Bean, John P. 1980 "Drop-outs and Turnover: The Synthesis and Test of a Causal Model of Student Attrition." Research in Higher Education 12 (2):155-87.

Questionnaires were distributed to approximately 1,200 university freshmen to develop and test a causal model of student attrition. The causal model synthesized research findings on turnover in work organizations with student attrition from institutions of higher education.

Benkin, Ellen M. 1984 "Where Have All the Doctoral Students Gone? A Study of Doctoral Students' Attrition at UCLA." Ph.D. diss., University of California, Los Angeles.

The study focused on approximately 4,300 students who entered doctoral programs at UCLA in 1969, 1970, and 1971. The status of students was examined at the end of the 1981 spring term.

Blume, S., and O. Amsterdamska 1987 Postgraduate Education in the 1980s. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.

The report discusses graduate education (master's and doctoral) in countries having membership in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), with particular attention on the duration of research training and the problem of noncompletion. An important reason for not completing the dissertation was a poor working relationship with the advisor and/or committee (except for bioscientists). Data from telephone interviews with 25 former doctoral students in psychology, sociology, zoology, physics, electrical engineering, and biochemistry are included.

Bodian, Lester Hal 1987 "Career Instrumentality of Degree Completion as a Factor in Doctoral Student Attrition." Ph.D. diss., University of Maryland.

A theory of career instrumentality (the extent to which a doctoral student perceives that the completion of the degree is relevant to a career goal) is developed through a study of the literature on employee turnover and graduate attrition. Data from a survey of 670 Ph.D. students at the University of Maryland in 1986 is presented. Career motivation (a desire to enter the guild) is shown to affect student persistence in maintaining relationships with faculty members.

Bowen, William G., and Neil L. Rudenstine 1992 In Pursuit of the Ph.D. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

The study reviews data from ten leading research universities regarding the educational experiences of 35,000 graduate students in English, history, political science, economics, mathematics, and physics, as well as the graduate experiences of 13,000 winners of prestigious national fellowships. The authors conclude that there are opportunities to achieve significant improvements in the organization and functioning of graduate programs.

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