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body temperature regulation. Dangers of acute mountain sickness and high-altitude cerebral and pulmonary edema were considered, as were the effects of cold and of high altitudes on appetite, mood, and both physical and mental performance. A review of available knowledge about altered nutrient requirements at cold and altitude extremes included presentations on fluid balance, energy costs, body weight changes, specific needs for various macro-and micronutrients, and the effects of appetite, gender, and age on these requirements. Discussion of these topics set the stage for the recommendations and conclusions concerning the questions under consideration, some immediately available military approaches, and future research needs, all of which are found in the next chapter.

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