WHO. Abortion: A Tabulation of Available Data on the Frequency and Mortality of Unsafe Abortion, 2nd edition. (WHO/FHE/MSM/93.13). Geneva: Maternal Health and Safe Motherhood Programme, Division of Family Health. 1994.

WHO, Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, and the International Women's Health Coalition. Women's Perspectives on the Selection and Introduction of Fertility Regulation Technologies: Report of a Meeting between Women's Health Advocates and Scientists, Geneva, 20-22 February 1991.

Women's Global Network for Reproductive Rights. Population and development policies: Report on the International Conference on Reinforcing Reproductive Rights, Madras, India, May 1993. Newsletter 43, April-June 1993.


  • 1.  

    The term ''Second Contraceptive Revolution" was coined by Mahmoud Fathalla and has been adopted by the Rockefeller Foundation as a central concept in the population and environment component of its portfolio. The term has acquired a certain currency in the field and describes the hoped-for revitalization of research and investment in the development of a new generation of contraceptive technologies.

  • 2.  

    The first modern IUDs were developed independently in Germany and Japan in the 1920s and 1930s, but fell into disrepute in the Western industrialized countries because of substantial numbers of cases of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and peritonitis. In the late 1950s, the time seemed ripe for its rehabilitation and the Population Council invested in the further development of the method (Gelijns and Pannenborg 1993).

  • 3.  

    Traditionally, the perimenopausal period has been defined as the few (three to five) years around menopause. Current thinking is that it should be viewed as beginning as early as the midthirties, coincident with onset of decline in ovarian function.

  • 4.  

    Bongaarts (1994) makes the point that even were family planning programs in the developing world perfectly able to supply all the unmet need for contraception, they would still not be able to reduce population growth to zero in countries where, on average, desired fertility still exceeds two children and thereby have significant effect on the momentum of population expansion. From this perspective, family planning programs are part of a set of complementary and mutually reinforcing approaches such as education, empowerment of women, implementing public health measures to reduce infant and child mortality, and delaying childbearing, that tend to raise the demand for family planning. He notes that "investment in family planning programs produce larger reductions in unwanted fertility when social conditions such as education and gender equality are favorable" (Bongaarts 1994).

  • 5.  

    The reproductive tract infections (RTIs) have been broadly defined to include sexually transmitted infections and infections that are nonsexually transmitted, and comprise three types of infection: (1) sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis (which may or may not be sexually transmissible), syphilis, chancroid, genital herpes, genital warts, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; (2) endogenous infections, caused by overgrowth of organisms that can be present in the genital tract of a healthy woman, such as bacterial vaginosis and vulvovaginal candidiasis; and (3) iatrogenic infections, associated with medical procedures, such as female genital mutilation, poor delivery practices, cesarean section, unsafe abortion, and improperly performed pelvic examinations and IUD insertions (Brunham and Embree 1992). Of the three types of reproductive tract infections-sexually transmitted, endogenous, and iatrogenic-the majority are sexually transmitted in direct fashion (Brunham and Embree 1992). However, the iatrogenic infections are also important because they are linked to contraception, or the lack of contraception, through sepsis during the medical procedures cited above. Of the eight major STD pathogens producing RTIs, four are bacterial (chancroid, chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis) and four are viral (HIV, human papilloma virus/HPV, herpes simplex type 2/HSV-2, and hepatitis B/HBV).

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