts, 72-73 Urban areas, 47-48, 247 U.S. Geological Survey, 247 U.S. Math Programming model, 81 V Value functions, 32-33, 35-40, 46 Visual resources, see Aesthetics and recreation Vital Signs (TVA), 260-263 W Waste and waste treatment, general, 8, 84 chemicals industry, 123-138 (passim) fossil fuel combustion, 146-147 landfills, 24, 48, 68, 107, 112, 146 life-cycle analysis, 15, 26, 27, 30, 55, 57, 58, 59, 61 managerial decision support, 178, 182, 184 material metrics, 158, 160-161, 162, 166-167, 170 materials balances and aggregate waste generation, with breakdowns by sector, 96-156 (passim) metals processing, 140, 141 minerals, fuels, 118-120, 123, 148-149 minerals, other, 112-118, 148-149, 169 national industrial ecology, 157, 158 net energy expenditure, 15, 26, 27 organic waste, 58, 68-69, 122, 123, 135 packaging, 50 3M's waste ratio, 6, 8, 66-69 see also Air pollution; Recycling and reuse; Toxic substances; Water pollution Water pollution, 4 accounting methods, 68, 69, 91-92, 109, 114, 118, 120 agricultural standards, 91-92 Clean Water Act, 42, 90, 91, 93, 191, 193, 217, 227, 230, 231-232, 243, 260, 262 forestry, 109 heavy metal pollutants, 50, 147, 167-168, 266 life-cycle analyses, 27, 48, 55, 57, 58, 59-60, 61

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--> mineral fuels extraction/processing, 118, 120, 149 mining, other, 114 net energy expenditure analyses, 27 nonpoint-source pollution, 10, 42, 91, 93, 94, 254, 255 sediment quality, 213, 261, 266, 270-272, 274, 277, 280, 282 see also Bioassays; Erosion and sedimentation; Rivers and streams Water resources consumption, by sector, 96-97, 99, 106, 120, 146, 149 Tennessee Valley Authority, 260-284 Watersheds, 89, 90, 93, 230, 236, 252, 255 Wildlife, see Bioassays; Biodiversity; Habitat World Resources Institute, 73, 78-83