Appendix A
Data Bases For Studies Of Graduate Education In The United States

As part of its study, the panel contracted with the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology in Washington, D.C., to update the 1984 Guide to Data on Scientists and Engineers (B. M. Vetter and S. Jensen-Fisher). The panel requested material summarizing data bases that "permit analysis of patterns of graduate attrition/degree attainment in the sciences and humanities." More specifically, the panel asked for a technical summary which would (1) focus on extant data bases, (2) identify measures available in each data base, (3) describe the format in which the data are available to education researches (tabular, tape, computer diskette), and (4) identify the source of the data base and update pattern. Subsequently, project staff circulated the summary prepared by the Commission to the various program contacts for technical verification and updating. The product of that effort follows.

How to Use the Appendix

The data bases included in this appendix have been listed alphabetically by the name of the sponsoring organization. A brief description of the data base, together with a list of available publications is provided. If more than one survey is included in the data base, each is described. The description includes information on survey methodology, population base, sampling procedure, and response rate. Variables included in the data base are also described.

Researchers interested in using the data bases listed in this appendix are encouraged to request, in writing, their data needs by addressing the contacts listed in the pages that follow.

It is possible this summary of available data bases has overlooked important information sources that would also serve the data needs of education researchers. To the proprietors of those data bases, we extend our apologies. Nonetheless, we believe we have captured in this appendix the majority of available data bases that, properly manipulated, can extend our understanding of patterns of graduate attrition and degree completion in the sciences and humanities.



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 45
--> Appendix A Data Bases For Studies Of Graduate Education In The United States As part of its study, the panel contracted with the Commission on Professionals in Science and Technology in Washington, D.C., to update the 1984 Guide to Data on Scientists and Engineers (B. M. Vetter and S. Jensen-Fisher). The panel requested material summarizing data bases that "permit analysis of patterns of graduate attrition/degree attainment in the sciences and humanities." More specifically, the panel asked for a technical summary which would (1) focus on extant data bases, (2) identify measures available in each data base, (3) describe the format in which the data are available to education researches (tabular, tape, computer diskette), and (4) identify the source of the data base and update pattern. Subsequently, project staff circulated the summary prepared by the Commission to the various program contacts for technical verification and updating. The product of that effort follows. How to Use the Appendix The data bases included in this appendix have been listed alphabetically by the name of the sponsoring organization. A brief description of the data base, together with a list of available publications is provided. If more than one survey is included in the data base, each is described. The description includes information on survey methodology, population base, sampling procedure, and response rate. Variables included in the data base are also described. Researchers interested in using the data bases listed in this appendix are encouraged to request, in writing, their data needs by addressing the contacts listed in the pages that follow. It is possible this summary of available data bases has overlooked important information sources that would also serve the data needs of education researchers. To the proprietors of those data bases, we extend our apologies. Nonetheless, we believe we have captured in this appendix the majority of available data bases that, properly manipulated, can extend our understanding of patterns of graduate attrition and degree completion in the sciences and humanities.

OCR for page 45
--> American Geological Institute Contact: Nick Claudy 4220 King Street   Tel: (703) 379-2480 Alexandria, VA 22302-1502   Fax: (703) 379-7563     e-mail: nclaudy@agi.umd.edu • GEOSCIENCE STUDENT ENROLLMENT AND DEGREES SURVEY An annual survey of all U.S. Geoscience Departments that has been carried out since 1956. The return rate averages about 70 percent. • DATA Demographic: Sex, race/ethnicity, and citizenship. Enrollments: By year in college, M.A./M.S. candidates and Ph.D. candidates by sex, and 12* field breakouts. Beginning with the early 1980s, minority enrollments have been collected for three major fields plus "other." Foreign enrollments were collected by ten world areas of origin in 1990, with no subfield data. Beginning in 1990-91, foreign student survey showed 12 field breakouts by sex and type of visa. Degrees: Level, including two-year degrees, for 12 field breakouts by sex, 3 field breakouts by minority, and 12 field breakouts for foreign graduates. • AVAILABILITY The data are published annually by the American Geological Institute, other geoscience organizations, and industry. Funding for the survey is from AGI. *   Beginning with the 1993-94 academic year, field breakouts expanded to 20 for total enrollments/degrees granted and for foreign enrollments/degrees. Ethnic-minority student enrollments/ degrees granted remain as three breakout fields plus "other."

OCR for page 45
--> American Institute of Physics One Physics Ellipse College Park, MD 20740 Contacts: Patrick J. Mulvey Tel: (301) 209-3076 Fax: (301) 209-0843 Michael Neuschatz Tel: (301) 209-3077 Fax: (301) 209-0843 The AIP is an umbrella society incorporating ten national societies in physics and astronomy, 19 affiliated societies, and student members. Many of its surveys dealing with graduate education and degrees are long-term annual surveys that began in the 1960s. • SURVEY OF ENROLLMENTS AND DEGREES Both astronomy and physics departments are surveyed, and the survey results are displayed in three reports: Enrollments and Degrees Report, Bachelor's Degree Recipients Report, and Graduate Student Report. • DATA Enrollments: Undergraduate majors by year of study. First year (beginning) graduate students and total graduate students by attendance status and citizenship. Also collect information on total enrollments in introductory physics courses that is based on the amount of mathematics required for enrollment. Degrees: Numbers of bachelor's, terminal master's, master's en route to a Ph.D., and Ph.D.s by sex, citizenship, and race/ethnicity of U.S. students. • AVAILABILITY The annual eight-page report summarizes the results of the survey. Single copies are free and available from the AIP.

OCR for page 45
--> American Institute of Physics One Physics Ellipse College Park, MD 20740 Contacts: Patrick J. Mulvey Tel: (301) 209-3076 Fax: (301) 209-0843 Michael Neuschatz Tel: (301) 209-3077 Fax: (301) 209-0843 • GRADUATE STUDENT SURVEY Both physics and astronomy students are surveyed, and the results are reported separately in the same publication. • DATA Demographic: Sex, date of birth, citizenship, and racial/ethnic group. Education: Degree(s) held by month and year of receipt, field and institution, and current study institution. Candidates for terminal master's, master's en route to Ph.D., Ph.D., or no degree program. Attendance status, full-time years of graduate study completed, major source of support, area of concentration, and types of research. For those earning or expecting to earn a degree in the current academic year, the specific degree and date to be conferred, and the student's plans after completion of that degree. Also included are the number of firm job offers received and expected for post-degree employment. Employment: Full or part-time, U.S. or foreign, temporary or potentially permanent, type of employer, principal work activity, use of physics/astronomy training in job, date current employment began, and annual salary. • AVAILABILITY The annual 12-page report summarizes the results of the survey. Single copies are free and available from the AIP.

OCR for page 45
--> American Institute of Physics One Physics Ellipse College Park, MD 20740 Contacts: Patrick J. Mulvey Tel: (301) 209-3076 Fax: (301) 209-0843 Michael Neuschatz Tel: (301) 209-3077 Fax: (301) 209-0843 • SURVEY OF PHYSICS AND OF ASTRONOMY BACHELORS Both astronomy and physics students are surveyed, and the survey results are reported separately in the same publication. • DATA Demographic: Sex, race/ethnicity, citizenship, and type of high school physics taken. A series of questions ask what prompted the student's interest in physics, if the degree is a double major and in what, if a part-time student in his or her senior year, and whether the student's education began at a two-year institution. Education: Date and institution of bachelor's degree, and whether the degree was a B.S. or a B.A. Post-baccalaureate plans include graduate study in physics or in something else. Those planning physics graduate study are asked where they will attend, and whether they will attend on a full or part-time basis. Those entering another field are also asked what they plan to study. All are asked their major source of support. Employment: Employment status, plus how many firm offers were received in connection with the bachelor's degree. Current status of employment, whether it is temporary or potentially permanent, U.S. or foreign, the date employment began, and type of employer. Use of physics or astronomy training in work activity, principal activity, annual salary, and whether future graduate study is planned in one year or possibly later (and, if so, in what discipline), or not at all. • AVAILABILITY The annual eight-page report summarizes the results of the survey. Single copies are free and available from the AIP.

OCR for page 45
--> American Institutes for Research Project TALENT Data Bank P. O. Box 1113 Palo Alto, CA 94302 Contact: Lauri Steel Tel: (415) 493-3550 Fax: (415) 858-0958 • Project TALENT A 1960 longitudinal study of a national probability sample of 375,000 students in grades 9-12. Follow-up surveys were conducted periodically through 1975. On the 11-year follow-up, overall response rates averaged 23 percent, while response rates for targeted follow-up samples averaged 77 percent. • DATA Social/Demographic: Sex, race, age, family composition, family size, birth order, education and occupation of mother and father, SES. Cognitive/Social Psychological: Cognitive skills (23 tests, 14 scales), information (37 scales), personality traits (13 scales), interests (18 scales), educational and occupational plans and aspirations. Education: High school completion, diploma, courses taken, grades, occupational preparation. College attendance, school attended, date of completion, degree(s) and highest level reached, major/minor fields, grades/units earned, financing, occupational preparation. Non-college postsecondary program attendance, type of program, occupational preparation, license/certificate(s) earned. Graduate school attendance, school attended, date of completion, degree(s) earned, major/minor fields. Employment: For each follow-up employment status, work experience, current occupation, earnings, job satisfaction (overall, 16 dimensions), career plans, and military service. Other Personal: Marital status, marital history, number and ages of children, spouse's education/occupation, health, quality of life (overall, 15 dimensions). • AVAILABILITY A 4,000 case public use file may be obtained from the data archive at the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research at the University of Michigan. Other files may be obtained, at cost, directly from the Project TALENT Data Bank.

OCR for page 45
--> American Mathematical Society P.O. Box 6248 Providence, RI 02940 Contact: Kinda Remick Tel: (800) 321-4267 Fax: (401) 455-4004 e-mail: survey@ams.org • ANNUAL AMS-IMS-MAA SURVEY • Departmental Profile Survey AMS has surveyed departments of the mathematical sciences each year since 1957. The survey did not include information on graduate students prior to 1970 when questions on enrollments by course, departmental size, and teaching load were added. The annual survey—carried out by AMS for itself, the Mathematical Association of America, and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics—now requests the total enrollment in undergraduate and graduate mathematical sciences courses. Also requested are the number of full-time graduate students and the number of full-time first year students by citizenship and sex. The number of junior and senior undergraduate majors, by sex, is also requested for the current and previous fall. Full-time faculty information includes whether tenured or untenured (if tenure eligible) and the number of full-time faculty not eligible for tenure track, by sex, and whether doctoral or non-doctoral for the current and previous fall. Numbers of part-time faculty also are requested by sex and the highest degree for both years. Other questions ask for the number of full-time faculty in the previous fall term who retired and the number who died, the number of full-time doctoral faculty positions they tried to fill for the current academic year, how many of them were tenured or tenure-eligible positions, and how many were open to new doctoral recipients. Finally, the questionnaire asks for results of the hiring attempts in terms of hires by sex, whether doctoral or nondoctoral, and the number of positions still unfilled. Some surveys for earlier years requested information on graduate student support. This part of the survey is sent to all college and university mathematical sciences departments (about 1,570 U.S. departments) and provides no useful information relative to graduate retention. • Survey of Salaries and Professional Experience of New Doctorates/Doctorates Granted Survey Carried out each year, the survey examines the numbers and some demographic characteristics of new doctoral recipients, including sex, type of granting institution, citizenship, and race/ethnicity. Employment and salary information are also obtained. It may be possible to compare the graduate enrollment data with new doctorates by institution. Findings are published in NOTICES of the AMS. Not available on tape. • Faculty Salary Survey This annual survey collects faculty salaries, by rank, in departments of mathematical sciences in the U.S.

OCR for page 45
--> American Political Science Association 1527 New Hampshire Avenue, NW Washington DC 20036 Contact: Michael Brintnall Tel: (202) 483-2512 Fax: (202) 483-2657 • ANNUAL SURVEY OF DEPARTMENTS OF POLITICAL SCIENCE The survey reports on departments, degree awards by level, staff size and characteristics, historical changes, faculty hires and losses, department resources, and required courses. • GRADUATE STUDENTS AND FACULTY • DATA Students by Graduate Program Level: Applicants (entering and continuing), enrollments by sex, race, Latino origin, citizenship, and school. Departments awarding graduate degrees report graduate student admissions, acceptances, enrollments, and degree awards. Faculty by Graduate Program Level: Numbers by school, rank, sex, tenure status, citizenship, race, Hispanic origin. Departures by reason for leaving and new type of employer, new hires by reason for opening, rank and tenure status by sex and race, number of applicants for positions filled, expected hires in coming year, and salary ranges by rank and sex. Departmental Characteristics: Control, size, total enrollment, number, level and names of degrees awarded. Size and distribution of staff by rank and tenure status. Departmental travel funds, requirements to use departmental travel funds, funds from grants and contracts, secretarial personnel. Number of undergraduate majors and whether the number of rising or falling, credit hours and courses required for major. Teaching load of faculty, salary budget, salaries ($1,000 increments) by rank and sex, average fringe benefits, salary, degree level and teaching experience of new hires last year, and median salary of black faculty, if any, by rank. • AVAILABILITY Published in Departmental Services Program: 1990-91 Survey of Department . A new edition is published each spring. Summary tables are published in the American Political Science Association's journal, PS. A second report is Graduate Students and Faculty in Political Science Ph.D. and M.A. Programs 1991. No data tapes are available.

OCR for page 45
--> American Psychological Association Research Office 750 First Street, NE Washington, DC 20002 Contact: Jessica Kohout Tel: (202) 336-5980 Fax: (202) 336-6148 • BIENNIAL SURVEY OF GRADUATE DEPARTMENTS OF PSYCHOLOGY Begun in 1978, this survey requests information on departmental characteristics, faculty characteristics and salaries, and data on students (particularly full-time doctoral students) and their support. Data on such issues as enrollments, graduate curriculum, and departmental policies and activities are collected periodically as need arises. Sex and race of graduate students, salaries of faculty, and other departmental variables are collected in some but not in all years. Form requests estimate of time to complete survey. Attrition questions are not asked in each mailing but are repeated periodically. • METHODOLOGY The survey is mailed to all departments listed in the most recent edition of Graduate Study in Psychology. In 1991, departments in associated fields were dropped from this publication, but they are still surveyed by ODEER. In the 1993-94 survey 581 U.S. and 34 Canadian departments were surveyed. The response rate for U.S. doctorate universities was 73 percent for public institutions and 70 percent for private institutions. Response rates for master's departments were 64 percent and 65 percent, respectively. The total U.S. response rate was 69 percent. The 1991-92 survey did include extensive questions on attrition and retention. • DATA 1991-92 Survey: Departmental characteristics, degrees awarded, detail of program subfields offered. Students enrolled by year in program, attendance status, broad field, and financial support. There is also a special section on graduate student applications, enrollments, retention, and attrition. Faculty: Tenured, tenure track and other faculty, salaried, and paid per course. Number of new full-time regular faculty. 1990-91 Survey: Departmental characteristics, degrees awarded, detail of program subfields offered. Students enrolled by year in program, attendance status, broad field, and financial support. Special section on departmental and institutional resources for research and support services. Faculty: Tenured, tenure track and other faculty, salaried, and paid per course. Number of new full-time regular faculty in the fall of 1989 or in January 1990 by rank at hire, components of hiring package such as travel funds, summer salary, research equipment, space renovation, and approximate cost of each. 1989-90 Survey: Departmental characteristics, degrees awarded, and detail of program subfields offered. Students enrolled by year in program, attendance status, and financial support. Drops traineeships as mechanism of support. Special

OCR for page 45
--> section on graduate courses and training in psychopharmacology, substance abuse, and basic science. 1988-89 Survey: Includes data on sex and race/ethnicity of students and faculty by rank and tenure status, as well as data requested in 1989-90. Degrees awarded, by level, and for doctorates by type of degree (Ph.D., Psy.D., Ed.D.). Graduate enrollments in doctoral programs by attendance status. Full-time students by subfield, year in program (first year and beyond first year), type of support (TA, RA, fellowship), stipend, tuition coverage for 9 or 12 months, expected hours/week for TA and RA. Level of support for part-time students. The same information is requested for master's students. Departmental applications and retention statistics, requirements for admission, whether a face-to-face or phone interview is required, who does the interviewing, and cost-reimbursement for students doing face-to-face interviews. Number of students who applied, number who were accepted, and number who enrolled by subfield and type of program (master's or Ph.D.). Attrition data for students who began full-time doctoral programs in the fall of 1982 by asking how many started, how many have earned the Ph.D., how many are still enrolled, how many are working toward the Ph.D., and how many are not working toward the degree but have not formally left the program or have formally left without completing the Ph.D. The same current information was requested for master's entrants in the fall of 1985. 1987-88 Survey: Details graduate enrollments by program, degree sought, race/ethnicity, sex, attendance status, support by year in graduate school, hours required for Tas and RAs. Faculty by tenure status, new and replacement positions, departures and retirements by reason, source of new full-time regular faculty, and details of tenure and retirement policies. Departmental administration structure and salaries. 1986-87 Survey: Usual departmental characteristics; number, type of support, and level of support for students (by year) in graduate school and degree program. Source of faculty research grants. Details by rank, faculty teaching loads by hours spent, courses taught, other duties, and research grants/contracts. Full range of faculty positions and salaries, including department chair and other administrators such as director of clinical training. Asks how raises were determined. Distinguishes new faculty, broken out by new Ph.D. and two years' postdoctoral experience. Same faculty detail as in previous year. 1985-86 Survey: Also asks master's applications and admissions for the fall of 1980 by program area. Distinguishes ABDs from other doctoral students. Compares time expended by TAs and RAs, includes support from traineeships, and delineates teaching responsibilities of all graduate students in the department. Requests information on departmental resources (secretaries/clerical staff, research support staff). Delineates tenure track and non tenure-track faculty by source of salary. Examines departmental budgets for travel, including source of funds and who used the funds. Departmental budget for operations, for acquiring or upgrading instructional and research equipment, for computer usage, and for other activities. External funds for research, training, or equipment. Detail of faculty salaries, including chair and other administrative positions. For each faculty member the subfield, employment status, rank and years in rank, sex, ethnicity/race, highest degree and year, tenure status, and salary. • AVAILABILITY Annual publication, i.e., 1989-90 Characteristics of Graduate Departments of Psychology, 66 pp., January 1992. Not available on tape.

OCR for page 45
--> Association of American Universities Association of Graduate Schools Educational Testing Service Rosedale Road, MS 19-T Princeton, NJ 08541 Contact: Rocco P. Russo Tel: (609) 734-5361 Fax: (609) 734-5010 e-mail: ags_project@ets.org • AAU/AGS PROJECT FOR RESEARCH ON DOCTORAL EDUCATION A longitudinal data base relevant to the flow of individuals into and through Ph.D. programs in 10 fields: biochemistry, chemical engineering, economics, English, history, mathematics, mechanical engineering, physics, political science, and psychology (excluding clinical and counseling). Institutional data sets about applicants and students are transferred annually by approximately 40 (ultimately 60) major research universities. A record is maintained for all applicants to and students in any of the selected graduate programs, including multiple applications. Since 1989 the project's research efforts have supported the annual collection, merging, analysis, and reporting of data maintained by the project via a standardized, longitudinal multi-institutional data base. Data sets maintained by the project are designed to support analytic summaries by doctoral program for selected individual groups. The analytic groups tabulated for the applicant data sets include applicants, accepted applicants, and enrolled applicants. The analytic groups tabulated for the student data sets include (1) stage 1 students (individuals who have been enrolled in a doctoral program for not more than one academic year and have not achieved candidacy), (2) stage 2 students (individuals who have been enrolled in a doctoral program for more than one academic year and have not achieved candidacy), (3) stage 3 students (individuals who have achieved candidacy but have not been awarded a Ph.D. degree), and (4) stage 4 students (individuals who have graduated with a Ph.D. degree). Related student groups which can be studied include (1) students who dropped out or ended their doctoral program studies prior to completion, (2) students who are not enrolled but are eligible to enroll or are on leave, and (3) students who have transferred to another program within the institution. • DATA Demographic: Gender, age, citizenship status, ethnic status. Educational: Baccalaureate institution, admission decision, enrollment decision, enrollment status, candidacy status, GRE scores, financial aid data. • AVAILABILITY Annual reports to participating institutions, allowing comparisons with other institutions of similar characteristics and special topic reports and bulletins. A publication list is available. Several existing data sets are available for analysis, including a longitudinal student data base that maintains the student records linked annually from the fall of 1989 through the fall of 1992.

OCR for page 45
--> Department of Education Contact: Vance Grant National Center for Education Statistics   Tel: (202) 219-1659 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System   Fax: (202) 219-1696 555 New Jersey Avenue, NW     Washington, DC 20208-5641     • ENROLLMENTS IN HIGHER EDUCATION An annual survey of enrollments by sex, full-time or part-time, level, and institutional control in two and four-year colleges. First-time and total enrollments are requested. Data have been collected by race and ethnicity since 1976. In recent years (1990-91) the race/ethnicity data have been collected each fall. In 1987, 1989, 1991, and 1993, surveys of enrollments by age were carried out. This survey is expected to be repeated in odd-numbered years in the future. Occasionally, and most recently in the fall of 1988, the enrollment data were collected by broad major field. There is no consistent pattern for repeating that part of the enrollment survey. • DEGREES AND OTHER FORMAL AWARDS CONFERRED An annual survey of degree awards by level (including those requiring less than four years), sex, and fine field. In past odd-numbered years—1976-77 through 1988-89—the degree survey included the race/ethnicity of recipients in 30 broad fields. Beginning in 1988-89, the race/ethnicity data have been collected annually.

OCR for page 45
--> U.S. Department of Education Contact: Peter Stowe National Center for Education Statistics   Tel: (202) 219-2009 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System   Fax: (202) 219-1679 555 New Jersey Avenue, NW   e-mail: Washington, DC 20208   Peter_Stowe@ed.gov • RECENT COLLEGE GRADUATES STUDY This study of the employment and education experiences of recent college graduates has been conducted periodically since 1976. The sixth and last survey was conducted in 1991. The findings of that survey are summarized in "Occupational and Educational Outcomes of 1989-90 Bachelor's Degree Recipients 1 Year After Graduation: 1991." The study responds to a congressional mandate to determine the supply of new teachers in the job market by enumerating the supply of new teachers with a bachelor's or a master's degree. A publication based on the 1991 data and entitled New Teachers in the Job Market, 1991 Update summarizes the characteristics, certification, and teaching fields of bachelor's degree recipients who were new teachers in 1991. The 1987 survey collected transcript data on the bachelor's degree sample in addition to graduates' responses to the questionnaire. • METHODOLOGY A two-stage sample design is employed to select a nationally representative sample of 16,000 bachelor's and 2,000 master's degree recipients. In the first stage, higher education institutions granting bachelor's or master's degrees are stratified by control and the number of degrees awarded to education majors. Within each of these four strata institutions are selected according to a measure of size (the number of bachelor's and master's degrees awarded). In the second stage students from the 400 institutions selected in the first stage are stratified by degree obtained and selected major fields of study, especially education. Within groups of major fields of study students are randomly selected with different sampling rates to oversample certain major fields of study. A ratio-estimation procedure is used to inflate the sample results to estimates applicable to the total number of graduates. • DATA Demographic data include age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, and number of dependents. Education data include degree, major field of study, financial aid received, further education aspirations. Post-degree activities include continuation with education, labor force status, employment status, salary, occupation, job characteristics. • AVAILABILITY The 1991 survey data are available on floppy disk and CD ROM. The above mentioned publications are also available. Previous years' data are available on CD ROM.

OCR for page 45
--> U.S. Department of Education Contact: Paula R. Knepper National Center for Education Statistics   Tel: (202) 219-1914 Postsecondary Education Statistics Division     555 New Jersey Avenue, NW     Washington, DC 20208-5652     • BACCALAUREATE AND BEYOND LONGITUDINAL STUDY The Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B) provides information concerning education and work experiences after completing the bachelor's degree. It continues to provide cross-sectional information one year after bachelor's degree completion (comparable to the Recent College Graduate Survey) as well as longitudinal data concerning entry into and progress through graduate level education and the work force. A special emphasis of B&B is on those entering public service areas, particularly teaching. B&B greatly expands the knowledge about persistence, progress, and attainment after entry into graduate education. It also directly addresses issues concerning entry into the work force and rates of return. Its unique contribution is the longitudinal perspective on the graduate education/work interaction and the longer range information concerning newly qualified teachers and their entry into and continuation in the field. Questions that B&B can address about access to graduate or professional programs include timing, the application process, and entry into the program. Attainment/outcome questions include completion time for the bachelor's degree, timing of entry into the work force, and the relationship of field of study to area of employment. B&B is also able to inform the rate of return questions, particularly those associated with immediate entry into the work force after completion of the bachelor's degree, issues concerning the interaction between education and work, and issues associated with entry into public service areas such as teaching and relative career advancement. • METHODOLOGY B&B plans to follow each cohort over a 12-year period, allowing a unique opportunity to gather information concerning delayed entry into graduate level education, times to completion of graduate education, and the interactions between work and education at the graduate level. The B&B is based on the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS). NPSAS is a large, nationally representative sample of institutions, students, and parents, providing a highly efficient and cost-effective way to identify a nationally representative sample of baccalaureate degree completers in PSE. By using NPSAS as the base year for B&B longitudinal studies, two additional advantages are realized. One, there is coordination between the recurring cross-sectional studies and the longitudinal studies, and two, there is coordination among the postsecondary longitudinal studies. The information collected through NPSAS allows for the accurate identification of baccalaureate degree completers. Further, data from all components of NPSAS (the Student Record Abstract, the Student Interview, and the Parent Survey) are available as base year data

OCR for page 45
--> for the B&B sample. New B&B cohorts will alternate with BPS in using NPSAS surveys as their base. • DATA About 11,000 students who completed their degree in the 1992-93 academic year were included in the first B&B: 93/94. NPSAS: 93 provides data for over 8,000 of their parents. Components include (a) Base Year (1992) data (NPSAS Student Record Abstract, NPSAS Student Interview data, and NPSAS Parent Survey data) and (b) B&B Follow-up Surveys. Student Record Abstract: Indicates major field of study, type and control of institution, financial aid, cost of attendance, family income, sex, and race/ethnicity. Student Interview: Includes undergraduate and major GPA, date of first enrollment, financial aid, loan burden for undergraduate education, activities related to selection and entry into graduate school, activities related to obtaining employment after graduation, qualifications to teach, current marital status, employment and income, demographic information, college experiences, and future expectations. Parental Survey: Looks at race/ethnicity, marital status, age, level of education achieved, income, occupation, financial support provided to children, methods of financing student's PSE expenses, involvement in student's selection of graduate school, and involvement in the student's obtaining a job after graduation. Follow-up Surveys: Will include entry into graduate school, persistence in enrollment, periods of attendance, graduate loan burden, academic progress, change in field of study, education-related experiences, financial aid, current family status, entry into the work force, employment related training, entry and persistence in teaching, community service, political participation, further education plans, and future expectations.

OCR for page 45
--> Erikson Biographical Institute, Inc. Contact: G. E. Erikson 167 Angell Street   Tel: (401) 863-3355 Providence, RI 02906   Fax: (401) 454-0417 • BIOLOGICAL DATA BASE A data base totaling 248,876 individuals, of whom 77 percent are living, 69 percent are American (58 percent are living Americans), 29 percent have Ph.D.s, and 52 percent are scientists. • DATA Date and place of birth and sex. Degrees by institution and date, broad field of degree (science, social science, or humanities), and employment. Can compare birth year and Ph.D. year over large time spans. It includes a chart starting in 1870 showing the number of the Ph.D.s in the sample who took 3 years, 4 years, 5 years, 6 years, and up to 19 years to get the Ph.D. after receiving a bachelor's degree. The chart is subdivided for scientists, social scientists, humanists and unknown degree field. Within the sciences, data are broken out by conventional fields, largely in the life sciences. Modal and mean time-to-degree are fairly constant (and low) for decades before rising during the past decade. Also included are data relating to approximately 8,000 individuals who were graduate students when they entered the data base and for whom there is no record of Ph.D. completion. A test of some of these individuals indicates that perhaps one-third of them do have the Ph.D., while a large number of them did not complete the degree.

OCR for page 45
--> Harvard University Project Access Contact: Gerald Holton Jefferson Laboratory   Tel: (617) 495-4474 Cambridge, MA 02138   Fax: (617) 495-0416 Contact:   e-mail: holton@physics.harvard.edu • PROJECT ACCESS: A STUDY OF ACCESS TO SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH This study has two components. The first is a questionnaire study of access of women scientists and engineers to research careers. It is based on a sample of 803 scientists (295 women) who received prestigious postdoctoral fellowships—104 women are Bunting Institute Fellows and Finalists from the years 1961-1984; 239 are NRC Postdoctoral Associates (147 men, 92 women) from the years 1959-1986; and 460 are NSF Postdoctoral Fellows (361 men, 99 women) from the years 1955-1985. Response rates for those who were contacted was 53.3 percent for former Bunting Fellows and Finalists; 60.6 percent for former NSF Fellows (62.1 percent for men and 55.6 percent for women); and 82.1 percent for former NRC Associates (81.7 percent for men and 82.9 percent for women). The second component is a study based on 200 open-ended interviews with a subsample of respondents (108 women, 92 men). This sample has many characteristics (and probably individuals) in common with the Erikson sample, including, as it does, highly prestigious scientists of both sexes who attained the doctorate. • QUESTIONNAIRE DATA Demographic: Sex, race, ethnicity, physical handicap and year of impairment, prolonged illness before age 21. Date of birth, citizenship (including naturalization and visa status), country of prior citizenship, year of naturalization, country of present citizenship, birth year and sex of siblings. Marital status when doctorate received (during first doctoral appointment and as of January 1, 1988), year of birth of children, number living with participant on January 1, 1988. Education level of spouse, mother, and father. year of death of parents who died before subject was 21, and year of parental divorce. Education: Graduate university, year and field of highest degree, total time to the doctorate from the baccalaureate. Time spent as a full-time student, a part-time student, or not working on the degree. History of assistantships held (research, teaching, none, or other) and period held (throughout graduate school, more than half time, about half time, or less than half time). How an assistantship helped or hindered professional development, debt at time of doctorate, funding sources for doctorate, source of any graduate fellowship, and employment status in year preceding highest degree award. Questions about principal dissertation advisor and about postdoctoral appointments (title, year(s) of application for and holding fellowship, where it was served, and characteristics of scientists on the staff of the institution with which individual may have been affiliated during the postdoctoral appointment). Whether additional postdoctoral appointments other than the award noted were sought and obtained,

OCR for page 45
--> reasons for taking postdoctoral appointments, importance of fellowship in attainment of present position, and number of mentors during all postdoctoral appointments. Employment: University research positions in addition to postdoctoral appointments, if any. Research fields (during Ph.D., while a fellow, and later). Whether now part of a scientific research team, and, if not why not. Present employment status, type of organization, name of employer, location, date and month began, type of position held, academic rank, if any. Tenured, tenure track, or outside traditional academic structure, and year tenure received. Graduate students now supervised, time spent on various activities, federal support for research, salary, and employment plans (seeking new position, retired, planning move). • AVAILABILITY The final report to the National Science Foundation on the first Project Access: A Study of Access of Women Scientists and Engineers to Research Careers was published in March 1991. The report on the follow-up NSF grant was issued in August 1992. The major results of Project Access have been published in two books. G. Sonnert, with the assistance of G. Holton. Gender Differences in Science Careers: The Project Access Study. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995. G. Sonnert, with the assistance of G. Holton. Who Succeeds in Science? The Gender Dimension. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1995. Arrangements might be made with the principal investigator to share data information. The data have been deposited at the Henry A. Murray Research Center, Radcliffe College, Cambridge, MA 02138.

OCR for page 45
--> National Research Council Contact: Peter Henderson Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel   Tel: (202) 334-3155 Room TJ2035   Fax: (202) 334-2753 2101 Constitution Ave., NW   e-mail: Washington, DC 20418   phdsurvy@nas.edu • SURVEY OF EARNED DOCTORATES (aka Doctorate Records File [DRF]) Since 1958 this annual survey has provided a nearly 100 percent response from all new doctorate recipients in U.S. universities. • METHODOLOGY Questionnaires are distributed to graduate deans who supply them to graduates who have completed requirements for the doctorate. Rosters of recipients are compiled by NRC after receipt of the questionnaires and verification made with the doctorate institution. • DATA Demographic: Name (including maiden or former name), permanent address, Social Security number, place and date of birth, gender, marital status, citizenship, race/ethnicity (since 1973), physical handicap (since 1985), number of dependents, and parents' education level. Education: History includes place and year of high school graduation, dates of attendance and graduation from all higher education institutions, major field, dissertation title and departmental classification, detailed sources and types of graduate support, employment status in preceding year, and postgraduation plans. Beginning in 1987, the questionnaire asks how many years since first baccalaureate degree were spent as a full-time student. Also beginning in 1987, a question was added on the level of cumulative debt related to education. • AVAILABILITY The NRC publishes an annual Summary Report which currently includes seven appendix tables for the current year. They provide data on degrees by fine field, gender, race/ethnicity, and citizenship (U.S., permanent residents, and temporary visas); a statistical profile of Ph.D.s by broad field, gender, citizenship, and race/ethnicity; sources of support by broad field and gender; state of Ph.D. institution by broad field and gender; and institutional sources of doctorates by state and broad field. There are also two trend appendix tables that present data for the most recent 10-year period: number of Ph.D.s by fine field and number of doctorates by gender, race/ethnicity, and citizenship status.

OCR for page 45
--> National Research Council Contact: Peter Henderson Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel   Tel: (202) 334-3155 Room TJ2035   Fax: (202) 334-2753 2101 Constitution Ave., NW   e-mail: Washington, DC 20418   phdsurvy@nas.edu • SURVEY OF DOCTORATE RECIPIENTS (Survey of Doctoral Scientists and Engineers prior to 1977) The Survey of Doctorate Recipients (SDR) is a longitudinal employment survey of a stratified random sample of doctorate recipients in the sciences, engineering, and the humanities. The survey has been conducted every two years since 1973 (humanities doctorates were added in 1977) by the National Research Council with support from the National Science Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities, and other federal sponsors. In 1993, the latest year for which data is available, the sample was composed of over 50,000 science/engineering doctorates and 10,000 humanities doctorates. The overall response rate was 87 percent. Survey estimates were based on doctorates who were 75 years of age or less and who were residing in the United States in April 1993. • DATA Demographic: Date of birth, sex, racial and ethnic identity, citizenship and visa type for foreign citizens, marital status, children by age grouping, and physical handicap status. Education: Field, institution and year of the doctorate, and education history. Carnegie classification of institution and Jones-Lindzey reputational rating. Employment: Employment status, full-time or part-time and reason, reason for being out of labor force, job search restrictions for those unemployed and seeking. Current employer (name, location, type of organization), employment field, reason for non-science employment, faculty rank and tenure status, primary and secondary work activity, years of work experience, sources of federal support, energy-related work experience, and annual salary. • AVAILABILITY The NRC publishes a profile report of humanities doctorates every two years, but it has not, since the early 1980s, published a similar report on science and engineering doctorates. Instead, the NSF publishes detailed statistical tables on selected characteristics of doctoral scientists and engineers. The NRC will run special tabulations on a cost-reimbursement basis. A public use tape is available. For information contact the National Science Foundation, Division of Science Resources Studies, (703) 306-1780.

OCR for page 45
--> National Science Foundation Contact: Mary J. Golladay 4201 Wilson Boulevard   Tel: (703) 306-1774 Arlington, VA 22230   Fax: (703) 306-0510     e-mail: mgollada@nsf.gov • SURVEY OF GRADUATE SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING STUDENTS An annual survey sent to all of the science and engineering graduate departments in some 604 institutions in the U.S. and outlying areas. From 1984 through 1987, the surveys were conducted on a stratified random sample with all Ph.D.-granting institutions and all Historically Black Colleges and Universities included in the certainty stratum. Estimates for the remaining master's granting institutions were made and then re-estimated in 1988 on the basis of 1983 and 1988 data. • DATA Number of graduate students in the department by attendance status, detailed form and source of support, sex, first year versus all years, race/ethnicity, and citizenship. Postdoctorates and non-faculty research staff are reported by total; type and source of support; sex; and how many hold M.D., D.O., D.D.S., or D.V.M. degrees. Departmental information includes name of institution, name of department or program, any change since previous year, highest degree granted, and name and title of person filling out form. • AVAILABILITY Data tables are provided by all available parameters to persons requesting them. Data are also available on the World Wide Web at http://www.nsf.gov/sbe/srs/stats.htm .

OCR for page 45
--> National Science Foundation Contact: John Tsapogas 4201 Wilson Boulevard   Tel: (703) 306-1776 Arlington, VA 22230   Fax: (703) 306-0508     e-mail: jtsapoga@nsf.gov • NATIONAL SURVEY OF RECENT COLLEGE GRADUATES Conducted by a contractor for NSF (most recently the WESTAT), this biennial survey is sent to a sample of about 21,000 science and engineering graduates at the bachelor's and master's level during the previous two years. They are selected from lists provided by a set of selected universities and colleges. The survey is conducted using Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing (CATI). A mail follow-up is made only for respondents who prefer to submit responses in writing. The response rates over the last two survey cycles have been over 85 percent. • DATA Demographic: Sex, date and place of birth, citizenship and visa status, race/ethnicity, marital status, children under and over the age of six, and type of physical disability(ies), if any. Educational: Field, degree received (month and year), and full or part-time college attendance in the five months preceding the survey. Graduate school status in 1993 is available by field and sex for bachelor's graduates and for 1991 and 1992 master's graduates. Employment: Employment status, restrictions (if any) on job search, and reasons for being unemployed and not seeking. Employed in S/E or not, and, if not, reason why. Job characteristics of employed respondents include type of employer, code for type of activity, code for second job (if any), primary and secondary activities, and coded job specialty. Basic salary and period it covers, years of professional experience, self identification from degree, and employment codes. Government support for work and agency. Special questions on energy-related employment. • AVAILABILITY Characteristics of Recent Science and Engineering Graduates: 1990 (NSF 90-305). Floppy disks of tables are available. Characteristics of Recent College Graduates: 1993, forthcoming.