TABLE 3-1B Studies Supporting the Contribution of Physical Activity to Academic Achievement


Kirkendall, D.R. 1986. Effects of physical activity on intellectual development and academic performance. Pp. 49–63, in: Effects of Physical Activity on Children (The American Academy of Physical Education Papers, No. 19), G.A. Stull and H.M. Eckert eds. Champaign, Illinois: Human Kinetics.

Shephard, R.J., Volel, M., Lavallee, H., LaBarre, R., Jequier, J.C., and Rajic, M. 1984. Required physical activity and academic grades: A controlled study. Pp. 58–63 in J. Ilmarinen and I. Vaelimaeki eds., Children and sport: Paediatric work physiology. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag.

Moore, J.B., Guy, L.M., and Reeve, T.G. 1984. Effects of the capon perceptual-motor program on motor ability, self-concept, and academic readiness. Perceptual and Motor Skills 58:71–74.

Thomas, J.R., Chissom, B.S., Steward, C., and Shelly, F. 1975. Effects of perceptual motor training on preschool children: A multivariate approach. RQES 46:505–513.

Lipton, E.D. 1970. A perceptual-motor development program's effect on visual perception and reading readiness of first grade children. RQES 41:402–405.

Kuntzleman, C.T., and Reiff, G. 1992. American Children's Fitness Levels. RQES 63:107–111.

Rowland, T.W. 1990. Exercise and Children's Health. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics: Chapter 8.

American Academy of Pediatrics. 1987. Physical Fitness and the Schools. Pediatrics 80(3).

McKenzie, T.L., Faucette, F.N., Sallis, J.F., Roby, J.J. and Kilody, B. 1993. Effects of curriculum and inservice program on the quantity and quality of elementary physical education classes. RQES 64:178–187.

tioned because physical education is not mentioned in the National Education Goals as one of the core subjects in which students should demonstrate competence (although one of the expanded objectives of Goal 3 states that ''all students will have access to physical education and health education to ensure they are healthy and fit") (National Education Goals Panel, 1994). Thus, in this era of increased emphasis on academic rigor and standards, students, parents, and other educators may perceive that

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