Cover Image


View/Hide Left Panel

body temperature regulation. Dangers of acute mountain sickness and high-altitude cerebral and pulmonary edema were considered, as were the effects of cold and of high altitudes on appetite, mood, and both physical and mental performance. A review of available knowledge about altered nutrient requirements at cold and altitude extremes included presentations on fluid balance, energy costs, body weight changes, specific needs for various macro-and micronutrients, and the effects of appetite, gender, and age on these requirements. Discussion of these topics set the stage for the recommendations and conclusions concerning the questions under consideration, some immediately available military approaches, and future research needs, all of which are found in the next chapter.


Adolph, E.F., and associates 1947 Physiology of Man in the Desert. New York: Interscience Publishers, Inc.

Ahlers, S.T., J.R. Thomas, J. Schrot, and D. Shurtleff 1994 Tyrosine and glucose modulation of cognitive deficits resulting from cold stress. Pp. 301–320 in Food Components to Enhance Performance, An Evaluation of Potential Performance-Enhancing Food Components for Operational Rations, B.M. Marriott, ed. A report of the Committee on Military Nutrition Research, Food and Nutrition Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

Anand, I., and Y. Chandrashekhar 1992 Syndromes of subacute mountain sickness: Pathophysiology and manifestations. Pp. 257–275 in The Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Hypertension, E.K. Weir, S.L. Archer, and J.T. Reeves, eds. Mt. Kisco, N.Y.: Futura Publishing Inc.

Anand, I., R. Malhotra, Y. Chandrashekhar, H. Bali, S. Chauhan, R. Bhandari, and P. Wahi 1990 Adult subacute mountain sickness—a syndrome of congestive heart failure in man at very high altitude. Lancet 335:561–565.

Anholm, J.D., A.C. Powles, R. Downey, C.S. Houston, J.R. Sutton, M.H. Bonnet, and A. Cymerman 1992 Operation Everest II: Arterial oxygen saturation and sleep at extreme simulated altitude. Am. Rev. Respir. Dis. 145:817–826.

AR (Army Regulation) 40-25 1985 See U.S. Departments of the Army, the Navy, and the Air Force.

Askew, E.W. 1989 Nutrition for a cold environment. Phys. Sportsmed. 17:77–89.

Astrup, A., J. Bulow, J. Madsen, and N.J. Christensen 1985 Contribution of BAT and skeletal muscle to thermogenesis induced by ephedrine in man. Am. J. Physiol. 248 (Endocrinol. Metab. 11):E507–E515.

Astrup, A., B. Buemann, N.J. Christensen, S. Toubro, G. Thorbek, O.J. Victor, and F. Quaade 1992 The effect of ephedrine/caffeine mixture on energy expenditure and body composition in obese women. Metabolism 41(7):686–688.

Bader, R.A., J.W. Eliot, and D.E. Bass 1952 Hormonal and renal mechanisms of cold diuresis. J. Appl. Physiol. 4:649–658.

Bahrke, M.S., and B. Shukitt-Hale 1993 Effects of altitude on mood, behavior, and cognitive functioning: A review. Sports Med. 16:97–125.

The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement