1970s and 1980s. Often, the 10 conceptual areas were translated into 10 content areas when discussed in legislation and curriculum frameworks at the state and local education agency levels. These 10 areas became known as the "traditional" 10 content areas of health education. Although there is some variation from state to state, the major content areas usually include (Joint Committee on Health Education Terminology, 1991) community health, consumer health, environmental health, family life, mental and emotional health, injury prevention and safety, nutrition, personal health, prevention and control of disease, and substance use and abuse.

Recently, CDC has identified six factors that are the major contributors to morbidity and mortality among school-aged children and adolescents (Kann et al., 1995). The CDC recommends that these be the priority areas for health education instruction: sexual behaviors that result in HIV infection, other STDs, and unintended pregnancy; alcohol and other drug use; behaviors that result in unintentional and intentional injuries; tobacco use; dietary patterns that result in disease; and sedentary life-style.

Desired Practice in Health Education

National Standards for Health Education

As is the case with physical education, the status of health education in the curriculum is sometimes questioned by school policy makers because health was not originally mentioned in the National Education Goals as one of the core subjects in which students should demonstrate competence. However, with each updated report of the National Education Goals Panel, language has been added emphasizing the importance of health education and other essential components of a CSHP (National Education Goals Panel, 1994). In particular, two of the objectives under Goal 3, Student Achievement and Citizenship, are (1) all students will be involved in activities that promote and demonstrate good citizenship, good health, community service, and personal responsibility; and (2) all students will have access to physical education and health education to ensure that they are healthy and fit. In addition, the National Education Goals call for students to start school with the healthy minds, bodies, and mental alertness necessary for learning; safe, disciplined, and healthful environments that are free of alcohol, drugs, crime, and violence; the development of a comprehensive K–12 drug and alcohol prevention education program in every school district; a drug and alcohol curriculum, which should be taught as an integral part of sequential, comprehensive health education; and increased parental partnerships with schools in order to promote the social, emotional, and academic growth of children.

In the spring of 1995, the Joint Committee on National Health Educa-



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