likely to have positive relationships with faculty.

Zetterblom, Goran 1986 ''Postgraduate Education in Sweden: Reforms and Results." European Journal of Education 21:261-73.

This narrative discusses problems experienced in time to doctoral degree in Sweden and steps taken. It found that long study periods and high dropout rates led to the improvement of student grants. Concomitantly, time limits were tightened up, and admission qualifications were made more stringent. Data are derived from Swedish literature. Disciplinary differences in the conduct of graduate study are noted. The study found there is less attrition and shorter time-to-degree in the natural sciences than in the humanities and social sciences and that strong faculty supervision results in lower attrition and time-to-degree in the sciences.

Zwick, Rebecca 1991 An Analysis of Graduate School Careers in Three Universities: Differences in Attainment Patterns Across Academic Programs and Demographic Groups. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Data on 4,637 doctoral students entering at three major research universities from 1978 to 1985 in chemistry, English, history, mathematics, political science, psychology, economics, philosophy, physics, computer science, and sociology indicated that doctoral candidacy is achieved earliest in chemistry, mathematics, physics, and computer science; next in psychology, political science, sociology, and economics; latest in history, English, and philosophy.

Zwick, Rebecca, and Henry I. Braun 1988 Methods for Analyzing the Attainment of Graduate School Milestones: A Case Study. GRE Board Professional Report No. 86-3P. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.

Data measured in 1987 on 1,379 doctoral students entering Northwestern University from 1972 to 1978 in psychology, chemistry, English, history, mathematics, political science, chemical engineering, economics, philosophy, physics, sociology, theatre, and computer science show that attrition appears to be highest in English, history, political science, economics, and philosophy.

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