Appendix A
Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of Carcinogenicity Testing in Animals and for Which Some Positive Results Have Been Reported

Substance

Nature of Supporting Evidence

Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foods

References

From Higher Plants

 

 

 

Allyl isothiocyanate

Bladder papillomas in male rats; negative in mice and female rats; clastogenic, mutagenic

Raw cabbage, 0.04-2.7 ppm; horseradish, 2,000 ppm; black mustard seed, 10,000 ppm

NTP, 1982; Ishidate et al., 1988; McGregor et al., 1988

Anthraquinone, 1-hydroxy

Cecum, colon, and liver tumors in male rats

 

Mori et al., 1990

Asarone,à - and á- (oil of calamus)

Malignant tumors in the duodenal region'' in male and female rats

Asarum and acorns spp (sweet flag) ≈ 20,000 ppm

Taylor et al., 1967



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--> Appendix A Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of Carcinogenicity Testing in Animals and for Which Some Positive Results Have Been Reported Substance Nature of Supporting Evidence Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foods References From Higher Plants       Allyl isothiocyanate Bladder papillomas in male rats; negative in mice and female rats; clastogenic, mutagenic Raw cabbage, 0.04-2.7 ppm; horseradish, 2,000 ppm; black mustard seed, 10,000 ppm NTP, 1982; Ishidate et al., 1988; McGregor et al., 1988 Anthraquinone, 1-hydroxy Cecum, colon, and liver tumors in male rats   Mori et al., 1990 Asarone,à - and á- (oil of calamus) Malignant tumors in the duodenal region'' in male and female rats Asarum and acorns spp (sweet flag) ≈ 20,000 ppm Taylor et al., 1967

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--> Substance Nature of Supporting Evidencea Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb Referencesc Benzaldehyde Forestomach tumors in male and female mice Found in over 40 foods; fruits and vegetables, 0.2-1 ppm; white bread, 5.0-10 pm; wines, 0.01-1.0 ppm; cocoa, coffee, tea, 2.0 ppm; shellfish, 0.01 ppm NTP, 1990a Caffeine Increased multiplicity but not incidence of spontaneous mammary gland tumors in female mice Tea, coffee, maté, guaraná, cola nuts; 0.5 to 5.0% of the plant product Welsch et al., 1988 Capsaicin Duodenal adenocarcinoma in male and female mice (significant only when all treated groups combined); not mutagenic In pungent (hot) red peppers (q.v.); <0.1 to 1.0% of dry fruit Toth et al., 1984 (as reported by Watts, 1985) Capsicum annuum; (hot) peppers Liver tumors in rats Widely used spice, especially in warmer climates Hoch-Ligeti, 1950 Chrysazin Colon tumors in male rats   Mori et al., 1985

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--> Ecdysone, alpha Liver tumors in male and female Egyptian toads Insects and crustaceans, spinach, plants, relationship to food El-Mofty et al., 1987 Estragole Liver tumors in female mice; forms DNA adducts Apple, bilberry <0.03 ppm; basil and oregano ≈ 100 ppm; tarragon ≈ 1%; anise and star anise ≈ 5.0% Miller et al., 1983; Randerath et al., 1985 Ethyl acrylate Negative in 2 strains of male and female rats; forestomach tumors in male mice, male and female rats Dill ≈ 1.0 ppm; pineapple, 0.8 ppm; raspberry; durian Miller et al., 1985; NTP, 1986 Eugenol Data equivocal for liver tumors in female and male mice. Oranges, cherries and many fruits ≈ 0.02 ppm; tomato, carrot ≈ 0.2 ppm, wines, liquors ≈ 0.1 ppm; cottage cheese, fish ≈ 3.0 ppm; anise ≈ 0.2%; cloves ≈ 10% NTP, 1983

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--> Substance Nature of Supporting Evidencea Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb Referencesc Furfural In male rats 2/50 at high-dose only showed cholangio-carcinomas; none in females. In male mice, increased incidence of adenomas and carcinomas in high-dose group; in females, increased incidence of adenomas at high-dose Cocoa, coffee, 55-255 ppm; wine, tr-10 ppm; whiskies, cider, sherry, wines, 1-30+ ppm, sauerkraut, tomato, cinnamon, cloves, wheaten bread, 1-14 ppm; many fruits, tr.-1 ppm NTP, 1990 Gossypol Neck myxosarcomas in female mice Cottonseed meal, limit of .045% (U.S.) and .06% (P.A.G.) free gossypol Dhaliwal et al., 1987 D-Limonene Kidney tumors in male rats Citrus juices ≈ 200 ppm; citrus oils 50-90%; other fruits and vegetables 1-30 ppm; coffee, tea ≈ 1 ppm; spices, trace -5% NTP, 1990b Piper nigrum; (black and white) pepper Lung, liver, and skin tumors in male and female mice; liver tumors in male and female Egyptian toads Widely used spice Concon et al., 1979; El-Mofty et al., 1988; El-Mofty et al., 1991

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--> Phytic acid Kidney tumors in male and female rats Oil seed, legumes, cereal grains Hiasa et al., 1992 Ptaquiloside Ileal, mammary, and bladder tumors in female rats Bracken fern ("fiddleheads") Hirono et al., 1984; Hirono et al., 1987 Quercetin Intestinal and bladder tumors in male and female "albino" rats; kidney tumors in male F344/N rats; liver tumors in female F344 rats; mutagenic Ubiquitous in food plants, esp. in rinds of plant fruits Pamukcu et al., 1980; Dunnick and Hailey, 1992; NTP, 1992 Safrole Liver tumors in 3 strains male and female mice; liver tumors in 2 strains male rats, 1 strain female rats; clastogenic, forms DNA adducts Cocoa, nutmeg, mace, black pepper, ≈ 0.2% Lipsky et al., 1981; Innes et al., 1969; Vesselinovitch et al., 1979; Wislocki et al., 1977; Borchert et al., 1973; Boberg et al., 1983; Miller et al., 1983; Ishidate et al., 1988; Randerath et al., 1985 Sesamol Forestomach tumors in male rats and male and female mice Sesame seeds and oil Hirose et al., 1990; Tamano et al., 1992 Shikimic acid Leukemia in male and female mice; glandular stomach tumors in male mice Important biosynthetic precursor in most plants Evans and Osman, 1974

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--> Substance Nature of Supporting Evidencea Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb Referencesc 8-methoxypsoralen (Xanthotoxin) Kidney and Zymbal's gland tumors in male rats; mutagenic, clastogenic   NTP, 1989 Xylitol Bladder tumors in mice; adrenal gland tumors in rats Carrots, lettuce, onions, raspberries, and spinach Anonymous, 1977 In addition to the list above, the committee is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects of benzene, cycasin, methoxyazoxymethylacetate, and styrene. See Appendix B. From Edible Fungi       Acetaldehyde methylformyl-hydrazone Lung, forestomach, clitoral tumors in female mice; preputial, lung tumors in male mice Several species of edible mushrooms, especially of the genus Gyromitra Toth et al., 1981 Glutamyl p-hydrazino-benzoic acid Subcutaneous tumors in male mice Edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and several Gyromitra species Toth, 1986

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--> p-Hydrazino-benzoic acid Aorta and large artery tumors in male and female mice Several species of edible mushrooms, especially of the genus Gyromitra McManus et al., 1987 From Fungal Contaminants of Food In addition to aflatoxin B1, the committee is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects for aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G2, aflatoxin G2, Fusarium monliforme toxins, Penicillium islandicum toxins (e.g., islanditoxin), T-2 toxin, ochratoxins, and sterigmatocystin. See Chapter 2 and Appendix B. Carcinogens Formed During Traditional Preparation and Processing Benz[a]anthracene Benign liver and lung tumors in mice Coconut oil, 0.5-13.7 ng/g; broiled meat, 0.2-1.1 ng/g; broiled fish, 0.6-2.9 ng/g; smoked fish, 0.2-189 ng/g; ham, 1.3-12 ng/g; cereal, 0.4-6.8 ng/g; lettuce, 6.1-15.4 ng/g; tomatoes 0.3 ng/g; spinach, 16.1 ng/g; roasted coffee, 0.5-42.7 ng/g; tea, 2.9-36 ng/g; whisky, 0.04-0.08 ng/g Klein, 1963

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--> Substance Nature of Supporting Evidencea Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb Referencesc Benzo[a]pyrene Forestomach tumors in mice; mammary tumors in female rats Margarine, 0.9-36 ng/g; coconut oil, 0.3-8.2 ng/g; broiled meat, 0.17-50 ng/g; broiled fish, 0.2-0.9 ng/g; smoked fish, 1-78 ng/g; ham, <0.5-14.6 ng/g; bacon, 0.16-0.25 ng/g; cereal, 0.19-4.13 ng/g; potatoes, 0.09 ng/g; flour, 0.73; bread, 0.23; toasted bread, 0.39-0.56; lettuce, 2.8-12.8; tomatoes, 0.2-0.22; spinach, 7.4; fruits, 0.5-30; roasted coffee, 0.3-15.8; tea, 3.9-21.3; whisky, 0.04 Neal and Rigdon, 1967; McCormick, 1981 Catechol Glandular stomach tumors in male and female rats   Hirose et al., 1990 Dibenz[a,h]-anthracene Forestomach and lung tumors in mice   Larinow and Soboleva, 1938; Lorenz and Stewart, 1948; Snell and Stewart, 1962, 1963

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--> In addition to the list above, the committee is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects of 7H-Dibenzo[c,g]-carbazole, Dibenzo[a,h]-pyrene, Dibenzo[a,i]-pyrene, Me-A-alpha-C(2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido-[2,3-b]indole), and 5-methylchyrysene. N-Nitroso-N-demethylamine is discussed in Chapter 2, and the committee also is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects on N-Nitroso-N-dibutylamine, N-Nitroso-diethylamine, N-Nitroso-methylethylamine, N-Nitroso-nornicotine, N-Nitroso-piperidine, and N-Nitroso-pyrrolidine. See Appendix B. IQ(2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) Lung, liver, and forestomach tumors in male and female mice; mammary gland, Zymbal gland, and liver tumors in female rats; liver, Zymbal gland, colon, and small intestine tumors in male and female rats; liver tumors in male and female monkeys Fried ground beef, 0.5-20 ng/g; broiled beef, 0.19 ng/g; sun-dried, broiled sardines, 20 ng/g; broiled salmon, 0.3-1.8 ng/g; fried fish, 0.16 ng/g; fried egg, 0.1 ng/g Ohagaki et al., 1984, 1986; Tanaka et al., 1985; Takayama et al., 1984; Adamson et al., 1990, 1991 MeIQ Liver tumors in female mice; forestomach tumors in male and female mice; Zymbal gland, oral cavity, and colon tumors in male and female rats; mammary gland tumors in female rats; skin tumors in male rats Fried fish, 0.03 ng/g; grilled, sun-dried sardines, 20-72 ng/g; broiled sardines, 16.6 ng/g Ohgaki et al., 1986; Kato et al., 1989

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--> Substance Nature of Supporting Evidencea Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb Referencesc MeIQx Liver tumors in male and female mice; lung tumors in female mice; lymphoma and leukemia in male mice; liver and Zymbal gland tumors in male and female rats; clitoral gland tumors in female rats; skin tumors in male rats. Fried ground beef, 0.45-12.3 ng/g; broiled beef, 2.11 ng/g; fried fish, 6.44 ng/g; broiled mutton, 1.01 ng/g; broiled salmon, 1.4-5 ng/g; dried, smoked mackerel, 0.8 ng/g; broiled chicken, 2.33 ng/g; canned roasted eel, 1.1 ng/g Ohgaki et al., 1987, Kato et al., 1988 PhIP2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-]pyridine Lymphoma in male and female mice, colon tumors in male rats, mammary gland tumors in female rats, and colon tumors in female rats Broiled chicken 38.1 ng/g, broiled 42.5 ng/g, fried fish 69.2 ng/g, fried ground beef 15 ng/g Felton et al 1986, Esumi et al 1989, Ito et al 1991, Wakabayashi et al 1992 In addition to PhIP, the committee is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects of A-alpha-C (2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole), Glu-P-1 (2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]-imidazole, Glu-P-2 (2-Aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]-imidazole, Trp-P-1 (Tryptophan-P-1), and Trp-P-2 (Tryptophan-P-2).

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