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--> Appendix A Selected Substances in Food Subjected to Some Degree of Carcinogenicity Testing in Animals and for Which Some Positive Results Have Been Reported Substance Nature of Supporting Evidence Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foods References From Higher Plants Allyl isothiocyanate Bladder papillomas in male rats; negative in mice and female rats; clastogenic, mutagenic Raw cabbage, 0.04-2.7 ppm; horseradish, 2,000 ppm; black mustard seed, 10,000 ppm NTP, 1982; Ishidate et al., 1988; McGregor et al., 1988 Anthraquinone, 1-hydroxy Cecum, colon, and liver tumors in male rats Mori et al., 1990 Asarone,à - and á- (oil of calamus) Malignant tumors in the duodenal region'' in male and female rats Asarum and acorns spp (sweet flag) ≈ 20,000 ppm Taylor et al., 1967
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--> Substance Nature of Supporting Evidencea Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb Referencesc Benzaldehyde Forestomach tumors in male and female mice Found in over 40 foods; fruits and vegetables, 0.2-1 ppm; white bread, 5.0-10 pm; wines, 0.01-1.0 ppm; cocoa, coffee, tea, 2.0 ppm; shellfish, 0.01 ppm NTP, 1990a Caffeine Increased multiplicity but not incidence of spontaneous mammary gland tumors in female mice Tea, coffee, maté, guaraná, cola nuts; 0.5 to 5.0% of the plant product Welsch et al., 1988 Capsaicin Duodenal adenocarcinoma in male and female mice (significant only when all treated groups combined); not mutagenic In pungent (hot) red peppers (q.v.); <0.1 to 1.0% of dry fruit Toth et al., 1984 (as reported by Watts, 1985) Capsicum annuum; (hot) peppers Liver tumors in rats Widely used spice, especially in warmer climates Hoch-Ligeti, 1950 Chrysazin Colon tumors in male rats Mori et al., 1985
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--> Ecdysone, alpha Liver tumors in male and female Egyptian toads Insects and crustaceans, spinach, plants, relationship to food El-Mofty et al., 1987 Estragole Liver tumors in female mice; forms DNA adducts Apple, bilberry <0.03 ppm; basil and oregano ≈ 100 ppm; tarragon ≈ 1%; anise and star anise ≈ 5.0% Miller et al., 1983; Randerath et al., 1985 Ethyl acrylate Negative in 2 strains of male and female rats; forestomach tumors in male mice, male and female rats Dill ≈ 1.0 ppm; pineapple, 0.8 ppm; raspberry; durian Miller et al., 1985; NTP, 1986 Eugenol Data equivocal for liver tumors in female and male mice. Oranges, cherries and many fruits ≈ 0.02 ppm; tomato, carrot ≈ 0.2 ppm, wines, liquors ≈ 0.1 ppm; cottage cheese, fish ≈ 3.0 ppm; anise ≈ 0.2%; cloves ≈ 10% NTP, 1983
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--> Substance Nature of Supporting Evidencea Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb Referencesc Furfural In male rats 2/50 at high-dose only showed cholangio-carcinomas; none in females. In male mice, increased incidence of adenomas and carcinomas in high-dose group; in females, increased incidence of adenomas at high-dose Cocoa, coffee, 55-255 ppm; wine, tr-10 ppm; whiskies, cider, sherry, wines, 1-30+ ppm, sauerkraut, tomato, cinnamon, cloves, wheaten bread, 1-14 ppm; many fruits, tr.-1 ppm NTP, 1990 Gossypol Neck myxosarcomas in female mice Cottonseed meal, limit of .045% (U.S.) and .06% (P.A.G.) free gossypol Dhaliwal et al., 1987 D-Limonene Kidney tumors in male rats Citrus juices ≈ 200 ppm; citrus oils 50-90%; other fruits and vegetables 1-30 ppm; coffee, tea ≈ 1 ppm; spices, trace -5% NTP, 1990b Piper nigrum; (black and white) pepper Lung, liver, and skin tumors in male and female mice; liver tumors in male and female Egyptian toads Widely used spice Concon et al., 1979; El-Mofty et al., 1988; El-Mofty et al., 1991
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--> Phytic acid Kidney tumors in male and female rats Oil seed, legumes, cereal grains Hiasa et al., 1992 Ptaquiloside Ileal, mammary, and bladder tumors in female rats Bracken fern ("fiddleheads") Hirono et al., 1984; Hirono et al., 1987 Quercetin Intestinal and bladder tumors in male and female "albino" rats; kidney tumors in male F344/N rats; liver tumors in female F344 rats; mutagenic Ubiquitous in food plants, esp. in rinds of plant fruits Pamukcu et al., 1980; Dunnick and Hailey, 1992; NTP, 1992 Safrole Liver tumors in 3 strains male and female mice; liver tumors in 2 strains male rats, 1 strain female rats; clastogenic, forms DNA adducts Cocoa, nutmeg, mace, black pepper, ≈ 0.2% Lipsky et al., 1981; Innes et al., 1969; Vesselinovitch et al., 1979; Wislocki et al., 1977; Borchert et al., 1973; Boberg et al., 1983; Miller et al., 1983; Ishidate et al., 1988; Randerath et al., 1985 Sesamol Forestomach tumors in male rats and male and female mice Sesame seeds and oil Hirose et al., 1990; Tamano et al., 1992 Shikimic acid Leukemia in male and female mice; glandular stomach tumors in male mice Important biosynthetic precursor in most plants Evans and Osman, 1974
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--> Substance Nature of Supporting Evidencea Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb Referencesc 8-methoxypsoralen (Xanthotoxin) Kidney and Zymbal's gland tumors in male rats; mutagenic, clastogenic NTP, 1989 Xylitol Bladder tumors in mice; adrenal gland tumors in rats Carrots, lettuce, onions, raspberries, and spinach Anonymous, 1977 In addition to the list above, the committee is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects of benzene, cycasin, methoxyazoxymethylacetate, and styrene. See Appendix B. From Edible Fungi Acetaldehyde methylformyl-hydrazone Lung, forestomach, clitoral tumors in female mice; preputial, lung tumors in male mice Several species of edible mushrooms, especially of the genus Gyromitra Toth et al., 1981 Glutamyl p-hydrazino-benzoic acid Subcutaneous tumors in male mice Edible mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) and several Gyromitra species Toth, 1986
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--> p-Hydrazino-benzoic acid Aorta and large artery tumors in male and female mice Several species of edible mushrooms, especially of the genus Gyromitra McManus et al., 1987 From Fungal Contaminants of Food In addition to aflatoxin B1, the committee is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects for aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G2, aflatoxin G2, Fusarium monliforme toxins, Penicillium islandicum toxins (e.g., islanditoxin), T-2 toxin, ochratoxins, and sterigmatocystin. See Chapter 2 and Appendix B. Carcinogens Formed During Traditional Preparation and Processing Benz[a]anthracene Benign liver and lung tumors in mice Coconut oil, 0.5-13.7 ng/g; broiled meat, 0.2-1.1 ng/g; broiled fish, 0.6-2.9 ng/g; smoked fish, 0.2-189 ng/g; ham, 1.3-12 ng/g; cereal, 0.4-6.8 ng/g; lettuce, 6.1-15.4 ng/g; tomatoes 0.3 ng/g; spinach, 16.1 ng/g; roasted coffee, 0.5-42.7 ng/g; tea, 2.9-36 ng/g; whisky, 0.04-0.08 ng/g Klein, 1963
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--> Substance Nature of Supporting Evidencea Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb Referencesc Benzo[a]pyrene Forestomach tumors in mice; mammary tumors in female rats Margarine, 0.9-36 ng/g; coconut oil, 0.3-8.2 ng/g; broiled meat, 0.17-50 ng/g; broiled fish, 0.2-0.9 ng/g; smoked fish, 1-78 ng/g; ham, <0.5-14.6 ng/g; bacon, 0.16-0.25 ng/g; cereal, 0.19-4.13 ng/g; potatoes, 0.09 ng/g; flour, 0.73; bread, 0.23; toasted bread, 0.39-0.56; lettuce, 2.8-12.8; tomatoes, 0.2-0.22; spinach, 7.4; fruits, 0.5-30; roasted coffee, 0.3-15.8; tea, 3.9-21.3; whisky, 0.04 Neal and Rigdon, 1967; McCormick, 1981 Catechol Glandular stomach tumors in male and female rats Hirose et al., 1990 Dibenz[a,h]-anthracene Forestomach and lung tumors in mice Larinow and Soboleva, 1938; Lorenz and Stewart, 1948; Snell and Stewart, 1962, 1963
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--> In addition to the list above, the committee is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects of 7H-Dibenzo[c,g]-carbazole, Dibenzo[a,h]-pyrene, Dibenzo[a,i]-pyrene, Me-A-alpha-C(2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido-[2,3-b]indole), and 5-methylchyrysene. N-Nitroso-N-demethylamine is discussed in Chapter 2, and the committee also is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects on N-Nitroso-N-dibutylamine, N-Nitroso-diethylamine, N-Nitroso-methylethylamine, N-Nitroso-nornicotine, N-Nitroso-piperidine, and N-Nitroso-pyrrolidine. See Appendix B. IQ(2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline) Lung, liver, and forestomach tumors in male and female mice; mammary gland, Zymbal gland, and liver tumors in female rats; liver, Zymbal gland, colon, and small intestine tumors in male and female rats; liver tumors in male and female monkeys Fried ground beef, 0.5-20 ng/g; broiled beef, 0.19 ng/g; sun-dried, broiled sardines, 20 ng/g; broiled salmon, 0.3-1.8 ng/g; fried fish, 0.16 ng/g; fried egg, 0.1 ng/g Ohagaki et al., 1984, 1986; Tanaka et al., 1985; Takayama et al., 1984; Adamson et al., 1990, 1991 MeIQ Liver tumors in female mice; forestomach tumors in male and female mice; Zymbal gland, oral cavity, and colon tumors in male and female rats; mammary gland tumors in female rats; skin tumors in male rats Fried fish, 0.03 ng/g; grilled, sun-dried sardines, 20-72 ng/g; broiled sardines, 16.6 ng/g Ohgaki et al., 1986; Kato et al., 1989
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--> Substance Nature of Supporting Evidencea Extent of Natural Occurrence in Foodsb Referencesc MeIQx Liver tumors in male and female mice; lung tumors in female mice; lymphoma and leukemia in male mice; liver and Zymbal gland tumors in male and female rats; clitoral gland tumors in female rats; skin tumors in male rats. Fried ground beef, 0.45-12.3 ng/g; broiled beef, 2.11 ng/g; fried fish, 6.44 ng/g; broiled mutton, 1.01 ng/g; broiled salmon, 1.4-5 ng/g; dried, smoked mackerel, 0.8 ng/g; broiled chicken, 2.33 ng/g; canned roasted eel, 1.1 ng/g Ohgaki et al., 1987, Kato et al., 1988 PhIP2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-]pyridine Lymphoma in male and female mice, colon tumors in male rats, mammary gland tumors in female rats, and colon tumors in female rats Broiled chicken 38.1 ng/g, broiled 42.5 ng/g, fried fish 69.2 ng/g, fried ground beef 15 ng/g Felton et al 1986, Esumi et al 1989, Ito et al 1991, Wakabayashi et al 1992 In addition to PhIP, the committee is aware of other data on carcinogenic effects of A-alpha-C (2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole), Glu-P-1 (2-Amino-6-methyldipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]-imidazole, Glu-P-2 (2-Aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3',2'-d]-imidazole, Trp-P-1 (Tryptophan-P-1), and Trp-P-2 (Tryptophan-P-2).
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--> References Adamson, R.H., U.P. Thorgeirsson, E.G. Snyderwine, S.S. Thorgeirsson, J. Reeves, D.W. Dalgard, S. Takayama, and T. Sugimura. 1990. Carcinogenicity of 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-f)quinoline in nonhuman primates: Induction of tumors in three macaques. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 81(1):10-14. Adamson, R.H., E.G. Snyderwine, U.P. Thorgeirsson, H.A.J. Schut, R.J. Turesky, S.S. Thorgeirsson, S. Takayama, and T. Sugimura. 1991. Metabolic processing and carcinogenicity of heterocyclic amines in nonhuman primates. Xenobiotics and Cancer 289-301. Anonymous. 1977. Saccharin Fails Ames Test, Xylitol Passes. Chem Eng News 55(50):8. Boberg, E.W., E.C. Miller, J.A. Miller, A. Poland, and A. Liem. 1983. Strong evidence from studies with brachymorphic mice and pentachlorophenol that 1'suffooxysafrole is the major ultimate electrophilic and carcinogenic metabolite of 1'hydroxysafrole in mouse liver. Cancer Res. 43(11)P5163-P5173. Borchert, P., J.A. Miller, E.C. Miller, T.K. Shires. 1973. 1'Hydroxysafrole, a proximate carcinogenic metabolite of safrole in the rat and mouse. Cancer Res. 33(3):P590-P600. Concon, J.M., D.S. Newburg, and T.W. Swerczek. 1979. Black pepper (Piper nigrum): Evidence of carcinogenicity. Nutr. Cancer 1:22-26. Dhaliwal, M.K., J.O. Norman, S. Pathak, and D.L. Busbee. 1987. Cytogenetic analysis of a gossypol-induced murine myxosarcoma. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 78(6):1203-1209. Dunnick, J.K., and J.R. Hailey. 1992. Toxicity and carcinogenicity studies of quercetin, a natural component of foods. Fundam. Appl. Toxicol. 19(3):P423-P431. El-Mofty, M., I. Sadek, A. Soliman, A. Mohamad, and S. Sakre. 1987. Alpha-ecdysone, a new bracken fern factor responsible for neoplasm induction in the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis). Nutr. Cancer 9(2-3):103-107. El-Mofty, M.M., A.A. Soliman, A.F. Abdel-Gawad, S.A. Sakr, and M.H. Shwaireb. 1988. Carcinogenicity testing of black pepper (Piper nigrum) using Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis) as a quick biological test animal. Oncology 45(3):P247-P252.
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--> El-Mofty, M.M., V.V. Khudoley, and M.H. Shwaireb. 1991. Carcinogenic effect of force-feeding an extract of black pepper (Piper nigrum) in Egyptian toads (Bufo regularis). Oncology 48(4):347-350. Esumi, H., H. Ohgaki, E. Kohzen, S. Takayama, and T. Sugimura. 1989. Induction of lymphoma in CDF1 mice by the food mutagen, 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 80, 1176-1178. Evans, I.A., and M.A. Osman. 1974. Carcinogenicity of bracken and shikimic acid. Nature 250(464)P348-P349. Felton, J.S., M.G. Knize, N.H. Shen, P.R. Lewis, B.D. Andresen, J. Happe, and F.T. Hatch. 1986. The isolation and identification of a new mutagen from fried ground beef: 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP). Carcinogenesis (7):1081-1086. Hiasa, Y., Y. Kitahori, J. Morimoto, N. Konishi, S. Nakaoka, and H. Nishioka. 1992. Carcinogenicity study in rats of phytic acid ''Daiichi", a natural food additive. Food Chem Toxicol. 30:117-25. Hirono, I., S. Aiso, T. Yamaji, H. Mori, K. Yamada, H. Niwa, M. Ojika, K. Wakamatsu, H. Kigoshi, and K. Niiyama. 1984. Carcinogenicity in rats of ptaquiloside isolated from bracken. Gann 75:833-6. Hirono, I. 1987. Naturally occurring carcinogens of plant origin: toxicology, pathology, and biochemistry . Bioactive Molecules, volume 2. Hirose, M., S. Fukushima, T. Shirai, and R. Hasegawa. 1990. Stomach carcinogenicity of caffeic acid, sesamol and catechol in rats and mice. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 81:207-12. Hoch-Ligeti, C. 1950. Production of liver tumours by dietary means; Effect of feeding chillies (Capsicum frutescens and annuum) to rats. Fifth Intl Cancer Congress, Paris. 606-611. Innes, J.R.M., B.M. Ulland, M.G. Valerio, L. Petrucelli, L. Fishbein, E.R. Hart, A.J. Pallotta, R.R. Bates, H.L. Falk, J.J. Gart, M. Klein, I. Mitchell, and J. Peters. 1969. Bioassay of pesticides and industrial chemicals for tumorigenicity in mice: A preliminary note. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 42(6):1101-1114. Ishidate, M. Jr., M.C. Harnois, and T. Sofuni. 1988. A comparative analysis of data on the clastogenicity of 951 chemical substances tested in mammalian cell cultures. Mutat. Res. 195(2):151-213.
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--> Kato, T., H. Ohgaki, H. Hasegawa, S. Sato, S. Takayama, and T. Sugimura. 1988. Carcinogenicity in rats of a mutagenic compound, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline. Carcinogenesis 9:71-73. Kato, T., H. Migita, H. Ohgaki, S. Sato, S. Takayama, and T. Sugimura. 1989. Induction of tumors in the Zymbal gland, oral cavity, colon, skin and mammary gland of F344 rats by a mutagenic comound 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline. Carcinogenesis 10:601-603. Klein M. 1963. Susceptibility of strain B6AF/J hybrid infant mice to tumorigenesis with 1,2-benzanthracene, deosycholic acid and 3-methylcholanthracene. Cancer Res 23:1701-1707. Larinow, L.T., and N.G. Soboleva. 1938. Gastric tumors experimentally produced in mice by means of benzopyrene and dibenzanthracene. Vestn Rentgenol Radiol 20:276. Lipsky, M.M., D.E. Hinton, J.E. Klaunig, and B.F. Trump. 1981. Biology of hepatocellular neoplasia in the mouse. I. Histogenesis of safrole-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 67:365-76. Lipsky, M.M., D.E. Hinton, J.E. Klaunig, P.J. Goldblatt, and B.F. Trump . 1981a. Biology of hepatocellular neoplasia in the mouse. II. Sequential enzyme histochemical analysis of BALB/c mouse liver during safrole-induced carcinogenesis. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 67:377-92. Lipsky, M.M., D.E. Hinton, J.E. Klaunig, and B.F. Trump. 1981b. Biology of hepatocellular neoplasia in the mouse. III. Electron microscopy of safrole-induced hepatocellular adenomas and hepatocellular carcinomas. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 67:393-405. Lorenz, E. and H.L. Steward. 1948. Tumors of alimentary tract in mice fed carcinogenic hydrocarbons in mineral oil emulsions. JNCI 9:173. McCormick, D.L., F.J. Burns, and R.E. Albert. 1981. Inhibition of benz[a]pyrene-induced mammary carcinogenesis by retinyl acetate. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 66(3):P559-P564. McGregor, D.B., A. Brown, P. Cattanach, and I. Edwards. 1988. Responses of the L5178Y tk+/tk- mouse lymphoma cell forward mutation assay: III. 72 coded chemicals. Environ Mol Mutagen
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--> 12(1):85-154. McManus, B.M., B. Toth, and K.D. Patil. 1987. Aortic rupture and aortic smooth muscle tumors in mice. Induction by phydrazinobenzoic acid hydrochloride of the cultivated mushroom Agaricus bisporus. Lab Invest 57(1):78-85. Miller, E.C., A.B. Swanson, D.H. Phillips, T.L. Fletcher, A. Liem, and J.A. Miller. 1983. Structure-activity studies of the carcinogenicities in the mouse and rat of some naturally occurring and synthetic alkenylbenzene derivatives related to safrole and estragole. Cancer Res. 43(3):1124-1134. Miller, T.A., and V.L. Salgado. 1985. The Pyrethroid insecticides. pp.43-97. Mori, H., N. Yoshimi, H. Iwata, Y. Mori, A. Hara, T. Tanaka, and K. Kawai. 1990. Carcinogenicity of naturally occurring 1-hydroxyanthraquinone in rats: Induction of large bowel, liver and stomach neoplasms. Carcinogenesis 11(5):799-802. Mori, H., S. Sugie, K. Niwa, M. Takahashi, and K. Kawai. 1985. Induction of intestinal tumours in rats by chrysazin. Br J. Cancer 52(5):781-3. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1982. NTP Technical Report on the Carcinogenesis Bioassay of Allyl Isothiocyanate in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice. NTP Technical Report TR-81-36. Research Triangle Park, North Carolina and Bethesda, Maryland: National Toxicology Program. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1983. NTP Technical Report on the Carcinogenesis Studies of Eugenol in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice. NTP Technical Report TR 223. Research Traingle Park, N.C.: National Toxicology Program. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1986b. NTP Technical Report on the Carcinogenesis Studies of Ethyl Acrylate in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice. NTP Technical Report TR 259. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: National Toxicology Program. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1989. NTP Technical Report on Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of 8-Methoxypsoralen in F344/N Rats. NTP Technical Report TR 359. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: National Toxicology Program. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1990. NTP Technical Report on
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--> Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Furfural in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice. NTP Technical Report TR 382. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: National Toxicology Program. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1990a. NTP Technical Report on Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Benzaldehyde in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice. NTP Technical Report TR 378. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: National Toxicology Program. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1990b. NTP Technical Report on the Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of d-Limonene in F344/N Rats and B6C3F1 Mice. NTP Technical Report TR 347. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: National Toxicology Program. NTP (National Toxicology Program). 1992. NTP Technical Report on the Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Quercetin in F344/N Rats. NTP Technical Report TR 409. Research Triangle Park, N.C.: National Toxicology Program. Neal, J., and R.H. Rigdon. 1967. Gastric tumors in mice fed bezo(a)pyrene: A quantitative study. Tex. Rep. Biol. Med. 25(4):P553-P557. Ohgaki, H., K. Kusama, N. Matsukura, K. Morino, H. Hasegawa, S. Sato, S. Takayama, and T. Sugimura. 1984. Carcinogenicity in mice of mutagenic compound, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo-(4,5-f)-quinoline, from broiled sardine, cooked beef and beef extracts. Carcinogenesis 5(7):921-924. Ohgaki, H., H. Hasegawa, M. Suenaga, T. Kato, S. Sato, S. Takayama, and T. Sugimura. 1986. Induction of hepatocellular carcinoma and highly metastatic squamous cell carcinomas in the forestomach of mice by feeding 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline. Carcinogenesis 7(11):P1889-P1893. Ohgaki, H., H. Hasegawa, M. Suenaga, S. Sato, S. Yakayama, and T. Sugimura. 1987. Carcinogenicity in mice of a mutagenic compound, 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) from cooked foods. Carcinogenesis 8:665-668. Pamukcu, A.M., S. Yalciner, J.F. Hatcher, and G.T. Bryan. 1980. Quercitin, a rat intestinal and bladder carcinogen present in bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum). Cancer Res. 40:3468-3472. Randerath, K., E. Randerath, H.P. Agrawal, R.C. Gupta, M.E. Schurdak, and M.V. Reddy. 1985. Postlabeling methods for
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--> carcinogen-DNA adduct analysis. Environ. Health Perspect. 62:P57-P65. Snell, K.C. and H.L. Stewart. 1962. Pulmonary adenomatosis induced in DBA/2 mice by oral administration of debenz[a,h]anthracene. JNCI 28:1043. Snell, K.C. and H.L. Stewart. 1963. Induction of pulmonary adenomatoses in DBA/2 mice by the oral administration of dibenz[a,h]anthracene. Acta Un Int Cancer 19:692-694. Takayama, S., Y. Nakatsuru, M. Masuda, H. Ohgaki, S. Sato, and T. Sugimura. 1984. Demonstration of carcinogenicity in F-344 rats of 2 amino-3-methylimidazo-4 5-f quinoline from broiled sardine fried beef and beef extract. Gann 75(6):467-470. Tamano, S., M. Hirose, H. Tanaka, E. Asakawa, K. Ogawa, and N. Ito. 1992. Forestomach neoplasm induction in F344/DuCrj rats and B6C3F1 mice exposed to sesamol. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 83(12):P1279-P1285. Tanaka, T., W.S. Barnes, G.M. Williams, and J.H. Weisburger. 1985. Multipotential carcinogenicity of the fried food mutagen 2 amino-3-methylimidazo-4 5-f-quinoline in rats. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. (Gann) 76(7):570-576. Taylor, J.M., W.I. Jones, E.C. Hagan, M.A. Gross, D.A. Davis, and E.L. Cook. 1967. Toxicity of Oil of Calamus (Jammu Variety). Tox and App Pharm 10:405. Toth, B, E. Rogan, and B. Walker. 1984. Tumorogenicity and mutagenicity studies with capsaicin of hot peppers. Anticancer Res. 4(3):117-9. Toth, B., J.W. Smith, and K.D. Patil. 1981. Cancer induction in mice with acetabldehyde methylformylhydrazone of the false morel mushroom. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 67(4):P881-P887. Toth, B. 1986. Carcinogenesis by N2-[gamma-L(+)-glutamyl]-4-carboxyphenylhydrazine of Agaricus bisporus in mice. Anticancer Res. 6(5):917-20. Wakabayashi, K., M. Nagao, H. Esumi, and T. Sugimura. 1992. Food-derived mutagens and carcinogens. Cancer Res. 52 (Suppl.):2092s-2098s. Welsch, C.W., J.V. DeHoog, and D.H. O'Connor. 1988. Influence of caffeine consumption on carcinomatous and normal mammary gland
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--> development in mice. Cancer Res. 48(8):2078-82. Wislocki, P.G., E.C. Miller, J.A. Miller, E.C. McCoy, and H.S. Rosenkranz. 1977. Carcinogenic and mutagenic activities of safrole, l'-hydroxysafrole, and some known or possible metabolites. Cancer Res. 37(6):1883-1891. Vesselinovitch, S.D., K.V. Rao, and N. Mihailovich. 1979. Transplacental and lactational carcinogenesis by safrole. Cancer Res. 39:4378-4380.
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Representative terms from entire chapter: