References

Aaronson, W., Zinn, J.S., and Rosko, M.D. Do For-Profit and Not-For-Profit Nursing Homes Behave Differently? The Gerontologist 34:775–786, 1994.

Abelson, R. Health. Forbes, pp. 162–167, January 4, 1993.

Abt Associates and the Center for Health Policy Research. Briefing Points on Preliminary Evaluation Results. Briefing for the HCFA Leadership Conference. Bethesda, Md.: Abt Associates, July 27, 1993.

AHA (American Hospital Association). Hospital Mergers and Consolidations: 1980–1991. Chicago: AHA Section for Health Care Systems, 1992.

AHA. AHA Hospital Statistics: The AHA Profile of United States Hospitals 94/95. 1994–95 Edition. Data Compiled from the American Hospital Association 1993 Annual Survey of Hospitals. Chicago: AHA, 1994a.

AHA. Hospital Closures 1980–1993: A Statistical Profile. Prepared by the AHA Health Care Information Resources Group. Chicago: AHA, 1994b.

AHA. News Release: New Health Care Trends Unveiled in Latest AHA Statistics Book. Washington, D.C.: AHA Washington Office, 1994c.

AHA. Economic Trends. Key Trends in Calendar Year 1995. (AHA National Hospital Panel Survey, March panel.) Vol. 11, no. 2. Chicago: AHA Health Statistics Group, 1995a.

AHA. Special tabulations from AHA annual surveys, 1983–1993, prepared for the Institute of Medicine Committee on the Adequacy of Nurse Staffing in Hospitals and Nursing Homes. Chicago: AHA, 1995b.

AHCA (American Health Care Association). Costs of an Employer Health Care Mandate. Provider: The Magazine for Long-Term Care Professionals 20(5):8, 1994a.

AHCA. Facts and Trends: The Nursing Facility Sourcebook. Washington, D.C.: AHCA, 1994b.

AHCA. Facts and Trends: The Nursing Facility Sourcebook. Washington, D.C. : AHCA, 1995.

AHCPR (Agency for Health Care Policy and Research). Acute Low Back Problems in Adults. Clinical Practice Guideline No. 14. S. Bigos, O. Bowyer, G. Braen, et al., eds. Pub. no. 95–0642. Rockville, Md.: AHCPR, 1994.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 209
--> References Aaronson, W., Zinn, J.S., and Rosko, M.D. Do For-Profit and Not-For-Profit Nursing Homes Behave Differently? The Gerontologist 34:775–786, 1994. Abelson, R. Health. Forbes, pp. 162–167, January 4, 1993. Abt Associates and the Center for Health Policy Research. Briefing Points on Preliminary Evaluation Results. Briefing for the HCFA Leadership Conference. Bethesda, Md.: Abt Associates, July 27, 1993. AHA (American Hospital Association). Hospital Mergers and Consolidations: 1980–1991. Chicago: AHA Section for Health Care Systems, 1992. AHA. AHA Hospital Statistics: The AHA Profile of United States Hospitals 94/95. 1994–95 Edition. Data Compiled from the American Hospital Association 1993 Annual Survey of Hospitals. Chicago: AHA, 1994a. AHA. Hospital Closures 1980–1993: A Statistical Profile. Prepared by the AHA Health Care Information Resources Group. Chicago: AHA, 1994b. AHA. News Release: New Health Care Trends Unveiled in Latest AHA Statistics Book. Washington, D.C.: AHA Washington Office, 1994c. AHA. Economic Trends. Key Trends in Calendar Year 1995. (AHA National Hospital Panel Survey, March panel.) Vol. 11, no. 2. Chicago: AHA Health Statistics Group, 1995a. AHA. Special tabulations from AHA annual surveys, 1983–1993, prepared for the Institute of Medicine Committee on the Adequacy of Nurse Staffing in Hospitals and Nursing Homes. Chicago: AHA, 1995b. AHCA (American Health Care Association). Costs of an Employer Health Care Mandate. Provider: The Magazine for Long-Term Care Professionals 20(5):8, 1994a. AHCA. Facts and Trends: The Nursing Facility Sourcebook. Washington, D.C.: AHCA, 1994b. AHCA. Facts and Trends: The Nursing Facility Sourcebook. Washington, D.C. : AHCA, 1995. AHCPR (Agency for Health Care Policy and Research). Acute Low Back Problems in Adults. Clinical Practice Guideline No. 14. S. Bigos, O. Bowyer, G. Braen, et al., eds. Pub. no. 95–0642. Rockville, Md.: AHCPR, 1994.

OCR for page 209
--> Aiken, L.H. The Hospital Nursing Shortage: A Paradox of Increasing Supply and Increasing Vacancy Rates. In: C. Harrington and C.L. Estes, eds. Health Policy and Nursing. Boston: Jones and Bartlett, 1994. Aiken, L.H. Transformation of the Nursing Workforce. Nursing Outlook 43:201–209, 1995. Aiken, L.H., and Gwyther, M.E. Medicare Funding of Nurse Education: The Case for Policy Change. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273:1528–1532, 1995. Aiken, L.H., and Hadley, J. Factors Affecting the Hospital Employment of Registered Nurses. In: The Secretary's Commission on Nursing. Final Report, vol. 2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1988. Aiken, L.H., and Salmon, M.E. Health Care Workforce Priorities: What Nursing Should Do Now. Inquiry 31:318–329, 1994. Aiken, L.H., Smith, H.L., and Lake, E.T. Lower Medicare Mortality Among a Set of Hospitals Known for Good Nursing Care. Medical Care 32:771–787, 1994. Allen, J. Two Charged with Battery at Long Grove Nursing Home. Daily Herald (Ill.), p. 1–News 11, August 17, 1994. Alter, H.J., Seef, L.B., Kaplan, P.M., et al. Type B Hepatitis: The Infectivity of Blood Positive for E Antigen and DNA Polymerase After Accidental Needlestick Exposure. New England Journal of Medicine 295:909–913, 1976. ANA (American Nurses Association). The Report of Survey Results: The 1994 ANA Layoffs Survey. The American Nurse (March):1,7, 1995a. ANA. Summary of the Lewin-VHI, Inc., Report: Nursing Report Card for Acute Care Settings (photocopy). Washington, D.C.: ANA, 1995b. Anderson, G.F., and Kohn, L.T. Employment Trends in Hospitals Between 1981 and 1993. Inquiry, in press. Anonymous. What Really Makes Nurses Angry. RN 49(1):55–60, 1986. Arad, D., and Ryan, M. The Incidence and Prevalence in Nurses of Low Back Pain: A Definitive Survey Exposes the Hazards. Australian Nurse Journal 16:44–48, 1986. Arling, G., Nordquist, R.H., Brant, B.A., and Capitman, J.A. Nursing Home Case Mix. Medical Care 25:9–19, 1987. Arling, G., Zimmerman, D., and Updike, L. Nursing Home Case Mix in Wisconsin. Medical Care 27:164–181, 1989. Bahr, R.T. Reaction to the Invitational Conference ''Mechanisms of Quality in Long-Term Care: Service and Clinical Outcomes." Pp. 103–109 in: Mechanisms of Quality in Long-Term Care: Service and Clinical Outcomes. Pub. no. 41–2382. New York: National League for Nursing Press, 1991. Baker, A. Granny Battering. Nursing Mirror 144:65–66, 1977. Ballard, T.M. The Need for Well-Prepared Nurse Administrators in Long-term Care. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship 27(2):153–160, 1995. Baltz, T.M., and Turner, J.G. Development and Analysis of a Nursing Home Aide Screening Device. The Gerontologist 17:66–69, 1977. Barter, M., McLaughlin, F.E., and Thomas, S.A. Use of Unlicensed Assistive Personnel by Hospitals. Nursing Economics 12(2):82–87, 1994. Beck, C., Rossby, L., and Baldwin, B. Correlates of Disruptive Behavior in Cognitively Impaired Elderly Nursing Home Residents. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing 5(5):281–291, 1991. Berland, A. Controlling Workload. Canadian Nurse 86(5):36–38, 1990. Bernardi, N. Patient Sues Nursing Home over '93 Rape. Courier-News (Ill.), pp. A1, A7, August 16, 1994. Birkenstock, M. From Turnover to Turnaround. Geriatric Nursing 12(4):194–196, 1991. Bishop, C.E. Competition in the Market for Nursing Home Care. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 13(2):341–361, 1988.

OCR for page 209
--> Blaum, C.S., Fries, B.E., and Fiatarone, M.A. Factors Associated with Low Body Mass Index and Weight Loss in Nursing Home Residents. Journals of Gerontology: Medical Sciences, 50A(3):M162–M168, 1995. BLS (Bureau of Labor Statistics). Shifting Workforce Spawns New Set of Hazardous Occupations. Issues in Labor Statistics. Summary 94-8. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, 1994a. BLS. Violence in the Workplace Comes Under Closer Scrutiny. Issues in Labor Statistics. Summary 94-10. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, 1994b. BLS. Workplace Injuries and Illnesses in 1993. Issues in Labor Statistics. Summary 94-600. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, 1994c. BLS. Survey of Occupational Health and Injuries. Summary 95-5. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, 1995a. BLS. Work Injuries and Illnesses by Selected Characteristics, 1993. Summary 95-142. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, 1995b. BLS. Special tabulations prepared for the Institute of Medicine Committee on the Adequacy of Nurse Staffing in Hospitals and Nursing Homes. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, 1995c. BLS. Violence in the Workplace. Prepared by G. Toscano and W. Weber. Compensation and Working Conditions. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Labor, 1995d. Bogue, R.J., Shortell, S.M., Sohn, M.-W., et al. Hospital Reorganization After Merger. Medical Care 33:676–686, 1995. Bowers, B. Family Perceptions of Care in a Nursing Home. The Gerontologist 28:361–368, 1988. Bradbury, R.C., Golec, J.H., and Steen, P.M. Relating Hospital Health Outcomes and Resource Expenditures. Inquiry 31:56–65, 1994. Brannon, R.L. Intensifying Care: The Hospital Industry, Professionalization, and the Reorganization of the Nursing Labor Process. From the series Critical Approaches in the Health Social Sciences Series, R.H. Elling, ed. Amityville, N.Y.: Baywood Publishing Company, 1994. Braun, B.I. The Effect of Nursing Home Quality on Patient Outcome. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 39:329–338, 1991. Brooten, D., Kumar, S., Brown, L.P., et al. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Early Hospital Discharge and Home Follow-up of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Infants. New England Journal of Medicine 31:934–939, 1986. Brooten, D., Brown, L.P., Munro, B.H., et al. Early Discharge and Specialist Transitional Care. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship 20(2):64–68, 1988. Buchanan, J.L., Bell, R.M., Arnold, S.B., et al. Assessing Cost Effects of Nursing-Home-Based Geriatric Nurse Practitioners. Health Care Financing Review 11(3):67–78, 1990. Bureau of the Census. Language Spoken at Home and Ability to Speak English: United States Regions and States, 1990. Pub. no. CPH-L-133. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1990. Bureau of the Census. Race and Hispanic Origin. 1990 Census Profile, No. 2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1991b. Bureau of the Census. Population Projections of the United States, by Age, Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin: 1993 to 2050. Current Population Reports. Prepared by J.C. Day. Pub. no. P25-1104. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1993a. Bureau of the Census. Poverty in the United States: 1992. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income. Series P60-185. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1993b. Bureau of the Census. We the American… Elderly. Pub. no. WE-9. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1993c. Bureau of the Census. Statistical Abstract of the United States: 1994. 114th ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1995a.

OCR for page 209
--> Bureau of the Census. Statistical Brief. Sixty-Five Plus in the United States. Pub. no. SB/95-8. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce, 1995b. Bureau of the Census and the National Institute on Aging. Profiles of America's Elderly. Living Arrangements of the Elderly. Pub. no. POP/93-2. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce and the National Institutes of Health, 1993a. Bureau of the Census and the National Institute on Aging. Profiles of America's Elderly. Racial and Ethnic Diversity of America's Elderly Population. Pub. no. POP/93-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Commerce and the National Institutes of Health, 1993b. Burns, J. Long-Term-Care Chains Show Slight Growth. Modern Healthcare (May 18):81–94, 1992. Burton, L.C., German, P.S., Rovner, B.W., et al. Mental Illness and the Use of Restraints in Nursing Homes. The Gerontologist 32:164–170, 1992. Butler, P.A., and Schlenker, R.E. Administering Nursing Home Case Mix Reimbursement Systems: Issues of Assessment, Quality, Access, Equity, and Cost: An Analysis of Long-term Care Payment Systems. Final Report. Denver: Center for Health Services Research, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, 1988. Cameron, J.M. Case-mix and Resource Use in Long-Term Care. Medical Care 23:296–309, 1985. Carney, R.M. Protect Your Nursing Athletes! Nursing Management 24(3):69–71, 1993. Cato, C., Olson, K., and Studer, M. Incidence, Prevalence and Variables Associated with Low Back Pain in Staff Nurses. AAOHN (American Association of Occupational Health Nursing) Journal 321–327, 1989. CBO (Congressional Budget Office). The Effects of Managed Care and Managed Competition. A CBO Memorandum. Washington, D.C.: CBO, February 1995. CDC (Centers for Disease Control). Universal Precautions for Prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Hepatitis B Virus, and Other Blood-Borne Pathogens in Health-Care Settings. MMWR (Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report) 37:377–382, 1988. CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report 6(2):21, 1994. Chapin, R., and Silloway, G. Incentive Payments to Nursing Homes Based on Quality-of-Care Outcomes. Journal of Applied Gerontology 11(2):131–145, 1992. Cherry, R.L. Agents of Nursing Home Quality of Care: Ombudsmen and Staff Ratios Revisited. The Gerontologist 31:302–308, 1991. Clifford, J.C. The Future of Nursing Practice. Pp. 617–623 in: N. Chaska, ed. The Nursing Profession—Turning Points. St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby, 1990. Cohen, J.W., and Dubay, L.C. The Effects of Medicaid Reimbursement Method and Ownership on Nursing Home Costs, Case Mix, and Staffing. Inquiry 27:183–200, 1990. Cohen, J.W., and Spector, W.D. The Effect of Medicaid on Quality of Care in Nursing Homes. Journal of Health Economics, in press. Cohodes, D.R. What to Do About Capital? Hospital & Health Services Administration 27(5):67–89, 1982. Constable, J.F., and Russell, D.W. The Effect of Social Support and the Work Environment upon Burnout Among Nurses. Journal of Human Stress 12:21–26, 1986. Consumer Reports. Nursing Homes: When a Loved One Needs Care. August:518–528, 1995. Coons, D. Training Direct Service Staff Members to Work in Dementia Care Units . Pp. 126–143 in: D. Coons, ed. Specialized Dementia Care Units. Baltimore, Md.: The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1991. Cotton, P. Nursing Home Research Focus on Outcomes May Mean Playing Catch-up with Regulation. Journal of the American Medical Association 269:2337–2338, 1993. Courington, K.R., Patterson, S.L., and Howard, R.J. Universal Precautions Are not Universally Followed. Archives of Surgery 126:93–96, 1991. Cronin-Stubbs, D., and Rooks, C. The Stress, Social Support, and Burnout of Critical Care Nurses: The Results of Research. Heart and Lung: The Journal of Critical Care 14:31–39, 1985.

OCR for page 209
--> Crown, W.H., Ahlburg, D.A., and MacAdam, M. The Demographic and Employment Characteristics of Home Care Aides: A Comparison with Nursing Home Aides, Hospital Aides, and Other Workers. The Gerontologist 35:162–170, 1995. Damato, E.G., Dill, P.Z., Gennaro, S., et al. The Association Between CNS Direct Care Time and Total Time and Very Low BirthWeight Infant Outcomes. Clinical Nurse Specialist 7(2):75–79, 1993. Davis, K., Collins, K.S., Schoen, C., and C. Morris. Choice Matters: Enrollees' Views of Their Health Plans. Health Affairs 14(2):99–112, 1995. Davis, M.A. On Nursing Home Quality: A Review and Analysis. Medical Care Review 48(2)129–166, 1991. Doan-Johnson, S. Taking a Closer Look at NeedleSticks. Nursing 92 22(8):24,27, 1992. Doering, L. Recruitment and Retention: Successful Strategies in Critical Care. Heart and Lung: The Journal of Critical Care 19(3):220–224, 1990. Dolan, N. The Relationship Between Burnout and Job Satisfaction in Nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing 12(1):3–12, 1987. Dolan, S.L., Van-Ameringen, M.R., Corbin, S., and Arsenault, A. Lack of Professional Latitude and Role Problems as Correlates of Propensity to Quit Amongst Nursing Staff. Journal of Advanced Nursing 17(12):1455–1459, 1992. Donabedian, A. Evaluating the Quality of Medical Care. Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly 44:166–203, July (part 2), 1966. Draper, D., Kahn, K.L, Reinisch, E.J., et al. Studying the Effects of the DRG-Based Prospective Payment System on Quality of Care: Design, Sampling, and Fieldwork. Journal of the American Medical Association 264:1956–1961, 1990. DuNah, R., Harrington, C., Bedney, B., and Carillo, H. Variations and Trends in Licensed Nursing Home Capacity in the States, 1978–1993. Paper prepared for the Health Care Financing Administration. San Francisco: University of California, 1995. Duquette, A., Kerouac, S., Sandhu, B.K., and Beaudet, L. Factors Related to Nursing Burnout: A Review of Empirical Knowledge. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 15:337–358, 1994. Eisler, P. A Special Investigative Report: Criminal Care. Arlington, Va.: Gannett News Service, 1994. Ellwood, M.R., and Burwell, B. Access to Medicaid and Medicare by the Low-Income Disabled. Health Care Financing Review Annl. Suppl.: 133–148, 1990. Emergency Nurses Association. Prevalence of Violence in Emergency Departments. Park Ridge, Ill.: Emergency Nurses Association, 1994. Erickson, J. Quality and the Nursing Assistant. Provider: The Magazine for Long-Term Care Professionals 13(4):4–6, 1987. Ettner, S.L. Do Elderly Medicaid Patients Experience Reduced Access to Nursing Home Care? Journal of Health Economics 11:259–280, 1993. Evans, D.A., Scherr, P.A., and Cook, N.R. Estimated Prevalence of Alzheimer's Disease in the United States. The Milbank Quarterly 68(2):267–289, 1990. Evans, L.K., and Strumpf, N.E. Tying Down the Elderly. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 37:65–74, 1989. Evans, L.K., and Strumpf, N.E. Reducing Restraints in Nursing Homes: A Clinical Trial. Paper presented at a special invitational session on Quality and Staffing in Nursing Homes sponsored by the National Institute for Nursing Research on behalf of the IOM study, and held in conjunction with the 1994 annual meeting of the Gerontology Society of America in Atlanta, November 1994. Everitt, D.E., Fields, D.R., Soumerai, S.S., and Avorn, J. Resident Behavior and Staff Distress in the Nursing Home. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 39:792–798, 1991.

OCR for page 209
--> Fagin, C.M., Marek, K.D., Krejci, J.W., and Amor, G.E. The Nursing Home Reform Act: Progress and Outcomes . Final Report. Grant identification no. 19584. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, 1995. Feder, J., and Scanlon, W. Case-Mix Payment for Nursing Home Care: Lessons from Maryland. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law 14(3):523–547, 1989. Feldstein, A., Valanis, B., Vollmer, W., et al. The Back Injury Prevention Project Pilot Study: Assessing the Effectiveness of "Back Attack," an Injury Prevention Program Among Nurses, Aides, and Orderlies. Journal of Occupational Medicine 35(2):114–120, 1993. Fielding, J., and Weaver, S.M. A Comparison of Hospital- And Community-Based Mental Health Nurses: Perceptions of their Work Environment and Psychological Health. Journal of Advanced Nursing 19(6):1196–1204, 1994. Folkemer, D. State Use of Home and Community-Based Services for the Aged Under Medicaid: Waiver Programs, Personal Care, Frail Elderly Services and Home Health Services. Washington, D.C.: Intergovernmental Health Policy Project, 1994. Foner, N. Nursing Home Aides: Saints or Monsters? The Gerontologist 34:245–250, 1994. Fottler, M.D., Smith, H.L., and James, W.L. Profits and Patient Care Quality in Nursing Homes: Are they Compatible? The Gerontologist 21:532–538, 1981. Foxall, M.J., Zimmerman, L., Standley, R., and Bene, B. A Comparison of Frequency and Sources of Nursing Job Stress Perceived by Intensive Care, Hospice and Medical-Surgical Nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing 15(5):577–584, 1990. Friedman, B. Economic Aspects of the Rationing of Nursing Home Beds. Journal of Human Resources 17:59–71, 1982. Fries, B.E., and Cooney, L. Resources Utilization Groups: A Patient Classification System for Long-term Care. Health Care Financing Review 23(2):110–122, 1985. Fries, B.E., Schneider, D., Foley, W., and Dowling, M. Case-Mix Classification of Medicare Residents in Skilled Nursing Facilities. Medical Care 9:843–858, 1989. Fries, B.E., Schneider, D., Foley, W., et al. Refining a Case-mix Measure for Nursing Homes: Resources Utilization Groups (RUGS-III). Medical Care 32:668–685, 1994. Ganroth, L. Long-term Care Resource Requirements Before and After the Prospective Payment System. Image: Journal of Nursing Scholarship 20(1):7–11, 1988. GAO (General Accounting Office). Medicaid: Methods for Setting Nursing Home Rates Should Be Improved. Report to the Secretary of HHS. Pub. no. HRD-86-26. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GAO, 1986. GAO. Medicare and Medicaid: Stronger Enforcement of Nursing Home Requirements Needed. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Special Committee on Aging, U.S. Senate. Pub. no. HRD-87-113. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GAO, July 1987. GAO. Long-term Care for the Elderly: Issues of Need, Access, and Cost. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Health and Long-term Care, Select Committee on Aging, U.S. House of Representatives. Pub. no. HRD-89-4. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GAO, November 1988a. GAO. Medicare: Improved Patient Outcome Analyses Could Enhance Quality Assessment. Report to the Ranking Minority Member, Special Committee on Aging, U.S. Senate. Pub. no. PEMD-88-23. Washington, D.C.: U.S. GAO, June 1988b. Garg, A., Owen, B.D., and Carlson, B. An Ergonomic Evaluation of Nursing Assistants' Job in a Nursing Home. Ergonomics 35(9):979–995, 1992. Garrett, B., Singiser, D., and Banks, S.M. Back Injuries Among Nursing Personnel: The Relationship of Personal Characteristics, Risk Factors, and Nursing Practices. AAOHN (American Association of Occupational Health Nursing) Journal 40(11):510–516, 1992. Geberding, J.L., Bryant-LeBlanc, C.E., Nelson, K., et al. Risk of Transmitting the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Cytomegalovirus, and Hepatitis B Virus to Health-Care Workers Exposed to Patients with AIDS and AIDS-related Conditions. Journal of Infectious Diseases 156:1–8, 1987.

OCR for page 209
--> Geron, S.M. Regulating the Behavior of Nursing Homes Through Positive Incentives: An Analysis of Illinois' Quality Incentive Program (QUIP). The Gerontologist 31:292–301, 1991. Gertler, P.J. Subsidies, Quality, and The Regulation of Nursing Homes. Journal of Public Economics 38:33–52, 1989. GHAA (Group Health Association of America). Patterns in HMO Enrollment. Washington, D.C.: GHAA, 1995. Girard, N. The Case Management Model of Patient Care Delivery. AORN (Association of Operating Room Nurses) Journal 60(3):403–405, 408–412, 415, 1994. Goetz, R.R., Bloom, J.D., Chenell, S.L., and Moorhead, J.C. Weapons Possession by Patients in a University Emergency Department. Annals of Emergency Medicine 20(1):8–10, 1991. Gold, D.R., Rogacz, S., Bock, N., et al. Rotating Shift Work, Sleep, and Accidents Related to Sleepiness in Hospital Nurses. American Journal of Public Health 82(7):1011–1013, 1992. Gold, M.F. Bridging the Salary Gap in Long-Term Care. Provider: The Magazine for Long- Term Care Professionals 21(4)42–46, 48, 1995. Goldin, G.J. The Influence of Self-Image upon the Performance of Nursing Home Staff. Nursing Homes 34:33–38, 1985. Goodman, R.A., Jenkins, E.L., and Mercy, J.A. Workplace-Related Homicide Among Health Care Workers in the United States, 1980 through 1990. Journal of the American Medical Association 272:1686–1688, 1994. Graber, D.R., and Sloane, P.D. Nursing Home Survey Deficiencies for Physical Restraint Use. Medical Care 33:1051–1063, 1995. Grady, G.F., Lee, V.A., Prince, A.M., et al. Hepatitis B Immune Globulin for Accidental Exposures Among Medical Personnel. Final Report of a Multicenter Controlled Trial. Journal of Infectious Diseases 138:625–638, 1978. Greene, V.L., and Monahan, D.J. Structure and Operational Factors Affecting Quality of Patient Care in Nursing Homes. Public Policy 29:399–415, 1981. Greenfield, S., Nelson, E.C., Zubkoff, M., et al. Variations in Resource Utilization Among Medical Specialties and Systems of Care: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study . Journal of the American Medical Association 267:1624–1630, 1992. Greenwood, J.G. Back Injuries Can be Reduced with Worker Training, Reinforcement. Occupational Health and Safety 55(5):26–29, 1986. Griffin, K.M., Leftwich, R.A., and Smith, M.S. Current Forces Shaping Long-term Care in the 1990s. The Journal of Long-Term Care Administration 17(3):8–11, 1989. Gurny, P., Hirsch, M.B., and Gondek, K.E. Chapter 11: A Description of Medicaid-Covered Services. Health Care Financing Review Annl. Suppl.:227–234, 1992. Gustafson, D.H., Sainfor, F.C., Van Konigsveld, R., and Zimmerman, D.R. The Quality Assessment Index (QAI) for Measuring Nursing Home Quality. HSR (Health Services Research) 25:97–127, 1990. Guterman, S., Eggers, P., Riley, G., et al. The First 3 Years of Medicare Prospective Payment: An Overview. Health Care Financing Review 9(3):67–77, 1988. Harber, P., Billet, E., Gutowski, M., et al. Occupational Low Back Pain in Hospital Nurses. Journal of Occupational Medicine 27(7):518–524, 1985. Hare, J., and Pratt, C. Burnout: Differences Between Professional and Paraprofessional Nursing Staff in Acute and Long-term Care Health Facilities. Journal of Applied Gerontology 7(1):60–71, 1988. Harrington, C., and Estes, C.L. Trends in Nursing Homes in the Post Medicare Prospective Payment Period. San Francisco: Institute for Health and Aging, 1989. Harrington, C., Preston S., Grant, L.A., and Swan, J.H. Revised Trends in States' Nursing Home Capacity. Health Affairs 11(2):170–180, 1992a. Harrington, C., Tompkins, C., Curtis, M., and Grant, L. Psychotropic Drug Use in Long-Term Care Facilities: A Review of the Literature. The Gerontologist 32:822–833, 1992b.

OCR for page 209
--> Harrington, C., Curtis, M., and DuNah, R., Jr. Trends in State Regulation of the Supply of Long-Term Care Services. Paper prepared for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Health Care Financing Administration. San Francisco: University of California, 1994a. Harrington, C., DuNah, R., Jr., and Bedney, B. The Supply of Community-Based Long-Term Care Services in 1992. Paper prepared for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Health Care Financing Administration. San Francisco: University of California, 1994b. Harrington, C., DuNah, R., Jr., and Curtis, M. State Variations and Trends in Preadmission Screening. Paper prepared for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Health Care Financing Administration. San Francisco: University of California, 1994c. Harrington, C., Thollaug, S.C., and Summers, P.R. Nursing Facilities, Staffing, Residents and Facility Deficiencies, 1991–93. Paper prepared for the Health Care Financing Administration. San Francisco: University of California, 1995. Harrington et al. 1993 State Data Book on Long-term Care Programs and Market Characteristics. Baltimore, Md.: Health Care Financing Administration, in press. Hartz, A., Krakauer, H., Kuhn, E., et al. Hospital Characteristics and Mortality Rates. New England Journal of Medicine 321:1720–1725, 1989. Hawes, C., and Phillips, C.D. The Changing Structure of the Nursing Home Industry and the Impact of Ownership on Quality, Cost, and Access. Pp. 492–538 in: Institute of Medicine. For-Profit Enterprise in Health Care. B.H. Gray, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1986. Hawkins, A.M., Burgio, L.D., Langford, A., and Engel, B.T. The Effects of Verbal and Written Supervisory Feedback on Staff Compliance with Assigned Prompted Voiding in a Nursing Home. Journal of Organizational Behavior Management 13:137–150, 1992. Hawley, M.P. Sources of Stress for Emergency Nurses in Four Urban Canadian Emergency Departments. Journal of Emergency Nursing 18(3):211–216, 1992. Hay, D.G. Health Care Services in 100 Superior Nursing Homes. Long-term Care and Health Services Administration Quarterly 1:300–313, 1977. HCFA (Health Care Financing Administration). State Medicaid Manual. Part 2, State Organization and General Administration. Transmittal no. 79. Pub. no. 45-2. Washington, D.C.: HCFA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1992a. HCFA. Medicaid spDATA System. Characteristics of Medicaid State Programs. Volume 1. National Comparisons. Pub. no. 02178. Washington, D.C.: Medicaid Bureau, HCFA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1992b. HCFA. Medicare and Medicaid Programs: Survey, Certification, and Enforcement of Skilled Nursing Facilities and Nursing Facilities. Final Rule. 42 CFR Part 401. Federal Register 59(217):56116–56252, 1994a. HCFA. Report to Congress on Nursing Facility Staffing Requirements. Washington, D.C.: Medicaid Bureau, HCFA, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1994b. HCIA and Arthur Andersen. The Guide to the Nursing Home Industry. Baltimore, Md.: HCIA, Inc., and Arthur Andersen and Company, 1994. Hegyvary, S.T. Issues in Outcomes Research. Journal of Nursing Quality Assurance 5(2):1–6, 1991. Heine, C.A. Burnout Among Nursing Home Personnel. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 12(3):14–18, 1986. Henderson, D.K., Fahey, B.J., Willy, M., et al. Risk for Occupational Transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1) Associated with Clinical Exposures: A Prospective Evaluation. Annals of Internal Medicine 113(10):740–746, 1990. Hing, E. Effects of the Prospective Payment System on Nursing Homes. PHS-89-1759. Hyattsville, Md.: National Center for Health Statistics, 1989. Hiscott, R.D., and Connop, P.J. The Health and Well-Being of Mental Health Professionals. Canadian Journal of Public Health 81(6):422–426, 1990.

OCR for page 209
--> Holahan, J. Nursing Home Care Under Alternative Patient-Related Reimbursement Systems. Washington, D.C.: The Urban Institute, 1984. Holahan, J., and Cohen, J. Nursing Home Reimbursement: Implications for Cost Containment, Access, and Quality. Milbank Quarterly 65(1):112–147, 1987. Holahan, J., and Sulvetta, M.B. Assessing Medicare Reimbursement Options for Skilled Nursing Facility Care. Health Care Financing Review 10(3):13–27, 1989. Holahan, J., Rowland, D., Feder, J., and Heslam, D. Explaining the Recent Growth in Medicaid Spending. Health Affairs 12(3):177–193, 1993. Hospital and Healthcare Compensation Service. The 1994–1995 Home Care Salary and Benefits Report. Oakland, N.J.: Hospital and Healthcare Compensation Service, 1994. HRSA (Health Resources and Services Administration, Public Health Service). Health Personnel in the United States: Eighth Report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: Bureau of Health Professions, HRSA, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1992. HRSA. Trends in Hospital Personnel: 1983–1990. Pub. no. HRSA-P-OD-93-1. Washington, D.C.: HRSA, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, September, 1993. HRSA. 1991 National Employment Estimates of Selected Health Care Personnel in Home Health Care Agencies, Hospices, Nursing Homes, and Board and Care (Residential) Homes. Data from the 1991 National Health Provider Inventory. Unpublished report . Washington, D.C.: Division of Nursing, Bureau of Health Professions, HRSA, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1994. Hu, T., Huang, L., and Cartwright, W.S. Differences Among Black, Hispanic, and White People in Knowledge about Long-Term Care Services. Health Care Financing Review 2:51–67, 1986. Husted, G.L., Miller, M.C., and Wilczynski, E.M. Retention Is the Goal: Extinguish Burnout with Self-Esteem Enhancement. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing 20(6):244–248, 1989. ICONS (Interagency Conference on Nursing Statistics). Research on Nursing Resources: Definitions and Calculations. Photocopied document, June, 1993. Iezzoni, L.I., Foley, S.M., Heeren, T., et al. A Method for Screening the Quality of Hospital Care Using Administrative Data: Preliminary Validation Results. QRB (Quality Review Bulletin) 18:361–371, 1992. Iezzoni, L.I., Daley, J., Heeren, T., et al. Using Administrative Data to Screen Hospitals for High Complication Rates. Inquiry 31:40–55, 1994. Immigration Nursing Relief Advisory Committee. Report to the Secretary of Labor on the Immigration Nursing Relief Act of 1989. Washington, D.C.: Office of the Assistant Secretary for Policy, Department of Labor, 1995. IOM (Institute of Medicine). For-Profit Enterprise in Health Care. B.H. Gray, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1986a. IOM. Improving the Quality of Care in Nursing Homes. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1986b. IOM. Allied Health Services: Avoiding Crises. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1989. IOM. Medicare: A Strategy for Quality Assurance, volumes I and II. K.N. Lohr, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1990. IOM. Real People, Real Problems: An Evaluation of the Long-term Care Ombudsman Programs of the Older Americans Act. J. Harris-Wehling, J.C. Feasley, and C.L. Estes, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1995. IOM. Best at Home: Assuring Quality of Long-term Care in Home- and Community-based Settings. J.C. Feasley, ed. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1996. Jagger, J. Preventing HIV Transmission in Health Care Workers with Safer Needle Devices. In Proceedings and Abstracts of the Sixth International Conference on AIDS, San Francisco, June 20–24, 1990, p. 99. University of California at San Francisco, 1990.

OCR for page 209
--> JCAHO. 1995 Comprehensive Accreditation Manual for Hospitals: Standards, Scoring Guidelines, Aggregation Rules, Decision Rules. Oakbrook Terrace, Ill.: JCAHO, 1994. Jensen, R.C. Back Injuries Among Nursing Personnel: Research Needs and Justifications. Research in Nursing and Health 10:29–38, 1987. Johnson, C. Coping with Compassion Fatigue. Nursing 22(4):116–119, 1992. Johnson-Pawlson, J. The Relationship Between Nursing Staff Variables and Quality of Care in Nursing Homes. UMI Dissertation Services. O.N. 9316112, 1993. Johnson-Pawlson, J. Study of Surveyor Performance. Final Report Prepared for the American Health Care Association, December, 1994. Jorgensen, S., Hein, H.O., and Gyntelberg, F. Heavy Lifting at Work and Risk of Genital Prolapse and Herniated Lumbar Disc in Assistant Nurses. Occupational Medicine 44(1):47–49, 1994. Justice, D. State Long-Term Care Reform: Development of Community Care Systems in Six States. Washington, D.C.: National Governors' Association, April, 1988. Kahn, K.L., Keeler, E.B., Sherwood, M.J., et al. Comparing Outcomes of Care Before and After Implementation of the DRG-Based Prospective Payment System. Journal of the American Medical Association 264:1984–1988, 1990a. Kahn, K.L., Rogers, W.H., Rubenstein, L.V., et al. Measuring Quality of Care with Explicit Process Criteria Before and After Implementation of the DRG-Based Prospective Payment System. Journal of the American Medical Association 264:1969–1973, 1990b. Kahn, K.L., Rubenstein, L.V., Draper, D., et al. The Effects of the DRG-Based Prospective Payment System on Quality of Care for Hospitalized Medicare Patients. An Introduction to the Series. Journal of the American Medical Association 264:1953–1955, 1990c. Kanda, K., and Mezey, M. Registered Nurse Staffing in Pennsylvania Nursing Homes: Comparison Before and After Implementation of Medicare's Prospective Payment System. The Gerontologist 31:318–324, 1991. Kandolin, I. Burnout of Female and Male Nurses in Shift work. Ergonomics 36(1–3):141–147, 1993. Kane, R.A. Assessing Quality in Nursing Homes. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine 4:655–666, 1988. Kane, R.A. Expanding the Home Care Concept: Blurring Distinctions Among Home Care, Institutional Care, and Other Long-Term-Care Services. Milbank Quarterly 73(2):161–186, 1995. Kane, R.L. Improving the Quality of Long-term Care. Journal of the American Medical Association 273:1376–1380, 1995. Kane, R.A., and Kane, R.L. Long-term Care: Variations on a Quality Assurance Theme. Inquiry 25:132–146, 1988. Kane, R.A., Kane R.L., Arnold, S., et al. Geriatric Nurse Practitioners as Nursing Home Employees: Implementing the Role. The Gerontologist 28:469–477, 1988. Kane, R.L., Jorgenson, L.A., Teteberg, B., and Kuwahara, J. Is Good Nursing Home Care Feasible? Journal of the American Medical Association 235:516–519, 1976. Kane, R.L., Bell, R., Riegler, S., et al. Assessing the Outcomes of Nursing Home Patients. Journal of Gerontology 38(4):385–393, 1983. Kayser-Jones, J. The Use of Nasogastric Feeding Tubes in Nursing Homes: Patient, Family and Health Care Provider Perspectives. The Gerontologist 30:469–479, 1990. Kayser-Jones, J.S., Wiener, C.L., and Barbaccia, J.C. Factors Contributing to the Hospitalization of Nursing Home Residents. The Gerontologist 29:502–510, 1989. Keeler, E.B., Kahn, K.L., Draper, D., et al. Changes in Sickness at Admission Following the Introduction of the Prospective Payment System. Journal of the American Medical Association 264:1962–1968, 1990. Keeler, E.B., Rubenstein, L.V., Kahn, K.L., et al. Hospital Characteristics and Quality of Care. Journal of the American Medical Association 268:1709–1714, 1992. Kemper, P., and Murtaugh, C.M. Lifetime Use of Nursing Home Care. New England Journal of Medicine 324:595–600, 1991.

OCR for page 209
--> Kennedy, L., Neidlinger, S., and Scroggins, K. Effective Comprehensive Discharge Planning for Hospitalized Elderly. The Gerontologist 27(5):577–580, 1987. Kichen, S. Annual Report on American Industry. Forbes 155(1):122–125, January 2, 1995. Knaus, W.A., Draper, E.A., Wagner, D.P., and Zimmerman, J.E. An Evaluation of Outcome from Intensive Care in Major Medical Centers. Annals of Internal Medicine 104(3):410–418, 1986. Koerner, J. Differentiated Practice: The Evolution of Professional Nursing. Journal of Professional Nursing 8:335–341, 1992. Koetting, M. Nursing Home Organization and Efficiency. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, 1980. Kosciesza, I. What's Ahead in the Post-Health Planning Era? Health Policy Week Special Report (June 1):1–5, 1987. Kosecoff, J., Kahn, K.L., Rogers, W.H., et al. Prospective Payment System and Impairment at Discharge: The Quicker-and-Sicker Story Revisited. Journal of the American Medical Association 264:1980–1983, 1990. Kramer, M., and Schmalenberg, C. Magnet Hospitals: Part I: Institutions of Excellence. Journal of Nursing Administration 18(1):13–24, 1988a. Kramer, M., and Schmalenberg, C. Magnet Hospitals: Part II: Institutions of Excellence. Journal of Nursing Administration 18(2):11–19, 1988b. Krapohl, G., and Larson, E. Utilization of Unlicensed Assistive Personnel in Nursing Care Delivery: Examination, Evaluation and Recommendations for the Future . Submitted for publication, 1995. Kravitz, R.L., Greenfield, S., Rogers, W., et al. Differences in the Mix of Patients Among Medical Specialties and Systems of Care: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 267:1617–1623, 1992. Kruzich, J.M., Clinton, J.F., and Kelber, S.T. Personal and Environmental Influences on Nursing Home Satisfaction. The Gerontologist 32:342–350, 1992. Lachs, M.S., and Pillemer, K. Abuse and Neglect of Elderly Persons. New England Journal of Medicine 332:437–443, 1995. Lanza, M.L. The Reactions of Nursing Staff to Physical Assault by a Patient. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 34(1):44–47, 1983. Larese, F., and Fiorito, A. Musculoskeletal Disorders in Hospital Nurses: A Comparison Between Two Hospitals. Ergonomics 37(7):1205–1211, 1994. LaRocco, J.M., House, J.S., and French, J.R.P., Jr. Social Support, Occupational Stress, and Health. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 21:202–218, 1980. Larson, P.F., Osterweis, M., and Rubin, E.R., eds. Health Workforce Issues for the 21st Century. Washington, D.C.: Association of Academic Health Centers, 1994. Lathrop, J.P. The Patient-focused Hospital. Healthcare Forum Journal 35(3):76–78, 1992. Latta, V.B., and Keene, R.E. Use and Cost of Skilled Nursing Facility Services Under Medicare, 1987. Health Care Financing Review 11(1):105–116, 1989. Lavoie, F., Carter, G.L., Danzl, D.F., and Berg, R.L. Emergency Department Violence in United States Teaching Hospitals. Annals of Emergency Medicine 17(11):1227–1233, 1988. Letsch, S.W., Lazenby, H.C., Levit, L.R., and Cowan, C.A. National Health Expenditures, 1991. Health Care Financing Review 14(2):1–30, 1992. Levit, K.R., Sensenig, A.L., Cowan, C.A., et al. National Health Expenditures, 1993. Health Care Financing Review 16(1):247–294, 1994. Lewin/ICF. Synthesis of Medicaid Reimbursement Options for Nursing Home Care. Submitted to the Health Care Financing Administration. Washington, D.C.: Lewin/ICF, 1991. Lewin-VHI. Nursing Care Report Card for Acute Care. Report prepared for the American Nurses Association. Washington, D.C.: American Nurses Publishing, 1995. Lewis, M., Kane, R., Cretin, S., and Clark, V. The Immediate and Subsequent Outcomes of Nursing Home Care. American Journal of Public Health 75(7):758–762, 1985.

OCR for page 209
--> Libow, L.S., and Starer, P. Care of the Nursing Home Patient. New England Journal of Medicine 321:93–96, 1989. Linn, M.W., Gurel, L., and Linn, B.S. Patient Outcome as a Measure of Quality of Nursing Home Care. American Journal of Public Health 67:337–344, 1977. Lipscomb, J.A., and Love, C.C. Violence Toward Health Care Workers: An Emerging Occupational Hazard. AAOHN (American Association of Occupational Health Nursing) Journal 40(5):219–227, 1992. Lipson, L., and Laudicina, S. State Home and Community-Based Services for the Aged Under Medicaid: Waiver Programs, Optional Services Under the Medicaid State Plan, and OBRA 1990 Provisions for a New Optional Benefit. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Retired Persons, 1991. Lucas, M.D., Atwood, J.R., and Hagaman, R. Replication and Validation of Anticipated Turnover Model for Urban Registered Nurses. Nursing Research 42(1):29–35, 1993. Lurie, N., Moscovice, I.S., Finch, M., et al. Does Capitation Affect the Health of the Chronically Mentally Ill? Journal of the American Medical Association 267:3300–3304, 1992. Lusk, S.L. Violence Experienced by Nurses' Aides in Nursing Homes: An Exploratory Study. AAOHN (American Association of Occupational Health Nursing) Journal 40(5):237–242, 1992. Lutz, S. Let's Make a Deal: Healthcare Mergers, Acquisitions Take Place at Dizzying Pace. Modern Healthcare 24(51):47–52, 1994. Lyles, Y. Impact of Medicare DRGs on Nursing Homes in the Portland Oregon Metropolitan Area. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 34(8):573–578, 1986. Lyman, K.A. Work-Related Stress for Staff in an Alzheimer's Day Care Center: The Effects of Physical Environments. Paper presented at the 40th annual meeting of The Gerontological Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1987. Maas, M., Buckwalter, K., Kelley, L., and Stolley, J. Family Members' Perceptions: How They View Care of Alzheimer's Patients in a Nursing Home. Journal of Long-Term Care Administration 19(1):21–25, 1991. Maas, M., Buckwalter, K., Swanson, E., et al. The Caring Partnership: Staff and Families of Persons Institutionalized with Alzheimer's Disease. Journal of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders 9(6):21–30, 1994. MacNeil, J.M., and Weisz, G.M. Critical Care Nursing Stress: Another Look. Heart and Lung: The Journal of Critical Care 16(3):274–277, 1987. Manthey, M. Primary Practice Partners: A Nurse Extender System. Nursing Management 19(3):58–59, 1988. Manthey, M. Practice Partners: Humanizing Healthcare. Nursing Management 23(5):18–19, 1992. Manton, K.G., Corder, L.S., and Stallard, E. Estimates of Change in Chronic Disability and Institutional Incidence and Prevalence Rates in the U.S. Elderly Population from the 1982, 1984, and 1989 National Long-Term Care Survey. Journal of Gerontology 48(4):S153–S165, 1993. Maraldo, P.J. Quality in Long-term Care. Pp. 1–11 in: Mechanisms of Quality in Long-term Care: Service and Clinical Outcomes. Pub. no. 41–2382. New York: National League for Nursing Press, 1991. Marchette, L., and Marchette, B. Back Injury: A Preventable Occupational Hazard. Orthopedic Nursing 4(6):25–29, 1985. Marcus, R. CDC Cooperative Needlestick Study Group: Surveillance of Health-care Workers Exposed to Blood from Patients Infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. New England Journal of Medicine 319:1118–1123, 1988. Marcus, R.A., Tokars, J.I., Culver, P.S., and McKibben, D.M. Zidovudine Use After Occupational Exposure to HIV-infected Blood. Abstract no. 979. Presented by R.A. Marcus at the 1991 31st Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy (ICAAC), Chicago, 1991. Masterson-Allen, S., Mor, V., and Laliberte, L. Turnover in National Hospice Study Sites: A Reflection of Organizational Growth. Hospital Journal 3(2–3):147–164, 1987.

OCR for page 209
--> McAbee, R. Nursing and Back Injuries. AAOHN (American Association of Occupational Health Nursing Journal) 36:200–209, 1988. McCorkle, R., Benoliel, J.Q., Donaldson, G., et al. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Home Nursing Care for Lung Cancer Patients . Cancer 64:1375–1382, 1989. McCulloch, L.E., McNeil, D.E., Binder, R.L., and Hatcher, C. Effects of a Weapon Screening Procedure in a Psychiatric Emergency Room. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 37:837–838, 1986. McDonald, C.A. Recruitment, Retention, and Recognition of Frontline Workers in Long-Term Care. Generations XVIII(3):41–49, 1994. McEvoy, M., Porter, K., Mortimer, P., et al. Prospective Study of Clinical, Laboratory, and Ancillary Staff with Accidental Exposures to Blood or Body Fluids from Patients Infected with HIV. British Medical Journal 294:1595–1598, 1987. Meddaugh, D.I. Staff Abuse by the Nursing Home Patient. The Clinical Gerontologist 6:45–47, 1987. Meiners, M., Thornburn, P., Roddy, P., and Jones, B. Nursing Home Admissions: The Results of an Incentive Reimbursement Experiment. Long-Term Care Studies Program Research Report. PHS 86–3397. Rockville, Md.: National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment, 1985. Mendelson, D.N., and Arnold, J. Certificate of Need Revisited. Spectrum (Winter):36–44, 1993. Mezey, M.D. Institutional Care: Caregivers and Quality. Pp. 155–166 in: Indices of Quality in Long-Term Care: Research and Practice. Pub. no. 20–2292. New York: National League for Nursing Press, 1989. Mezey, M.D. Presentation at a special invitational session on Quality and Staffing in Nursing Homes sponsored by the National Institute for Nursing Research on behalf of the IOM study, and held in conjunction with the 1994 annual meeting of the Gerontology Society of America in Atlanta, November 1994. Mezey, M.D., and Lynaugh, J.E. The Teaching Nursing Home Program: Outcomes of Care. Nursing Clinics of North America 24(3):769–780, 1989. Mezey, M.D., and Lynaugh, J.E. Teaching Nursing Home Program: A Lesson in Quality. Geriatric Nursing (March/April):76–77, 1991. Mezey, M.D., and Scanlon, W. Registered Nurses in Nursing Homes: Secretary's Commission of Nursing. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1988. Miller, N.A. Medicaid 2176 Home and Community-Based Care Waivers: The First Ten Years. Health Affairs 11(4):162–171, 1992. Miller, R.H., and Luft, H.S. Managed Care Plan Performance since 1980: A Literature Analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association 271:1512–1519, 1994. Mitchell, P.H., Armstrong, S., Simpson, T.F., and Lentz, M. American Association of Critical-Care Nurses Demonstration Project: Profile of Excellence in Critical Care Nursing. Heart and Lung: The Journal of Critical Care 18:219–237, 1989. Mobily, P.R., Maas, M.L., Buckwalter, K.C., and Kelley, L.S. Taking Care of the Caregivers: Staff Stress and Burnout on a Special Alzheimer's Unit. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing 30(9):25–31, 1992. Mohler, M. Combined Federal and State Nursing Services Staffing Standards. Washington, D.C.: National Committee to Preserve Social Security and Medicare, 1993. Mor, V. Invest in your frontline worker: Commentary. The Brown University Long-term Care Quality Letter 7(1):4–5, 1995. Moritz, P. Outcomes Research: Examining Clinical Effectiveness. Communicating Nursing Research 28 (3):113–137, 1995. Morris, J.N., Hawes, C., Fries, B.E., et al. Designing the National Resident Assessment Instrument for Nursing Homes. The Gerontologist 30:293–307, 1990.

OCR for page 209
--> Morrisey, M.A., Sloan, F.A., and Valvona, J. Medicare Prospective Payment and Posthospital Transfers to Subacute Care. Medical Care 26:685–698, 1988. Moses, E.B. The Registered Nurse Population. Findings from the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, March 1988. Washington, D.C.: Division of Nursing, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1990. Moses, E.B. The Registered Nurse Population. Findings from the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses, March 1992. Washington, D.C.: Division of Nursing, Bureau of Health Professions, Health Resources and Services Administration, Public Health Service, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1994. Munroe, D.J. The Influence of Registered Nursing Staffing on the Quality of Nursing Home Care. Research in Nursing and Health 13(4):263–270, 1990. Murtaugh, C.M., Kemper, P., and Spillman, B.C. The Risk of Nursing Home Use in Later Life. Medical Care 28:952–962, 1990. NAHC (National Association for Home Care). Basic Statistics About Home Care, 1992. Washington, D.C.: NAHC, 1993. Naylor, M.D. Comprehensive Discharge Planning for Hospitalized Elderly: A Pilot Study. Nursing Research 39(3):156–161, 1990. Naylor, M., Brooten, D., Jones, R., et al. Comprehensive Discharge Planning for the Hospitalized Elderly: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Annals of Internal Medicine 120:999–1006, 1994. NCCNHR (National Citizens Coalition for Nursing Home Reform). Consumer Statement of Principles for the Nursing Home Regulatory System—State Licensure and Federal Certification Programs. Washington, D.C.: NCCNHR, 1983. NCHS (National Center for Health Statistics). Nursing Home Characteristics: Preliminary Data From the 1985 National Nursing Home Survey. Prepared by G. Strahan. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, no. 131. Hyattsville, Md.: NCHS, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1987. NCHS. Characteristics of Registered Nurses in Nursing Homes: Preliminary Data from the 1985 National Nursing Home Survey. Advanced Data from Vital and Health Statistics, no. 152. Prepared by G. Strahan. Hyattsville, Md.: NCHS, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1988. NCHS. An Overview of Home Health and Hospice Care Patients: Preliminary Data from the 1993 Home Health and Hospice Care Survey. Prepared by G. Strahan. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, no. 256. Hyattsville, Md.: NCHS, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993a. NCHS. Vital Statistics of the United States, 1989. Vol. II, Mortality, part A. Hyattsville, Md.: NCHS, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993b. NCHS. Nursing Homes and Board and Care Homes: Data From the 1991 National Health Provider Inventory. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics, no. 244. Prepared by A. Sirrocco. Hyattsville, Md.: NCHS, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1994. Neidlinger, S.H., Scroggins, K., and Kennedy, L.M. Cost Evaluation of Discharge Planning for Hospitalized Elderly. Nursing Economics 5(7):225–230, 1987. Neu, C.R., and Harrison, S.C. Posthospital Care Before and After the Medicare Prospective Payment System. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation, 1988. Neuberger, J.S., Kammerdiener, A.M., and Wood, C. Traumatic Injuries Among Medical Center Employees. American Association of Occupational Health Nursing Journal 36(8):318–325, 1988. NLN (National League for Nursing) Division of Research. Nursing Datasource 1994: Volume I, Trends in Contemporary Nursing Education. Pub. no. 19–2642. New York: NLN Press, 1994a.

OCR for page 209
--> NLN Division of Research. Nursing Datasource 1994: Volume III, Focus on Practical/Vocational Nursing. Pub. no. 19–2644. New York: NLN Press, 1994b. NLN Division of Research. Profiles of the Newly Licensed Nurse: Historical Trends and Future Implications, second ed. Prepared by P. Rosenfeld. Pub. no. 19–2530. New York: NLN Press, 1994c. NLN Division of Research. Nursing Datasource 1995: Volume I, Trends in Contemporary Nursing Education. Pub. no. 19–6649. New York: NLN Press, 1995. Norton, E.C. Incentive Regulation of Nursing Homes. Journal of Health Economics 11:105–128, 1992. Nyman, J.A. Prospective and ''Cost-Plus" Medicaid Reimbursement, Excess Medicaid Demand, and the Quality of Nursing Home Care. Journal of Health Economics 4:237–259, 1985. Nyman, J.A. The Effect of Competition on Nursing Home Expenditures Under Prospective Reimbursement. HSR (Health Services Research) 23:555, 1988a. Nyman, J.A. Improving the Quality of Nursing Home Outcomes: Are Adequacy-or Incentive-Oriented Policies More Effective. Medical Care 26(12):1158–1171, 1988b. Nyman, J.A. Analysis of Nursing Home Use and Bed Supply, Wisconsin, 1983. HSR (Health Services Research) 24:511–538, 1989a. Nyman, J.A. Excess Demand, Consumer Rationality, and the Quality of Care in Regulated Nursing Homes. HSR (Health Services Research) 24:105–127, 1989b. Nyman, J.A., Breaker, D.L., and Link, D. Technical Efficiency in Nursing Home. Medical Care 28:541–551, 1990. OASH (Office of the Assistant Secretary of Health). Registered Nurse Chart Book. Washington, D.C.: OASH, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1994. Oehler, J.M., Davidson, M.G., Starr, L.E., and Lee, D.A. Burnout, Job Stress, Anxiety, and Perceived Social Support in Neonatal Nurses. Heart and Lung 20(5):500–505, 1991. Oermann, M. Professional Nursing Education in the Future: Changes and Challenges. JOGNN (Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing) 23:153–159, 1994a. Oermann, M. Reforming Nursing Education for Future Practice. Journal of Nursing Education 33:215–219, 1994b. OIG (Office of the Inspector General). State Progress in Carrying Out the Nursing Home Survey Reforms. OEI–01–91–01580. Washington, D.C.: OIG, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1993. O'Brien, J., Saxberg, B.O., and Smith, H.L. For-Profit or Not-For-Profit Nursing Homes: Does It Matter? The Gerontologist 23:341–348, 1983. OTA (Office of Technology Assessment). Biological Rhythms: Implications for the Worker. Pub. no. OTA–BA–463. Washington, D.C.: OTA, U.S. Congress, September 1991. Ouslander, J., and Kane, R. The Costs of Urinary Incontinence in Nursing Homes. Medical Care 22:69–79, 1984. Ouslander, J.G, Kane, R.L., and Abrass, I.B. Urinary Incontinence in Elderly Nursing Home Patients. Journal of the American Medical Association 248:1194–1198, 1982. Owen, B.D. The Lifting Process and Back Injury in Hospital Nursing Personnel. Western Journal of Nursing Research 7(4):445–459, 1985. Owen, B.D. Low Back Problems in Nursing. Western Journal of Nursing Research April, 1989. Patchner, M.A and Patchner, L.S. Essential Staffing for Improved Nursing Home Care: The Permanent Assignment Model. Nursing Homes and Senior Citizen Care 42(4):37–39, 1993. Pearson, L.J. Annual Update of How Each State Stands on Legislative Issues Affecting Advanced Nursing Practice . Nurse Practitioner 20(1):13–14, 16–18, 21–22, 1995. Penner, L.A., Luderria, K., and Mead, G. Staff Attitudes: Image or Reality. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 10:110–117, 1984. Peppard, N. Alzheimer's Special Care Nursing Home Units. Nursing Homes 34(5):25–28, 1984.

OCR for page 209
--> Phillips, C.D., Hawes, C., and Fries, B.E. Reducing the Use of Physical Restraints in Nursing Homes: Will it Increase Costs? American Journal of Public Health 83(3):342–348, 1993. Phillips, C.D., Mor, V., Hawes, C. et al. Development of Resident Assessment System and Data Base for Nursing Home Residents. Executive Summary of Implementation Report submitted to the Health Standards and Quality Bureau, Health Care Financing Administration, under contract no. 500–88–0055, January, 1994. Phillips, J.A., and Brown, K.C. Industrial Workers on a Rotating Shift Pattern: Adaptation and Injury Status. AAOHN (American Association of Occupational Health Nursing) Journal 40(10):468–476, 1992. Pillemer, K. Maltreatment of Patients in Nursing Homes: Overview and Research Agenda. Journal of Health and Social Behavior 29:227–238, 1988. Pillemer, K., and Hudson, B. A Model Abuse Prevention Program for Nursing Assistants. The Gerontologist 33(1):128–131, 1993. Pines, A., and Maslach, C. Characteristics of Staff Burnout in Mental Health Settings. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 29:233–237, 1978. Poster, E.C., and Ryan, J.A. Nurses Attitudes Toward Physical Assaults by Patients. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing 3(6):315–322, 1989. Prescott, P.A. Nursing: An Important Component of Hospital Survival under a Reformed Health Care System. Nursing Economics 11(4):192–199, 1993. ProPAC (Prospective Payment Assessment Commission). Medicare and the American Health Care System: Report to Congress. Washington, D.C.: ProPAC, 1994. ProPAC. Report and Recommendations to the Congress, March 1, 1995. Washington, D.C.: ProPAC, 1995. Ray, G.L., and Hardin, S. Advanced Practice Nursing: Playing a Vital Role. Nursing Management 26(2):45–47, 1995. Reagan, J. Management of Nurse's Aides in Long-Term Care Settings. Journal of Long-Term Care Administration 14:9–14, 1986. Rees, D., and Cooper, C.L. Occupational Stress in Health Service Workers in the UK. Stress Medicine 8(2):79–90, 1992. Ribeiro, B.J., and Smith, S.R. Evaluation of Urinary Catheterization and Urinary Incontinence in a General Nursing Home Population. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 33(7):479–482, 1985. Robertson, J.F., Herth, K.A., and Cummings, C.C. Long-term Care: Retention of Nurses. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 20(11):4–10, 1994. Rodgers, S. Back Pain Four: Positive Lifting. Nursing Times 81:43–45, 1985. Rogers, W.H., Draper, D., Kahn, K.L., et al. Quality of Care Before and After Implementation of the DRG-Based Prospective Payment System: A Summary of Effects. Journal of the American Medical Association 264:1989–1994, 1990. Rohrer, J.E., Buckwalter, K.C., and Russell, D.W. The Effects of Mental Dysfunction on Nursing Home Care. Social Science and Medicine 28(4):399–403, 1989. Rubenstein, L.V., Kahn, K.L., Reinisch, E.J., et al. Changes in Quality of Care for Five Diseases Measured by Implicit Review, 1981 to 1986. Journal of the American Medical Association 264:1974–1979, 1990. Rubin, H.R., Gandek, B., Rogers, W.H., et al. Patients' Ratings of Outpatient Visits in Different Practice Settings: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 270:835–840, 1993. Rudder, C. New York State's Nursing Home Industry: Profit, Losses, Expenditures and Quality. New York: Nursing Home Community Coalition of New York State, 1994. Rudman, D., Alverno, L., and Mattson, D.E. A Comparison of Physically Aggressive Behavior in Two VA Nursing Homes. Hospital and Community Psychiatry 44(6):571–575, 1993.

OCR for page 209
--> Russell, L.C. Cost containment of modified radical mastectomy: The impact of the clinical nurse specialist. ETHICON 26(3):18–19, 1989. Ryden, M.B., Bossenmaier, M., and McLachlan, C. Aggressive Behavior in Cognitively Impaired Nursing Home Residents. Research in Nursing and Health 14(2):87–95, 1991. Safran, D.G., Tarlov, A.R., and Rogers, W.H. Primary Care Performance in Fee-for-Service and Prepaid Health Care Systems: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 271:1579–1586, 1994. Satinsky, M.A. An Executive Guide to Case Management Strategies. Chicago: American Hospital Association Publishing, 1995. Schieber, G., Wiener, J., Liu, K., and Doty, P. Prospective Payment for Medicare Skilled Nursing Facilities: Background and Issues. Health Care Financing Review 8(1):79–85, 1986. Schlenker, R.E. Comparison of Medicaid Nursing Home Payment Systems. Health Care Financing Review 13(1):93–109, 1991a. Schlenker, R.E. Nursing Home Costs, Medicaid Rates, and Profits Under Alternative Medicaid Payment Systems. HSR (Health Services Research) 26:623–649, 1991b. Schlenker, R.E., Shaughnessy, P.W., and Yslas, I. Estimating Patient-Level Nursing Home Costs. HSR (Health Services Research) 20:103–128, 1985. Schneider, E.L., and Guralnik, J.M. The Aging of America. Impact on Health Care Costs. Journal of the American Medical Association 263(17):2354–2355, 1990. Schneider, D.P., Fries, B.E., Foley, W.J., et al. Case Mix for Nursing Home Payment: Resource Utilization Groups, Version II. Health Care Financing Review Annl. Suppl.:39–52, 1988. Schnelle, J. Treatment of Urinary Incontinence in Nursing Home Patients by Prompted Voiding. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 38:256–360, 1990. Schnelle, J. Presentation at a special invitational session on Quality and Staffing in Nursing Homes sponsored by the National Institute for Nursing Research on behalf of the IOM study, and held in conjunction with the 1994 annual meeting of the Gerontology Society of America in Atlanta, November 1994. Schnelle, J.F., Newman, D.R., and Fogarty, T. Management of Patient Continence in Long- Term Care Nursing Facilities. The Gerontologist 30:373–376, 1990. Schultz, B.M., Ward, D., and Knickman, J.R. RUG-II Impacts on Long-term Care Facilities in New York. Health Care Financing Review 16(2):85–99, 1994. Scott, W., and Shortell, S. Organizational Performance: Managing for Efficiency and Effectiveness. In: S. Shortell, and A. Kaluzny, eds. Health Care Management: A Text in Organizational Theory and Behavior. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1983. Seeff, L.B., Wright, E.C., Zimmerman, H.J., et al. Type B Hepatitis After Needlestick Exposure: Prevention with Hepatitis B Immunoglobulin. Final Report of the Veterans Administration Cooperative Study. Annals of Internal Medicine 88:285–293, 1978. SEIU (Service Employees International Union). Back Injuries Among Nursing Home Workers in Pennsylvania: A Crippling Epidemic. Washington, D.C.: SEIU, AFL-CIO, CLC, 1991. SEIU. The National Nurse Survey: 10,000 Dedicated Healthcare Professionals Report on Staffing, Stress and Patient Care in U.S. Hospitals and Nursing Homes. Washington, D.C.: SEIU, AFL-CIO, CLC, 1993. SEIU. Caring Til it Hurts: How Nursing Home Work Is Becoming the Most Dangerous Job in America. Washington, D.C.: SEIU, AFL-CIO, CLC, 1994. SEIU. Falling Short: The Staffing Crisis in Beverly Enterprises' Texas Nursing Homes and the Need for a Minimum Standard. Washington, D.C.: SEIU, AFL-CIO, CLC, 1995a. SEIU. System Breakdown: How Quality Assurance Failed at Beverly Enterprises, the Nation's Largest Nursing Home Operator. Washington, D.C.: SEIU, AFL-CIO, CLC, 1995b. Shaughnessy, P., and Kramer, A. The Increased Needs of Patients in Nursing Homes and Patients Receiving Home Health Care. New England Journal of Medicine 322:21–27, 1990.

OCR for page 209
--> Shaughnessy, P.W., Schlenker, R.E., and Kramer, A.M. Quality of Long-term Care in Nursing Homes and Swing-Bed Hospitals. HSR (Health Services Research) 25:65–96, 1990. Shelley, G.A., and Howard, R.J. A National Survey of Surgeons' Attitudes About Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Archives of Surgery 127(2):206–211, 1992. Sheridan, J., Hogstel, M., and Fairchild, T.J. Organization Climate in Nursing Homes: Its Impact on Nursing Leadership and Patient Care. Pp. 90–94 in: L.R. Jouch and J.L. Wall, eds. Best Papers Proceedings 1990. San Francisco: Academy of Management, 1990. Shortell, S.M., and Hughes, E.F.X. The Effects of Regulation, Competition, and Ownership on Mortality Rates Among Hospital Inpatients. New England Journal of Medicine 318:1100–1107, 1988. Shortell, S.M., and Hull, K.E. Chapter 1: New Organization of Health Care—Managed Care/Integrated Health Care Systems. In: S.H. Altman and U.E. Reinhardt. Baxter 2: Health Policy Book. Strategic Choices for a Changing Health Care System. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Health Administration Press, in press. Shortell, S.M., Zimmerman, J.E., Rousseau, D.M., et al. The Performance of Intensive Care Units: Does Good Management Make a Difference? Medical Care 32:508–525, 1994. Shortell, S.M., Gillies, R.R., and Devers, K.J. Reinventing the American Hospital. The Milbank Quarterly 73(2):131–160, 1995. Silber, J.H., Rosenbaum, P.R., Schwartz, J.S., et al. Evaluation of the Complication Rate as a Measure of Quality of Care in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery. Journal of the American Medical Association 274:317–323, 1995. Soldo, B.J., and Agree, E.M. America's Elderly. Population Bulletin, vol. 43, no. 3. Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau, 1988. Sovie, M.D. Tailoring Hospitals for Managed Care and Integrated Health Systems. Nursing Economics 13:72–83, March-April 1995. Spector, W.D., and Takada, H.A. Characteristics of Nursing Homes that Affect Resident Outcomes. Journal of Aging and Health 3(4):427–454, 1991. Spence, D.A., and Wiener, J.M. Nursing Home Length of Stay Patterns: Results from the 1985 National Nursing Home Survey. Gerontologist 30(1):16–20, 1990. Spillman, B.C., and Kemper, P. Lifetime Patterns of Payment for Nursing Home Care . Medical Care 33:280–296, 1995. Stahl, D.A. 1995 Leadership Challenges for SNFs. Nursing Management 26(3):16–17, 19, 1995a. Stahl, D.A. Maximizing Reimbursement for Subacute Care. Nursing Management 26(4):16–7, 19, 1995b. Stewart, A.L., Greenfield, S., Hays, R.D., et al. Functional Status and Well-Being of Patients with Chronic Conditions. Journal of the American Medical Association 262:907–913, 1989. Stolley, J.M., Buckwalter, K.C., and Shannon, M.D. Caring for Patients with Alzheimer's Disease: Recommendations for Nursing Education. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 17(6):34–38, 1991. Straus, M.A. Domestic Violence and Homicide Antecedents. Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 62:446–465, 1986. Strumpf, N. Presentation at a special invitational session on Quality and Staffing in Nursing Homes sponsored by the National Institute for Nursing Research on behalf of the IOM study, and held in conjunction with the 1994 annual meeting of the Gerontology Society of America in Atlanta, November 1994. Strumpf, N.E., and Knibbe, K.K. Long-Term Care: Fulfilling Promises to the Old Among Us. Pp. 217–225 in: J. McCloskey and H. Grace, eds. Current Issues in Nursing. St. Louis, Mo.: C.V. Mosby, 1990. Suzman, R.M., Willis, D.P., and Manton, K.G., eds. The Oldest Old. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

OCR for page 209
--> Swan, J.H., and Harrington, C. Estimating Undersupply of Nursing Home Beds in States. HSR (Health Services Research) 21:57–83, 1986. Swan, J.H., and Harrington, C. Certificate of Need and Nursing Home Bed Capacity in States. Journal of Health and Social Policy 2(2):87–105, 1990 Swan, J., Torre, A., and Steinhart, R. Ripple Effects of PPS on Nursing Homes: Swimming or Drowning in the Funding Stream? The Gerontologist 30:323–331, 1990. Swan, J.H., Harrington, C., DuNah, R. et al. Estimating Adequacy of Nursing Home Bed Supply in the States. Paper prepared for the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Health Care Financing Administration. Wichita, Kans.: Wichita State University, 1993a. Swan, J.H., Harrington, C., and Grant, L.A. State Medicaid Reimbursement for Nursing Homes, 1978–88 . Health Care Financing Review 14(4):111–131, 1993b. Swan, J.H., Dewit, S., and Harrington, C. State Medicaid Reimbursement Methods and Rates for Nursing Homes, 1993. Paper prepared for the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Health Care Financing Administration. Wichita, Kans.: Wichita State University, 1994. Tan, C.C. Occupational Health Problems Among Nurses. Scandinavian Journal of Work Environment Health 17:221–230, 1991. Tarlov, A.R., Ware, J.E., Greenfield, S., et al. The Medical Outcomes Study: An Application of Methods for Monitoring the Results of Medical Care. Journal of the American Medical Association 262:925–930, 1989. Teresi, J., Holmes, D., Benenson, E., et al. A Primary Care Nursing Model in Long-Term Care Facilities: Evaluation of Impact on Affect, Behavior, and Socialization. The Gerontologist 33:667–674, 1993. Thomas, J.W., Holloway, J.J., and Guire, K.E. Validating Risk-Adjusted Mortality as an Indicator for Quality of Care. Inquiry 30:6–22, 1993. Treas, J. Older Americans in the 1990s and Beyond. Population Bulletin, vol. 50, no. 2. Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau, 1995a. Treas, J. U.S. Aging: "Golden Oldies" Remain Variable. Population Today: News, Numbers, and Analysis 23(5):1–2, 1995b. U.S. Department of Justice. Crime in the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985. U.S. DHHS (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services). Federal Register: 42 CFR Part 401. November 10, 1994. U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on Ways and Means. Overview of Entitlement Programs, 1990 Green Book. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, p. 147–149, 1990. U.S. Senate, Special Committee on Aging. Nursing Home Care: The Unfinished Agenda. 1 (Special Hearing and Report, May 21, 1986). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1986. U.S. Senate, Special Committee on Aging. Reducing the Use of Chemical Restraints in Nursing Homes. Workshop Before the Special Committee. Pub. no. SN 102-6. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1991. VHA. The Impact of Organizational Redesign on Nurse Executive Leadership: A VHA, Inc., Survey of 423 Nurse Executives with Analysis by the Hay Group. Irving, Tex.: VHA, 1995. Wagnild, G. A Descriptive Study of Nurse's Aide Turnover in Long-Term Care Facilities. Journal of Long-term Care Administration 16(Spring):19–23, 1988. Wagnild, G., and Manning, R. The High Runover Profile: Screening and Selecting Applicants for Nurse's Aides. Journal of Long-term Care Administration 14(Summer):2–4, 1986. Wallace, C. Chains Plan Growth in Response to Rising Demand for Services. Modern Healthcare (June 6):116–126, 1986.

OCR for page 209
--> Wanich, C.K., Sullivan-Marx, E.M., Gottlieb, G.L., and Johnson, J.C. Functional Status Outcomes of a Nursing Intervention in Hospitalized Elderly. Image: The Journal of Nursing Scholarship 24(3):201–207, 1992. Weiler, K., Buckwalter, K.C., and Curry, J. Nurses, Work-Related Stress, and Ethical Dilemmas. In: D.M. Corr and C.A. Corr, eds. Nursing Care in an Aging Society. New York, N.Y.: Springer, 1990. Weissert, W.G., and Cready, C.M. Determinants of Hospital-to-Nursing Home Placement Delays: A Pilot Study. HSR (Health Services Research) 23:619–646, 1988. Weissert, W.G., and Musliner, M.C. Access, Quality, and Cost Consequences of Case-Mix Adjusted Reimbursement for Nursing Homes. Pub. no. 9109. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Retired Persons, 1992a. Weissert, W.G., and Musliner, M.C. Case Mix Adjusted Nursing-Home Reimbursement: A Critical Review of the Evidence. The Milbank Quarterly 70(3):455–490, 1992b. Weissert, W.G., Scanlon, W.J., Wan, T.T.H., and Skinner, D.E. Care for the Chronically Ill: Nursing Home Incentive Payment Experiment. Health Care Financing Review 5:41–49, 1983. Wells, K.B., Hays, R.D., Burnam, A., et al. Detection of Depressive Disorder for Patients Receiving Prepaid or Fee-for-Service Care: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 262:3298–3302, 1989a. Wells, K.B., Steward, A., Hays, R.D., et al. The Functioning and Well-Being of Depressed Patients: Results from the Medical Outcomes Study. Journal of the American Medical Association 262:914–919, 1989b. White, C.M. The Nurse-Patient Encounter: Attitudes and Behavior in Action. Journal of Gerontological Nursing 3:16–20, 1977. Whitley, M.P., and Putzier, D.J. Measuring Nurses' Satisfaction with the Quality of their Work and Work Environment. Journal of Nursing Care Quality 8(3):43–51, 1994. Wilging, P.R. OBRA as a Measure of Quality. Pp. 21–25 in: E.L. Mitty, ed. Quality Imperatives in Long-term Care: The Elusive Agenda. New York, N.Y.: National League for Nursing Press, 1992a. Wilging, P.R. A Strategy for Quality Assurance in Long-term Care. Pp. 13–19 in: E.L. Mitty, ed. Quality Imperatives in Long-term Care: The Elusive Agenda. New York, N.Y.: National League for Nursing Press, 1992b. Wilkinson, W. Occupational Injury at a Midwestern Health Science Center and Teaching Hospital. AAOHN (American Association of Occupational Health Nursing) Journal 35(8):367–376, 1987. Willcocks, D., Peace, S., and Kellaher, L. Private Lives in Public Places. London: Tavistock, 1987. Willemain, T.R. A Comparison of Patient-Centered and Case Mix Reimbursement for Nursing Home Care. HSR (Health Services Research) 15:365–377, 1980. Winger, J. Schirm, V., and Steward, P. Aggressive Behavior in Long-term Care. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services 25:28–33, 1987. Witt Associates. Today's Nurse Executive: Data Analysis, 1990 Survey. Survey cosponsored by the American Organization of Nurse Executives. Oak Brook Terrace, Ill.: Witt/Kieffer, Ford, Hadelman and Lloyd, 1990. Wright, L.K. A Reconceptualization of the "Negative Staff and Poor Care in Nursing Homes" Assumption. The Gerontologist 28:813–820, 1988. Yordy, K.D. Implications of the Changing Market on the Nursing Workforce: Integrated Systems and Changing Sites of Service. In: C.L. Hopper, H.R. Manasse, C.J. McLaughlin, and M. Osterweis. The Health Workforce: Power, Politics, and Policy. Washington, D.C.: Association of Academic Health Centers, in press. Yu, L.C., Mansfield, P.K., Packard, J.S., et al. Occupational Stress Among Nurses in Hospital Settings. AAOHN (American Association of Occupational Health Nursing) Journal 37(4):121–128, 1989.

OCR for page 209
--> Zimmer, J.G. Quality of Care Assessment in Long-term Care Facilities. Evaluation and the Health Professions 6:339–344, 1983. Zimmer, J.G. Quality Assurance. In: P.R. Katz and E. Calkins, eds. Principles and Practice of Nursing Home Care. New York: Springer, 1989. Zimmer, J.G., Watson, N., and Treat, A. Behavioral Problems Among Patients in SNFs. American Journal of Public Health 74(10):1118–1121, 1984. Zimmer, J.G., Bentley, D.W., Valenti, W.M., and Watson, N.M. Systemic Antibiotic Use in Nursing Homes: A Quality Assessment. Journal of American Geriatrics Society 34:703–710, 1986. Zimmerman, D.R. Impact of New Regulations and Data Sources on Nursing Home Quality of Care. Madison, Wisc.: Center for Health Systems Research and Analysis, 1990. Zimmerman, D.R., Egan, J.R., Gustafson, D., et al. Evaluation of the State Demonstrations in Nursing Home Quality Assurance Processes. Final Report to the Health Care Financing Administration. Madison, Wisc.: Mathematica Policy Research, 1985. Zimmerman, D.R., Karson, S.L., Arling, G., et al. Development and Testing of Nursing Home Quality Indicators. Health Care Financing Review 16(4):107–127, 1995. Zimmerman, J.E., Shortell, S.M., Rousseau, D.M, et al. Improving Intensive Care: Observations Based on Organizational Case Studies in Nine Intensive Care Units: A Prospective, Multicenter Study. Critical Care Medicine 21(10):1443–1451, 1993. Zinn, J.S. Inter-SMSA Variation on Nursing Home Staffing and Management Practices. Journal of Applied Gerontology 12(2):206–224, 1993a. Zinn, J.S. The Influence of Nurse Wage Differentials on Nursing Home Staffing and Resident Care Decisions. The Gerontologist 33:721–729, 1993b. Zinn, J.S., Aaronson, W.E., and Rosko, M.D. The Use of Standardized Indicators as Quality Improvement Tools: An Application in Pennsylvania Nursing Homes. American Journal of Medical Quality 8:456–465, 1993a. Zinn, J.S., Aaronson, W.E., and Rosko, M.D. Variations in Outcomes of Care Provided in Pennsylvania Nursing Homes: Facility and Environmental Correlates. Medical Care 31:475–487, 1993b.