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13io,qraphicat Memoirs NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA Biographical Memoirs VOLUME 69 NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WASHINGTON, D.C. 1996

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The National Academy of Sciences was established in 1863 by Act of Con- gress as a private, nonprofit, self-governing membership corporation for the furtherance of science and technology, required to advise the federal government upon request within its fields of competence. Under its cor- porate charter the Academy established the National Research Council in 1916, the National Academy of Engineering in 1964, and the Institute of Medicine in 1970. INTERNATIONAL STANDARD BOOK NUMBER 0-309-05346-3 INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SERIAL NUMBER 0077-2933 LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NUMBER 5-2 6629 Available from NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE, N.W. WASHINGTON, D.C. 20418 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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CONTENTS PREFACE KENNETH EWART BOULDING BY NATHAN KEYFITZ SOLOMON J. BUCHSBAUM. BY KENNETH G. MCKAY ALBERT HEWITT COONS BY HUGH O. MCDEVITT WILLIAM FRANCIS GIAUQUE BY KENNETH S. PITZER AND DAVID A. SHIRLEY SUSUMU HAGIWARA BY THEODORE H. BULLOCK AND ALAN D. GRINNELL BERNHARD HAURWITZ BY3ULIUS LONDON JOSEPH PAXSON IDDINGS BY H. S. YODER, JR. HERMAN MORITZ KALCKAR BY EUGENE P. KENNEDY . . Vll 3 15 27 39 59 87 115 149

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V1 ISRAEL MICHAEL LERNER BY R. W. ALLARD THOMAS SEWARD LOVERING BY HAL T. MORRIS NICHOLAS ULRICH MAYALL BY DONALD E. OSTERBROCK CONTENTS EDWIN MATTISON MCMILLAN BYJ. DAVID JACKSON AND W. K. H. PANOFSKY HERMANN RAHN BYJOHN PAPPENHEIMER TRACY MORTON SONNEBORN BYJOHN R. PREER, JR. ALEXANDER SPOEHR BY DOUGLAS OLIVER ELIOT STELLAR BY JAY SCHULKIN JULIAN HAYNES STEWARD BY ROBERT A. MANNERS HARALD ULRIK SVERDRUP BY WILLIAM A. NIERENBERG CHAMP B. TANNER BY WILFORD R. GARDNER HARLAND GOFF WOOD BY DAVID A. GOLDTHWAIT AND RICHARD W. HANSON 167 177 189 215 243 269 295 315 325 339 377 395

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PREFACE On March 3, 1863, Abraham LincoIn signet! the Act of Incorporation that brought the National Academy of Sci- ences into being. In accordance with that original charter, the Academy is a private, honorary organization of scien- tists, electec! for outstanding contributions to knowlecige, who can be caller! upon to advise the fecleral government. As an institution the Academy's goal is to work toward in- creasing scientific knowlecige en c! to further the use of that knowlecige for the general goocI. The Biographical Memoirs, begun in 1877, are a series of volumes containing the life histories en c! selectee! bibliogra- phies of cleceasec! members of the Academy. Colleagues familiar with the cliscipline en c! the subject's work prepare the essays. These volumes, then, contain a recorc! of the life en c! work of our most clistinguishec! leaclers in the sci- ences, as witnesses! en c! interpreter! by their colleagues en c! peers. They form a biographical history of science in America an important part of our nation's contribution to the intellectual heritage of the worIcI. PETER H. RAVEN Home Secretary . . V11

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