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JOSEPH PAXSON IDDINGS January 21, 1857-September 8, 1920 BY H. S. YODER, JR. JOSEPH PAXSON IDDINGS WAS an outstanding leader of petrol- _} ogy wiclely cites! at the turn of the twentieth century, although little known to the present generation of petrolo- gists. He was one of a small group to introduce, about ISS0, the microscopic investigation of rocks to the Uniter! States en c! apply the petrographic observations to the then-new inquiry of the origins of rocks caller! petrology. His facling into the history of science can be attributer! no cloubt to his gentlemanly, retiring nature en c! his early withcirawal from the academic and societal scene. Nevertheless, Iddings's recorc! of discovery, both observational en c! theoretical, ini- tiatec! many of the icleas that servec! the more heralclec! petrologists who follower! him. Those icleas, for which he was reluctant to claim originality, were "establishec! or im- provec! by subsequent research." The writing of Iddings's biography was originally assigned to his lifelong friend, C. Whitman Cross, to whom he hac! given his autobiographical manuscript, "Recollections of a Petrologist," for editing and publication. Unfortunately, Cross cliec! (in 1949) before a biography conic! be preparer! or the autobiography published. Iciclings's manuscript, ciatec! 115

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6 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS March 19,1918, was not among the papers retained by Cross's namesake grandson but was cliscoverec! by Carol A. Ec~warcis in the Fielc! Records Library of the U.S. Geological Survey in Denver. The present memoir was undertaken before the writer was alertec! by Dr. E. L. Yochelson of the availability of the autobiography. The principal incentive resultec! from a renewoc! appreciation while investigating the history of petrology of the vital role Iddings played in developing the quantitative aspects of petrology. Joseph Paxson Iciclings was born in Baltimore, MarylancI, the seconc! son of William Penn Iciclings (1822-1906) of Philaclelphia en c! Almira Gillet (1826-96) of Baltimore. His father was a wholesale ciry-goocis merchant (1900 census). His grandfather was Caleb Pierce Iciclings (1778-1863), who built the family estate in 1855 in BrinkTow, MarylancI, where Joseph later livecI. The genealogy of the Iciclings family has been establishec! through five generations en c! is available in open file at the Montgomery County (Maryland) His- torical Society in Rockville. Caleb Pierce Iciclings was a Quaker but was "clisownecI" for marrying "out of the unity." For this reason there are no Quaker records in Philaclelphia of the family after 1812, the date of CaTeb's marriage. Joseph was namer! after the husband, Joseph S. Paxson (1814-89), of William's oilier sister. Deborah T. Iciclings ~ 1815-771. ~ J EDUCATION After a brief stay in New York City, Joseph Iddings's fa- ther establishec! a home in Orange, New Jersey (100 High Street) when Joseph was about ten years oIcI. With the prepa- ration at the private school of Rev. F. A. Aciams, Iciclings registered for the civil engineering course at the Sheffielc! Scientific School of Yale University. His father hac! recom- menclec! that he become a mining engineer in light of

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JOSEPH PAXSON IDDINGS 117 Joseph's early interests in collecting rocks en c! butterflies. According to the records of his class of 1877, he was trea- surer of the Yale Football Club, recording secretary of the Yale Society of Natural History, en c! class treasurer. In his freshman year, Iciclings cliviclec! a prize for German, a skill that was to prove especially useful to him. In his junior en c! senior years, respectively, he receiver! prizes in mathematics and civil engineering. He participated in the Alpha Chi, Phi Gamma Delta, en c! Berzelius societies. Following graduation at which he was a commencement speaker, Iciclings spent the next year at Yale in graduate studies in chemistry en c! mineralogy. He also assistec! in courses in mechanical drawing en c! surveying, but it was the ongoing study of George Wesson Hawes (1848-82) on thin sections of New Hampshire granites that attractor! his attention. The academic year of 1878-79 was spent at the Columbia School of Mines in New York City uncler the tute- lage of John S. Newberry (1822-92~. In late spring Iddings abruptly changer! directions towarc! geological research as a result of the influence of the enthusiastic Clarence King, who hac! lecturer! at Yale, the fascinating microscopic work of Hawes, en c! a general Toss of interest in mining as a profession. In the fall of 1879, on the recommendation of G. W. Hawes, who was then studying in Heiclelberg, Iciclings became a student of Karl Harry Ferclinanc! Rosenbusch (1836- 1914), the most outstanding petrographer of the day. This opportunity arose while Iddings was awaiting a response to his application to the newly former! U.S. Geological Survey uncler the directorship of Clarence King. During July 1879 he learned that his young pastor, Joseph A. Ely of the Or- ange Valley Congregational Church, was to tour the Swiss Alps, en c! it seemec! a goIclen opportunity to see spectacular geology in his company and then spend the winter with Rosenbusch. His experiences uncler the enthusiastic

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8 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS Rosenbusch resultec! in Iciclings setting a course for a ca- reer in petrography. CAREER COURSE DETERMINED His three-week tour in the Alps, two months of private language stucly, en c! five months with Prof. Rosenbusch were recorclec! in great cletaiT in his cliary en c! letters to his fam- ily. These were summarizer! with consiclerable literary style in his autobiography. Iciclings's reception of the first lecture in German from Prof. Rosenbusch is especially descriptive: It is a positive pleasure now to hear him lecture, to listen to him roll off those long, and to us, complicated sentences; here and there throwing in a phrase in parentheses, which is rendered like lightning; and then the whole wound up with a string of participles and infinitives that have a most pleas ing effect, when someone else has to get them off. It's like watching the development of some great piece of fireworks. It is certainly a complicated language. You can see how he has to figure out his cases and endings, and have everything in his mind's eye before he begins his sentence. Some- times he may want to change the number or case of his noun, after he has gone on for some time qualifying it with innumerable adjective phrases. The lectures en c! almost private laboratory sessions with Rosenbusch hac! great impact on Iciclings en c! significantly influencec! the course of his future career in petrography. Although King had recommended Prof. Zirkel in Leipzig over Ro senbusch as a tutor, Iciclings stays c! in H eiclelb erg . Hac! he gone to Leipzig he wouIc! have met C. Whitman Cross, who became his lifelong frienc! several years later. Iciclings's friendship with Rosenbusch continues! for many years until their "views clivergec! seriously en c! correspon- dence ceased." In Rosenbusch's instruction, emphasis had been placer! on mineral composition en c! rock texture with little reference to chemical composition, a factor Iciclings eventually believed was dominant. This view no doubt arose from his close association with Samuel Lewis PenfielcI, a

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JOSEPH PAXSON IDDINGS 119 classmate at Yale, who was then cloing graduate work on chemical mineralogy uncler Prof. George {arvis Brush. There was "little or no discussion of the origin en c! mocle of erup- tion of igneous rocks" en c! nothing on the physical chemis- try of magmas. Nevertheless, Iciclings was captivates! by the study of rock thin sections, presented with great enthusi- asm by Rosenbusch. He was incleec! impressed by the beauty of the colorer! minerals en c! especially the brilliancy of their interference colors, which he relater! to the colorful stainer! glass in the windows of his church. "HIGHEST EXPECTATIONS" Iciclings hac! the goof! fortune to arrange for his return to the Uniter! States on the same ship as ArnoIc! Hague, who was returning from studies in China. Hague was to be his first supervisor at the U.S. Geological Survey, his ap- pointment having been securer! by mail through Clarence King. By obtaining a position in the USGS2 Iddings hoped to realize his "highest expectations." During May en c! June of ISS0, he worker! as a temporary assistant to Hague at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, where King hac! "temporarily" storm! the rock collections from the 40th Parallel Survey. Iciclings's next assignment with Hague took him to the mining district arounc! Eureka, Nevada, where he mapper! igneous rocks. There he sharer! a tent with Charles D. Walcott, who was later to become director of the U.S. Geological Survey, also assisting him in collecting fossils. As a result of his first field efforts, Iddings developed a very cautious atti- tude toward naming a rock, especially one where crystals conic! not be iclentifiec! by eye. An icleal outcrop of granite with off-shooting dikes led him to think that rock texture was governec! by the physical conditions attending soliclifi- cation. It was twelve years after the fieldwork was completed

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120 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS before his microscopical petrography of the rocks from the Eureka District was published by Hague (~892) as Appen- clix B. A printer! note ciatec! November IS93 that was glum! to the first page of the monograph expressed Iddings's dis- may over the clelayoc! publication en c! also the fact that this was "a production of the first year of the writer's work in this field! of research, en c! as such neecis no apology." In this appendix the term "phenocryst" was introclucecI3 to describe the megascopically visible crystals in a fine-grained grouncimass of a porphyritic rock, but the term appearec! in print earlier (Iciclings, ISSUE. Iciclings's part of the mono- graph is also noteworthy for the methoc! by which he cleter- minec! the composition of felcispars, a methoc! that was at- tributec! to A. Michel-Levy4 more than ten years later. He also proviclec! strong evidence for the graciational change in composition of the plagiociases first proposer! by T. Sterry Hunts en c! later attributer! to G. Tschermak6 a major con- cept to which he eventually contributes! to its experimental demonstration (Iciclings with Day en c! Allen, ~ 905) . In acicli- tion, Iciclings clescribec! a "rec! laminates! mineral," a com- mon alteration of olivine that was later clescribec! as "iciclingsite" by Lawson.7 The alteration process became known as "iciclingsization . "8 Before returning to the U.S. Geological Survey offices at the American Museum of Natural History in New York, Iciclings spent a week with George F. Becker examining the volcanic rocks of the Washoe District, Nevada, previously examiner! microscopically by Zirkel. While in Virginia City, Nevada, he met Car! Barns, with whom he reviewoc! the mathematics of certain physical phenomena being stucliec! by Becker. In New York, Hague, Iciclings, Walcott, en c! Becker cooperatec! on the stucly of the Eureka en c! Washoe rocks en c! fossils as well as those from the earlier 40th Parallel Survey. It was this experience that persuaclec! Iciclings that

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JOSEPH PAXSON IDDINGS 121 the most satisfactory way of studying rocks is to examine a large collection of closely relater! rocks a philosophy he was to embellish in later years. Iciclings's first paper in print was a description with Hague (~83) of the principal volcanoes of the Sierra en c! Cascade ranges. They were impresser! with the "gradations in the microstructure in the grouncimass of rocks of the same min- eral composition from a purely glassy form to one wholly crystalline...." The second paper, also with Hague (~84), container! notes on the volcanic rocks of the Great Basin. In it they recognizes! the chemical relationship between olivine en c! hypersthene, as the rocks became higher in a silica, hypersthene took the place of olivine. Their first at tempt at chemico-mineralogical generalization was of ex- ceptional importance en c! became a major factor in petro- Togic theory. In their discussion of the Washoe District, Nevada, igne- ous rocks, Iddings and Hague (~85) attacked the widely hell! view sharer! by Becker that there was a distinction between Tertiary en c! pre-Tertiary igneous rocks. After ex- amining Becker's large collection en c! material from the extensive mining network in the celebrates! Comstock Tocle arounc! Virginia City, they concluclec! that all the rocks were of Tertiary age. In their view the Comstock locle occupier! a fissure along a fault line in rocks of Tertiary age en c! "conic! not be consiclerec! as a contact vein between two different rock masses." They hell! that the structural character of eruptive masses was not a function of their age but of the physical condition controlling crystallization.9 The paper clic! not "promote goof! fellowship" with Becker, but they eventually became friencis despite continuing opposing views. On the other hancI, the paper was wiclely accIaimec! in Eu- rope by the leading petrographers of the day.

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122 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS MAPPING YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK Iciclings's major field! experience uncler the leaclership of Hague was in Yellowstone National Park, establishec! in 1872. Seven consecutive field! seasons (~83-90) were spent in the region, where he focuses! on Obsidian Cliff, Electric en c! SepuIchre mountains, Cranciall Basin, en c! Haystack Moun- tain. From an examination of the now-famous Obsidian Cliff, Iciclings clescribec! the lithophysae (hollow spheres clue to expanding gas bubbles), spherulites (spherical bodies with racliating crystals), columnar partings, en c! variations in the degree of crystallization, en c! he emphasizec! the role of water in magmas. Within the lithophysae he cliscoverec! the first natural occurrence of fayaTite, the iron enc! member of the olivines, previously iclentifiec! in lumps of slag carrier! as ship's ballast en c! clumpec! on a beach in the islanc! of Fayal in the Azores. He reaTizec! that the inflation of pumi- ceous glass was clue to escapee! gases en c! appreciatec! the nature of layers clescribec! as welclec! luff, outlining the pro- cess itself. The intrusive rocks of Electric Mountain en c! the extrusive rocks of SepuIchre Mountain proviclec! an exceptional op- portunity for comparison after it was establishec! that the two groups of rocks hac! essentially iclentical chemical com- positions. The glassy extrusive andesites, with pyroxene and brown or rec! hornblencle phenocrysts, contrasted! with the coarsely crystalline diorites containing biotite and green hornblencle. The different assemblages from the same bulk composition were attributer! by Iciclings to different concli- tions of crystallization. Recent experimental studies on the oxidation of hornblencle en c! the breakdown of biotite veri- fied this important relationship also emphasized by Wash- ington.~ In addition, Iddings viewed the magma as a ho- mogeneous fluid in which the constituents could combine

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JOSEPH PAXSON IDDINGS 123 in different mineralogical associations clepencling on the conditions of crystallization. He also recognizec! that volatiles container! in magma were more effective as mineralizers when in the magma conduit, in contrast to a magma that reacher! the surface. Cranciall Basin en c! Haystack Mountain were also centers of oic! volcanoes, en c! the ciata collectec! by Iciclings rein- forcec! his views on the role of the physical conditions at- tencling consoliciation in cleaning the mineral assemblages. In February IS90 he took a two-month trip to Englanc! to meet I. I. H. Teall, A. Harker, en c! I. W. {ucicI, pay his re- spects to Rosenbusch in Heiclelberg, visit Vesuvius en c! the Sicilian region, en c! stop in Paris to see A. A. Lapparent. Michel-Levy was ill, en c! F. Fouque en c! A. Lacroix were on Easter vacation. The summer of IS90 was spent studying the eastern en c! central portions of the quacirangle immecli- ately north of Yellowstone Park, with Louis V. Pirsson as his assistant. The western en c! northern parts were explorer! by W. H. Weed. The publication of that work (in IS94 by Iciclings en c! WeecI) on the Livingston, Montana, quacirangle consti- tutec! the first folio of the geological atlas of the Uniter! States. Sanc~wichec! between the work on the Yellowstone rocks, Iciclings manager! after office hours to translate the seconc! eclition of the first volume of Rosenbusch's book, Mibro- scopische Physiographie der betro~rabhisch wichti~en Mineraten.~i . . . .. . - ~ . . . . . .. 1 ~ 1 ~ me aor~c~gect tne OOOK LO serve the needs of the average . . . . ~ -- - - --a stuctent, e~m~nat~ng most of the historical portions en c! in- serting notes on American occurrences. After a review by George H. Williams of the Johns Hopkins University, it was publisher! in 1888, with reviser! eclitions in 1889, 1892, and 1898, publication was terminatec! because of copyright prob- lems, and Iddings was beginning to think about preparing a textbook on rock minerals himself. He collectec! en c! sum

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124 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS marizec! prevailing views on the crystallization of igneous rocks in ISS9, however, his own philosophy on the origin of igneous rocks was put forth in IS92. That paper hac! the same effect as N. L. Bowen's classic of 1928 en c! establishec! Iciclings as a leacler in petrologic thought. The year IS92 may have been an intellectual triumph for Iciclings personally, but it was a disaster for the U.S. Geo- logical Survey. On July 14, IS92, the appropriations for the Geologic Branch were severely cut en c! all fieldwork was stoppecI.~3 Iciclings's position as geologist was eliminatecI! (Major Powell's friend, Joseph S. Diller, head of the petro- graphic laboratory in Washington, was retainer! by shifting him to a temporary position, in preference to Iciclings.) Iciclings hac! been consiclerec! a possible successor to James D. Dana, who hac! relinquishec! his cluties at Yale in Octo- ber IS90 clue to ill health, but Dana felt his "experience in general geology too slight," an objection he later withdrew. Nevertheless, Iciclings turner! to a university position. After turning clown an offer from Lelanc! Stanford, the Univer- sity of Chicago offerer! him an appointment in August 1892 as associate professor of petrology, the first chair in petrol- ogy in the woricI. RELUCTANT TEACHER The new Department of Geology at the University of Chi- cago was staffer! with a spectacular group: R. D. Salisbury, R. A. F. Penrose, Jr., and J. P. Iddings, with T. C. Chamberlin as chairman. In aciclition, there were three nonresident pro- fessors: C. R. van Hise, W. H. Holmes, and C. D. Walcott, who was never able to attenc! en c! resigner! after the seconc! year. Iddings disliked teaching and objected to teaching mineralogy en c! crystallography in aciclition to petrology. Although only two Ph.D. theses (Charles H. Gordon, IS95, ant! William H. Emmons, ~ 904) were completec! uncler

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JOSEPH PAXSON IDDINGS 137 poetic en c! romantic view of his surroundings en c! attention especially to the dramatic clisplay of colors of a sunset, a rock, or a butterfly. The allure of the South Sea Islancis, a Tong cove tee! ciream clic! not result in the customary aban- clonment of civilization sufferer! by so many visitors. In the enc! it only strengthened his appreciation of the comforts en c! intellectual stimulation of his own culture. Iciclings re- mainec! a conscientious en c! clevotec! worker to petrology throughout his travels. After seventy-five years it is clifficult to unclerstanc! why his contributions have not receiver! the attention they cle- serve. Iciclings himself clic! not believe he was enclowoc! with originality but clic! recognize his ability to analyze en c! syn- thesize observational facts. As one of the pioneers in intro- clucing petrography to the Uniter! States,36 he must be given a large measure of credit for cleveloping that fielc! into petrology. He was a promoter of King's37 one-magma hy- pothesis, an early acivocate of magma differentiation, en c! a supporter of the basic-to-acic! sequencing of magmas. He recognizec! the significance of {ucicl's38 concept of petro- graphic provinces en c! was the first to recognize that igne- ous rocks of the same bulk composition proclucec! different assemblages uncler different conditions of crystallization. He was quick to adapt Reyer's39 use of diagrams represent- ing rock composition to explain rock relations. As a result of his strong support of Bunsen's concept of magma as a solution, Iciclings helpec! bring about the transition from descriptive petrography to a physico-chemical view of igne- ous rock interrelationships. In his quiet way he exercised leaclership in the construction of the CIPW system en c! in formulating the experimental program of the Geophysical Laboratory. He was among the first to recognize the role of volatiles in volcanic eruption en c! to show concern for the physics of the eruption process. All in all, one can easily

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138 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS agree with his peer group of 1903 that Iddings was one of the giants in petrology at the turn of the twentieth century. THE PRIMARY SOURCES OF information for this memoir were the published works of Iddings, all of which have been assembled at the Geophysical Laboratory. A draft of recollections compiled by Iddings from letters written to his parents and family from Switzerland and Heidelberg in 1879-80 and his autobiography, edited and amended by C. Whitman Cross, are available in the Field Records Library of the U.S. Geological Survey in Denver. An inventory and finding guide of other items in Denver has been prepared by Carol A. Edwards. Letters written during Iddings's travels to the South Pa- cific during 1914-15 and correspondence with Charles D. Walcott are in the archives of the Smithsonian Institution. Correspondence with Arthur L. Day, director of the Geophysical Laboratory from 1907 to 1920, is in the archives of the laboratory. Letters to T. C. Chamberlin are in the archives of the Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago. Iddings's activities during his col- lege days are described in the Class of 1877 Sheffield Scientific School 1877-1921 and the Obituary Record, available in the Manuscript and Archive Division of the Yale University Library. His days at the Uni- versity of Chicago have been described by Fisher.23 Through the kindness of Mrs. Sylvia Nash of the Sandy Spring Museum (Olney, Md.), copies of the pages from Thomas and Kirk's Annals of Sandy Spring: History of a Rural Community in Maryland (vol. 4,1929, Times Printing Co., Westminster, Md.) relevant to the Iddings family from 1914 to 1920 were made available. Mrs. Elizabeth Iddings Small Hartge, current owner and resident of "Riverside" and mem- ber of the Woodside Cemetery Association, provided information from the records available and introductions to living Iddings fam- ily relatives. A detailed biography and an almost complete bibliography of T. P. Iddings were written by E. B. Mathews ("Memorial of Joseph Iddings," Geol. Soc. Am. Bull. 44~1933~:352-74~. Brief biographies are also given by G. P. Merrill, "Obituary," Am. f. Sci. 50~1920~:316; L. J. Spencer, "Biographical Notices," Min. Mag. 29~1921~:247-48; J. J. H. Teall, "Joseph Paxson Iddings," in R. D. Oldham, "The Anni- versary Address of the President," Proc. Geol. Soc. London 77~1921) :lxi- lxiii; and W. C. Bragger, "Mindetale over Prof. Dr. Joseph Paxon

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JOSEPH PAXSON IDDINGS 139 (sic) Iddings," Furhandl. Videns-selsk. Kristiania, 1921:45-50 (in Nor- wegian) . Portions of the Bragger memorial were translated by Bj0rn Mysen. The diaries of his paternal grandfather and grandmother are at Duke University, and a finding aid is available. A family photo album and Iddings's photographs of Yellowstone National Park are at the University of Wyoming, Laramie. Iddings's family notes from the Steinmetz and Gearhart collections were consulted at the Ge- nealogical Society of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. Finally, it is a pleasure to thank the Geophysical Laboratory's librarian, Shaun Hardy, and his assistant, Merri Wolf, for their en- ergetic and enthusiastic help in the investigation of a very cold trail. The reviews of R. M. Hazen, C. M. Nelson, E. L. Yochelson, and S. Hardy were greatly appreciated. NOTES 89. H. S. Yoder, Jr. Timetable of petrology. J. Geol. Ed. 41 (1993) :447 2. The USGS Appointments Ledger records the fact that Iddings joined the USGS on July 1, 1880, from New Jersey's 6th Congres- sional District as an assistant geologist (temporary) for work in New York and the field. He was promoted after several salary increases to Geologist on August 10, 1888, and transferred by J. W. Powell to the permanent rolls on January 21, 1890. As a result of the general reduction in force, Iddings resigned on December 31, 1892. He was reappointed by J. D. Walcott on a per diem basis on January 17, 1895. 3. Iddings is also credited with the introduction to the petro- logical literature of the terms bysmalith, chadacryst, consanguinity, laminated texture, lithophysae, occult mineral, oikocryst, soda-or- thoclase, and spherulite. Attributed to him are the following rock names: banakite, hawaiite, kanaiite, kohalaite, langenite, llanite, marosite, shoshonite, and tautirite (A. Johannsen, A Descriptive Petrography of the Igneous Rocks, vol. I, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1939~. 4. A. Michel-Levy. Etude sur la determination des Feldspaths dans les plaques minces. Paris: Librairie Polytechnique, 1904, 16 pp. 5. T. S. Hunt. Illustrations of chemical homology. Am. Assoc. Adv. Sci. Proc. ~ 1854) :237-47.

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140 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS 6. G. Tschermak. Chemisch-mineralogische Studie-I: Die Fedlspatgruppe. Sitzberichte Akad. Wissenschafter Wien 50 ~ 1864) :566- 613. 7. A. C. Lawson. The geology of Carmelo Bay. Bull. Dept. Geol. Univ. California 1 ~ 1 8 9 3 ): 3 1 -3 6. 8. The alteration was first thought to be a single mineral but is now considered an intergrowth of two or more phases resulting from a continuous transformation of an original olivine crystal, pre- sumablv during the deuteric stake of consolidation of a magma. J O O O See, for example, P. Gay and R. W. LeMaitre, Some observations on iddingsite, Am. Miner 46 ~ 1961 ~ :92-111. 9. Iddings specifically stated that the chemical composition of a rock was not indicative of its age in "With notes on the petrographic character of the lavas" in C. D. Walcott, Pre-Cambrian Igneous Rocks of the Unker Terrane, Grand Canyon of the Colorado, Arizona, U.S. Geo- logical Survey Annual Report 14, Part II(1894~:520-24. 10. H. S. Washington. The magmatic alteration of hornblende and biotite. 7. Geol. 4 ~ 1896) :257-82. 11. Iddings's Survey Division was moved from New York to Wash- ington in 1885. In the Washington directories Iddings is listed as living at the following addresses: 1886-87, 1528 I St., N.W.; 1888-89, 1330 F St., N.W; 1890-91, 1028 Vermont Ave., N.W.; and 1892-93, 730 17th St., N.W. 12. Bowen, N. L. The Evolution of the Igneous Rocks. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1928. 334 pp. 13. M. C. Rabbitt. Minerals, Lands, and Geology for the Common De- fence and General Welfare, 1879-1904. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Gov- ernment Printing Office, 1980. 14. According to F. J. Pettijohn (pp. 30-31, A Century of Geology, 1885-1985, at the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore: Gateway Press, 1988), Iddings was considered as a replacement for Williams by W. B. Clark, head of the Geology Department at The Johns Hopkins University. The offer was made in 1894 but declined by Iddings. In 1913 Iddings did present five lectures at Hopkins as part of the guest lecture program. 15. The Journal of Geology was established at the University of Chi- cago in 1893 by T. C. Chamberlin. Iddings served on the editorial board from 1893 to 1909. 16. Washington had first introduced himself by letter to Iddings

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JOSEPH PAXSON IDDINGS 141 in 1894. He was the cousin of Iddings's cousin, Elmsie Gillet. Wash- ington had studied petrography under Zirkel at Leipzig in 1891-92 and made chemical analyses of rocks under Pirsson at Yale in 1895. He was independently wealthy at the time and had a complete labo- ratory for the analysis of rocks in his boyhood home. In 1898 Wash- ington published a paper on the alkaline rocks of Essex, Co., Mass., in which he urged a systematization of nomenclature and classifica- tion (H. S. Washington, Solvsbergite and tinguaite from Essex Co., Mass., Am. I. Sci. Ser. 4,6 ~ 1898) :176-87) . His training and interests were eminently compatible with the other members of the group. 17. H. S. Washington. Chemical analyses of igneous rocks pub- lished from 1884 to 1900, with a critical discussion of the characters and use of analyses. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 14, 1903. 18. In 1903 a group of peers listed the 100 leading men of sci- ence in the United States in geology and arranged them in order of distinction. The CIPW group were included: no. 14, Toseph Paxson Iddings (1857-1920~; no. 32, (Charles) Whitman Cross (1854-1949~; no. 49, Henry S. Washington (1867-1934~; and no. 55, Louis Valen- tine Pirsson (1860-1919~. The results were not published in Ameri- can Men of Science until 1933 (pp. 1274-75) . Only Cross and Wash- ington lived to learn the results. 19. C. Doelter. Synthetische Studien. Neu es. fahrb. Min. 1~1886~:119- 35. 20. F. Fouque and A. Michel-Levy. Synthese des mineraux et des roches. Paris: Masson, 1882. 21. T. Morozewicz. Experimental Untersuchungen uber die Bildung der Minerale in Magma. Tschermak 's Min. petr. Mitth. 18 ~ 1899~: 1-90. 22. T. H. L. Vogt. Die Silikatschmelzlosungen: I. Uber die Mineralbildung in Silikatschmelzlosungen. Norsk Videnskaps-Akad. Mat.- Natur. Klasse 8 ~ 1903~: 1-236. 23. H. S. Yoder, Tr. Development and promotion of the initial scientific program for the Geophysical Laboratory. In The Earth, the Heavens and the Carnegie Institution of Washington, vol. 5, pp. 21-28. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union, 1994. 24. D. J. Fisher. The Seventy Years of the Department of Geology, Uni- versity of Chicago, 1892-1961. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963. 25. The tape was originally provided through the courtesy of Ri- chard A. Davis, transcribed by T. V. Cole, and edited by B. F. Glenister

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142 B I O G RA P H I C A L EMOIRS in March 1976. A copy of the transcription is on file at the Univer- sity of Chicago. 26. The possibility was investigated that an inheritance may have Been forthcoming from his father's estate that presumably would have been settled by that time. He died in Orange, N.T., on Tune 20, 1906, according to the official death certificate. Unfortunately, there is no record of William Penn Iddings's will or letters of administra- tion in Essex County, N.T. He is buried, however, in Woodside Cem- etery adjoining the Riverside Estate in Brinklow, Md., but there were no details recorded by the cemetery association of his death. 27. It was presumed by others that Iddings had taken a position at McGill University, but a search by the university's archivist re- vealed no record of his being on the staff or cited in the newsletter, newspaper clippings, or calendars for that period. 28. The estate was along the Patuxent River in the eastern por- tion of Montgomery County. It is described by R. B. Farquahar (Old Homes and History of Montgomery County, Maryland, pp. 257-59, Silver Spring, Md., 1962) along with other historic homes in the county. The estate is shown on the 1865 homeowner's map of the county by Martenet and Bond under the name of Charles A. Iddings (1831- 98), the youngest son of Caleb Pierce Iddings (1778-1863~. 29. At this point, Iddings appears to have abandoned his custom- ary daily record of events. His friend Whitman Cross reconstructed the remainder of his tour from Iddings's detailed letters to his family and friends. 30. According to T. T. H. Teall, Iddings hoisted "The Union Tack alongside the Stars and Stripes at his country house on 'British Day' during World War I, when he returned to the United States. 31. L. L. Iddings. Poems. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1920. 32. C. D. Walcott. Olenellus iddingsi Walcott. U.S. Geol. Surv. Mongr. 8 ~ 1884) :28. 33. C. D. Walcott. Peachella iddingsi Walcott. Smithson. Miscl. Colt. 53~1910) :343-45. 34. C. D. Walcott. Cambrian geology and paleontology V. No. 2. Cambrian and lower Ozarkian trilobites. Smithson. Miscl. Coll. 75~1924~:1- 60. 35. One brief, subtle, humorous comment on the CIPW system is given by A. Johannsen (A Descriptive Petrography of the Igneous Rocks, vol. I. Chicago: Univesity of Chicago Press, 1939) who gave in the

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JOSEPH PAXSON IDDINGS 143 chapter heading two bars of music from an old (about 1828) Ger- man folksong, "Du, du liegst mir in Herzen" ("You, you lie in my heart". The fourth line of the stanza was omitted, which in one version runs, "Weiss nicht wie gut ich dir bin" ("You know not how good I am to you'd. It reflects Tohannsen's disappointment with the reviews of his own monumental work on petrography. It was Tohannsen who replaced Iddings as professor of petrology at the University of Chicago. 36. C-H. Geschwind. The beginnings of microscope petrography in the United States, 1870-1885. Earth Sci. Hist. 13 ~ 1994) :35-46. 37. C. King. Systematic Geology. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office, 1878. 38. T. W. Tudd. On the gabbros, dolerites and basalt of Tertiary age in Scotland and Ireland. Q. 7. Geol. Soc. Lond. 42~1886~:49-97. 39. E. Reyer. Beitrage zurFysik derEruptionen und derEruptiv-gesteine. Wien: A. Holder, 1877.

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144 B I O G RA P H I C A L S E L E C T E D EMOIRS B I B L I O G RAP H Y 1883 With A. Hague. Notes on the volcanoes of northern California, Or- egon and Washington Territory. Am. f. Sci. Ser. 3, 26:222-35. 1884 With A. Hague. Notes on the volcanic rocks of the Great Basin. Am. 7. Sci. Ser. 3, 27:453-63. 1885 With A. Hague. On the development of crystallization in the igne- ous rocks of Washoe, Nevada, with notes on the geology of the district. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 17:1-44. 1887 The nature and origin of lithophysae and the lamination of acid lavas. Am. f. Sci. Ser. 3, 33:36-45. 1888 Obsidian Cliff, Yellowstone National Park. U.S. Geol. Surv. Ann. Rep. 7:249-95. With H. Rosenbusch. Microscopical Physiography of the Rock-Making Minerals: An Aid to the Microscopical Study of Rocks. Translated and abridged by J. P. Iddings. New York: Wiley & Sons. 1889 On crystallization of igneous rocks. Philos. Soc. Washington Bull. 11:65- 113. 1891 The eruptive rocks of Electric Peak and Sepulchre Mountain, Yellowstone National Park. U.S. Geol. Surv. Ann. Rep. 12:569-664. Spherulitic crystallization. Philos. Soc. Washington Bull. 11:445-64. 1892 With A. Hague. Appendix B: Microscopical petrography of the eruptive

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JOSEPH PAXSON IDDINGS 145 rocks of the Eureka District, Nevada, pp. 335-96. In Geology of the Eureka District, Nevad a. U. S. Geological Survey Monograph 20. The origin of igneous rocks. Philos. Soc. Washington Bull. 12 :89-216. 1898 Chemical and mineral relationships in igneous rocks. 7. Geol. 6:219- 37. 1899 With A. Hague et al. The Geology of the Yellowstone National Park, part II. U.S. Geological Survey Monograph 32, 849 pp. 1902 With C. W. Cross et al. A quantitative chemico-mineralogical classy fication and nomenclature of igneous rocks. 7. Geol. 10:555-690. 1903 . Chemical composition of igneous rocks expressed by means of dia- grams, with reference to rock classification on a quantitative chemico- mineralogical basis. U. S. Geol. Surv. Prof. Pap. 18: 1-98. 1905 With A. L. Day and E. T. Allen. The isomorphism and thermal properties of the feldspars. Part II. Optical study. Carnegie Inst. Washington Publ. 31: 77-95. 1906 Rock Minerals, Their Chemical and Physical Characters and Their Deter- mination in Thin Sections. New York: Wiley & Sons. With C. W. Cross. The texture of igneous rocks. 7. Geol. 14:692-707. 1 909 Igneous Rocks: Composition, Texture and Classification, Description, and Occurrence, vol. I. New York: Wiley & Sons, 464 pp. 1911 Problems in petrology. Am. Philos. Soc. Proc. 50:286-300.

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146 BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIRS 1913 Igneous Rocks: Composition, Texture and Classification, Description, and Occurrence, vol. II. New York: Wiley & Sons, 685 pp. 1914 The Problem of Volcanism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 273 pp. 1915 With E. W. Morley. Contributions to the petrography of Java and Celebes. 7. Geol. 23:231-45. 1916 With E. W. Morley. The petrology of some South Pacific Islands and its significance. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2:413-19. 1918 With E. W. Morley. A contribution to the petrography of the South Sea Islands. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 4:110-17.

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