worker. The team provides parenting education and support assistance for day-to-day problems such as nutrition, getting glasses, attendance, and problem behaviors. Family support teams are also responsible for developing linkages with community resources.

  • Turning Points, led by the Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, focuses on early adolescence, a critical and pivotal developmental period (Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development, 1989). The project is based on the premise that a serious mismatch exists between the organization and curriculum of most middle grade schools and the intellectual and emotional needs of young adolescents, which results in increased alienation, substance abuse, absenteeism, and school dropouts. The project is restructuring a set of middle schools with the following characteristics. There will be "Schools-Within-a-School" that has students and teachers grouped together in teams, with every student known well by at least one adult. There will be a core academic program that emphasizes critical thinking, citizenship values, a healthy life-style, and responsible and ethical behavior. Cooperative learning will be used, and tracking will be eliminated. The staff will be expert in teaching young adolescents, and the staff will be empowered to make decisions and create the environment necessary for students to succeed. Emphasis will be placed on health and fitness as a means to improve academic performance, and every school will have a health coordinator, access to health care and counseling, and a health-promoting environment. Finally, families and the community will be involved with the operation of the school.

Health Promotion for Staff. Staff health promotion frequently receives low priority among school health issues, and research on its impact is scarce. A few studies, however, have shown that staff health promotion programs are feasible and produce improvement in morale, absenteeism, perceptions of well-being, attitudes toward personal health, and even quality of classroom instruction. (Belcastro and Gold, 1984; Falck and Kilcoyne, 1984; Jamison, 1993; Maysey, 1988) Another benefit of staff health promotion may be a decrease in group health insurance costs.

Healthy People 2000 calls for employee health promotion for all worksites (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1991). Employers are encouraged to provide physical activity and fitness programs, nutrition education and weight management programs, blood pressure and cholesterol education and control activities, stress management, policies limiting smoking, and aggressive prevention and intervention programs for drug and alcohol abuse. The Health Insurance Association of America has outlined reasons why health promotion for school employees is a particularly strategic investment (Allensworth et al., 1994). For example, health promotion would have a significant impact on overall

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