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ELDON W. ASKEW: Dr. Vallerand, I was impressed with the success on increasing tolerance you had with the individual pharmaceutical agents. Why didn't you have the same success with the Cold Buster™ bar? Was the dose not high enough? Was it the combination? What is your opinion?

ANDRÉ VALLERAND: This is a good and a tough question at the same time. We have analyzed the Cold Buster™ bar independently. It is a high-carbohydrate sports bar that is loaded with cocoa. We have analyzed the bar, and it appears, like most other cocoa-containing products, to be 2 percent theobromine. Theobromine is another xanthine, probably less potent than caffeine and definitely less potent than caffeine and theophylline.

In this particular application, we were not able to confirm the cold-tolerance enhancement that has been found by the inventor of the bar. We have tried to do so in two different trials, and we have looked at the possibility that perhaps the metabolic rate was not high enough to confirm the theory, but that did not appear to be the case. Then we looked at dose levels. We went to almost 717 kcal (3,000 kJ). Again, we did not observe an enhancement effect.

I do not have a good explanation except that perhaps one needs a bit more punch to enhance thermoregulatory thermogenesis. I would like to return the question maybe to you and also to Dr. LeBlanc.

We were also not sure why we were not able to observe a thermic effect of the food. It is a high-carbohydrate compound. Perhaps the thermic effect of food in those various trials is too small to be detected at those metabolic rates. We do not know.

It is also possible, and this is one area where we would like to focus our research, to switch to survival-like conditions, meaning longer trials and possibly energy-deficient states. Maybe we could see an effect there. At the moment, I do not have a very good answer for you.

ROBERT POZOS: In terms of the sympathomimetic effects you are getting, what do you think are the proposed effects on the neuromuscular system? Because if you are increasing norepinephrine rather than total catecholamines, you might be increasing neuromuscular activity, which might compromise other functions. Have you studied that at all?

ANDRÉ VALLERAND: We have not looked at that. Perhaps we should look deeper into the various mechanisms of action. We tried to stay one step lower or higher, one step, say, above that. We wanted to concentrate more on what would be the best means, either pharmacological and/or dietary, to enhance cold tolerance, and then possibly look at the mechanisms afterward.

HARRIS LIEBERMAN: We have also given sympathomimetic drugs to animals and exposed them to cold stress. We have seen increased activity in



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