Selected Lessons Learned


After-school programs have substantial potential to contribute to the health of youth

Ross et al., 1991

It is important to focus on comprehensive efforts in schools, including teaching reform, cooperative learning strategies, policy issues, and interpersonal relationships

Collins, 1991; Hawkins et al., 1986; Johnson, 1992; Knight, 1991; Lewis et al., 1990; Nader, 1990; Pentz et al., 1989; Simons-Morton et al., 1991

Appropriate attention must be paid to literacy, and to social cultural, gender, and ethnic diversity in program planning

Advertising Age, 1990; Conner and Conner, 1992; Hall and Reyes, 1992; Ireland, 1990; Isikoff, 1989; Jones et al., 1992; Marin and Marin, 1991; Oyemade and Brandon-Monye, 1990; Rana et al., 1992; Shane and Kaplan, 1988; Smith, 1992; Terry et al., 1992

Teacher training is required for effective educational programs

Gingiss, 1992; Koenig, 1992; McKenzie et al., 1993; Perry et al., 1990; Rohrbach et al., 1993; Ross et al., 1991; Taggart et al., 1990; Tortu and Botvin, 1989

Early detection and prevention of risk are necessary

Starfield, 1989

The potential exists for creative school-community linkages

Kelder et al., 1993; Murray et al., 1987; Pentz et al., 1989; Perry et al., 1992; Shane and Kaplan, 1988


SOURCE: Adapted from Gold, 1994.

promotion model that involves a variety of strategies by an interdisciplinary team (Allensworth, DeGraw, English),

  • from a school health program that ignores media and its influence to a health promotion program that designs strategies to negate directly the negative messages of media and that develops media campaigns to promote positive health-enhancing messages (Allensworth),

  • from a school health classroom approach to an interdisciplinary—interagency team approach within the community (Allensworth, DeGraw, English),

  • from an approach based on curriculum and program decisions derived from professional and personal preferences to curricula and pro-

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