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Biographical Sketches

COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION RESEARCH

ROBERT O. NESHEIM (Chair) was Vice President of Research and Development and later Science and Technology for the Quaker Oats Company. He retired in 1983 and was Vice President of Science and Technology and President of the Advanced HealthCare Division of Avadyne, Inc. before his retirement in 1992. During World War II, he served as a Captain in the U.S. Army. Dr. Nesheim has served on the Food and Nutrition Board, chairing the Committee on Food Consumption Patterns and serving as a member of several other committees. He also was active in the Biosciences Information Service as its Board Chairman, American Medical Association, American Institute of Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and Food Reviews International editorial board. He is a fellow of the American Institute of Nutrition and American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of several professional organizations. Dr. Nesheim received a B.S. in Agriculture, M.S. in Animal Science, and Ph.D. in Nutrition and Animal Science from the University of Illinois.



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--> B Biographical Sketches COMMITTEE ON MILITARY NUTRITION RESEARCH ROBERT O. NESHEIM (Chair) was Vice President of Research and Development and later Science and Technology for the Quaker Oats Company. He retired in 1983 and was Vice President of Science and Technology and President of the Advanced HealthCare Division of Avadyne, Inc. before his retirement in 1992. During World War II, he served as a Captain in the U.S. Army. Dr. Nesheim has served on the Food and Nutrition Board, chairing the Committee on Food Consumption Patterns and serving as a member of several other committees. He also was active in the Biosciences Information Service as its Board Chairman, American Medical Association, American Institute of Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and Food Reviews International editorial board. He is a fellow of the American Institute of Nutrition and American Association for the Advancement of Science and a member of several professional organizations. Dr. Nesheim received a B.S. in Agriculture, M.S. in Animal Science, and Ph.D. in Nutrition and Animal Science from the University of Illinois.

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--> RICHARD L. ATKINSON is Professor of Internal Medicine, Department of Nutritional Science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He was the Associate Chief of Staff for Research and Development at the Veterans' Affairs Medical Center in Hampton, Virginia. Concurrently, Dr. Atkinson was Professor of Internal Medicine and Chief of the Division of Clinical Nutrition at the Eastern Virginia Medical School in Norfolk, Virginia. He served 4 years in the military at Walter Reed Army Hospital in Washington, D.C. and the U.S. Army Hospital in Fort Campbell, Kentucky. Dr. Atkinson is an editorial board member for the Journal of Nutrition, a medical advisory board member for Obesity Update, and a contributing editor for Nutrition Reviews. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Institute of Nutrition, and Endocrine Society; he is a fellow of the American College of Nutrition and American College of Physicians. Dr. Atkinson holds a B.A. from the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington and M.D. from the Medical College of Virginia in Richmond, where he served his internship. He then completed his residency at Harbor General Hospital in Torrance, California. WILLIAM R. BEISEL is Adjunct Professor in the Department of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology at the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. He held several positions at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick, Maryland, including in turn, Chief of the Physical Sciences Division, Scientific Advisor, and Deputy for Science. He then became Special Assistant for Biotechnology to the Surgeon General. After serving in the U.S. military during the Korean War, Dr. Beisel was the Chief of Medicine at the U.S. Army Hospital in Ft. Leonard Wood, Missouri, before becoming the Chief of the Department of Metabolism at the Walter Reed Army Hospital. He was awarded a Commendation Ribbon, Bronze Star for the Korean War, Hoff Gold Medal at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, B. L. Cohen Award of the American Society for Microbiology, and Department of Army Decoration for Exceptional Civilian Service. He was named a diplomate of the American Board of Internal Medicine and a fellow of the American College of Physicians. In addition to his many professional memberships, Dr. Beisel is a Clinical Nutrition contributing editor and Journal of Nutritional Immunology editor. He received his A.B. from Muhlenberg College in Allentown, Pennsylvania, and M.D. from the Indiana University School of Medicine. GAIL E. BUTTERFIELD is Director of Nutrition Research, Palo Alto Veterans Affairs Health Care System in California. Concurrently, she is Lecturer in the Department of Medicine, Stanford University Medical School, and Visiting Assistant Professor in the Department of Human Biology, Stanford University. Her previous academic appointments were at the University of California-Berkeley. Dr. Butterfield belongs to the American

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--> Institute of Nutrition, American Dietetic Association, and American Physiological Society. As a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, she serves on the Position Stands Committee and the editorial board for Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. She also was the Past President and Executive Director of the Southwest Chapter of that organization and an Ad Hoc Member for the Respiratory and Applied Physiology Study Section of the National Institutes of Health. Dr. Butterfield received her A.B. in Biological Sciences, M.A. in Anatomy, and M.S. and Ph.D. in Nutrition from the University of California-Berkeley. JOHN D. FERNSTROM is Professor of Psychiatry, Pharmacology, and Behavioral Neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, and Director, Basic Neuroendocrinology Program at the Western Psychiatric Institute and Clinic. He received his S.B. in Biology and his Ph.D. in Nutritional Biochemistry from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (M.I.T.). He was a Postdoctoral Fellow in Neuroendocrinology at the Roche Institute for Molecular Biology in Nutley, New Jersey. Before coming to the University of Pittsburgh, Dr. Fernstrom was an Assistant and then Associate Professor in the Department of Nutrition and Food Science at M.I.T. He has served on numerous governmental advisory committees. He presently is a member of the National Advisory Council of the Monell Chemical Senses Center and is chairman of the Neurosciences Section of the American Institute of Nutrition. He is a member of numerous professional societies, including the American Institute of Nutrition, the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, the American Physiological Society, the American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, the American Society for Neurochemistry, the Society for Neuroscience, and the Endocrine Society. Among other awards, Dr. Fernstrom received the Mead-Johnson Award of the American Institute of Nutrition, a Research Scientist Award from the National Institute of Mental Health, a Wellcome Visiting Professorship in the Basic Medical Sciences, and an Alfred P. Sloan Fellowship in Neurochemistry. His current major research interest concerns the influence of the diet and drugs on the synthesis of neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. JOËL A. GRINKER is Professor of Pediatrics and Communicable Diseases at the School of Public Health, University of Michigan-Ann Arbor. She is a member of the university's Center for Human Growth and Development and served as Director of the Program in Human Nutrition. She was Visiting Scientist at the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University in Boston and Visiting Associate Professor at the Lavaratoire de Neurophysiologie Sensorielle et Comportementale, College de France, Paris. Currently, she is a reviewer for the National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, and National Science Foundation and for several professional journals. She serves on the editorial boards for Appetite, Journal

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--> of Eating Disorders, and Psychosomatic Medicine. She is a fellow of the American Psychological Association, American Association for the Advancement of Science, and New York Academy of Sciences and is a member of several professional societies. Dr. Grinker holds a B.A. in Psychology from Wellesley College in Massachusetts and Ph.D. in Experimental Social Psychology from New York University. At Rockefeller University, she was a Russell Sage Postdoctoral Fellow in the Laboratory of Human Behavior and Metabolism of Dr. Jules Hirsch and then Assistant and Associate Professor. G. RICHARD JANSEN is a Professor Emeritus in the Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Colorado State University, where he was head of the department from 1969–1990. He was a Research Fellow at the Merck Institute for Therapeutic Research and Senior Research Biochemist in the Electrochemical Department at E. I. DuPont de Nemours. Prior to his stint in private industry, he served in the U.S. Air Force. Dr. Jansen is a past member of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Human Nutrition Board of Scientific Counselors and the Journal of Nutrition, Nutrition Reports International, and Plant Foods for Human Nutrition editorial boards. His research interests deal with protein energy relationships during lactation and new foods for LDCs based on low-cost extrusion cooking. He received the Babcock-Hart Award of the Institute of Food Technologists and a Certificate of Merit from the USDA's Office of International Cooperation and Development for his work on low-cost extrusion cooking, and he is an IFT Fellow. He is a member of the American Institute of Nutrition, Institute of Food Technologists, and American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology among others. Dr. Jansen holds a B.A. in Chemistry and Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. ROBIN B. KANAREK is Professor of Psychology and Adjunct Associate Professor of Nutrition at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts, where she also is the Deputy Chair of Psychology. Her prior experience includes Research Fellow, Division of Endocrinology, UCLA School of Medicine and Research Fellow in Nutrition at Harvard University. In addition to reviewing for several journals, including Science, Brain Research Bulletin, Journal of Nutrition, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, and Annals of Internal Medicine, she is an editorial board member of Physiology and Behavior and the Tufts Diet and Nutrition Newsletter and is a past editor-in-chief of Nutrition and Behavior . Dr. Kanarek has served on ad hoc review committees for the National Science Foundation, National Institutes of Health, and USDA Nutrition Research, as well as the Member Program Committee of the Eastern Psychological Association. She is a Fellow of the American College of Nutrition, and her other professional memberships include the American Institute of Nutrition, New York Academy of Sciences, Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior, and Society for Neurosciences. Dr. Kanarek received a

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--> B.A. in Biology from Antioch College in Yellow Springs, Ohio and M.S. and Ph.D. in Psychology from Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. ORVILLE A. LEVANDER is Research Leader for the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Vitamin and Mineral Nutrition Laboratory in Beltsville, Maryland. He was Research Chemist at the USDA's Human Nutrition Research Center, Resident Fellow in Biochemistry at Columbia University's College of Physicians and Surgeons, and Research Associate at Harvard University's School of Public Health. Dr. Levander served on the Food and Nutrition Board's Committee on the Dietary Allowances. He also served on the National Research Council's Committee on Animal Nutrition and Committee on the Biological Effects of Environmental Pollutants. He was a member of the U.S. National Committee for the International Union of Nutrition Scientists and temporary advisor to the World Health Organization's Environmental Health Criteria Document on Selenium. Dr. Levander was awarded the Osborne and Mendel Award for the American Institute of Nutrition. His society memberships include the American Institute of Nutrition, American Chemical Society, and American Society for Clinical Nutrition. Dr. Levander received his B.A. from Cornell University and his M.S. and Ph.D. in Biochemistry from the University of Wisconsin-Madison. GILBERT A. LEVEILLE is Vice President for Research and Technical Services at the Nabisco Foods Group in East Hanover, New Jersey. His other industry experience was as the Director of Nutrition and Health Science for the General Foods Corporation. He was Chair and Professor of Food Science and Human Nutrition at Michigan State University, Professor of Nutritional Biochemistry at the University of Illinois-Urbana, and a Biochemist at the U.S. Army Medical Research and Nutrition Laboratory in Colorado. Dr. Leveille is a current member on the Committee on International Nutrition, a joint Food and Nutrition Board-Board on International Health project. He won a Research Award from the Poultry Science Association, the Mead Johnson Research Award from the American Institute of Nutrition, the Distinguished Faculty Award from Michigan State University, and the Carl R. Fellers Award from the Institute of Food Technologists. He is a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, American Institute of Nutrition (Past President), American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Chemical Society, Institute of Food Technologists (Past President), and Sigma Xi. Dr. Leveille received his B.V.A. from the University of Massachusetts and M.S. and Ph.D. in Nutrition and Biochemistry from Rutgers University, New Jersey. JOHN E. VANDERVEEN is the Director of the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) Office of Plant and Dairy Foods and Beverages in Washington, D.C. His previous position at the FDA was Director of the Division of Nutrition, at the Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. He

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--> also served in various capacities at the United States Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. He has received accolades for service from the FDA and the USAF. Dr. Vanderveen is a member of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, American Institute of Nutrition, Aerospace Medical Association, American Dairy Science Association, Institute of Food Technologists, and American Chemical Society. In the past, he was the Treasurer of the American Society of Clinical Nutrition and a member of the Institute of Food Technology, National Academy of Science Advisory Committee. Dr. Vanderveen holds a B.S. in Agriculture from Rutgers University, New Jersey and a Ph.D. in Chemistry from the University of New Hampshire. DOUGLAS W. WILMORE is Frank Sawyer Professor of Surgery at Harvard Medical School and Director of Nutrition Support Service and Surgeon at Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Concurrently, he is a consultant for the Dana-Farber Cancer Center, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Wrentham State School, and Youville Hospital and Rehabilitation Center. Recently, Dr. Wilmore has been a Spear Lecturer, New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center; Visiting Professor of Surgery, University of Rochester; Visiting Professor, Medical College of Virginia; Visiting Professor, Department of Surgery, University of Minnesota-Minneapolis; and Visiting Professor, Tufts University School of Medicine and New England Medical Center. He serves on the Advisory Board of the Tufts Pediatric Trauma Center; the International Editorial Committee of the Chinese Nutritional Sciences Journal, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences; and the editorial boards of Annals of Surgery and Journal of the American College of Surgeons. Among his professional memberships, Dr. Wilmore includes the American College of Surgeons, Association of Academic Surgery, American Medical Association, International Society for Burn Injury, and American Society for Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition. He holds a B.A. and honorary Ph.D. from Washburn University of Topeka, M.D. from the University of Kansas School of Medicine in Kansas City, and honorary M.S. from Harvard University. ALLISON A. YATES is Dean of the College of Health and Human Sciences at the University of Southern Mississippi and Professor of Foods and Nutrition. She is currently on leave as Dean to serve as Director of the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine in Washington, D.C. She has a Ph.D. in Nutrition from the University of California at Berkeley, and an M.S. in Public Health from UCLA, and is a registered dietitian. Her areas of expertise are in food habits, diet composition, and protein and energy interrelationships.

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--> JOHANNA T. DWYER (FNB Liaison) is the Director of the Frances Stern Nutrition Center at New England Medical Center, Professor of Medicine and Community Health at the Tufts University School of Medicine, and Professor of Nutrition at Tufts University School of Nutrition in Boston. She is also Senior Scientist at the Jean Mayer/USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts. Dr. Dwyer is the author or coauthor of more than 80 research articles and 175 review articles published in scientific journals. Her work centers on life-cycle related concerns such as the prevention of diet-related disease in children and adolescents and maximization of quality of life and health in the elderly. She also has a long-standing interest in vegetarian and other alternative lifestyles. Dr. Dwyer is the immediate past President of the American Institute of Nutrition, past Secretary of the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, and past President and current Fellow of the Society for Nutrition Education. She served on the Program Development Board of the American Public Health Association from 1989 to 1992 and is a member of the Food and Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences, the Technical Advisory Committee of the Nutrition Screening Initiative, and the Board of Advisors for the American Institute of Wine and Food. As the Robert Wood Johnson Health Policy Fellow (1980–1981), she served on the personal staffs of Senator Richard Lugar (R-Indiana) and Senator Barbara Mikulski (D-Maryland). Dr. Dwyer has received numerous honors and awards for her work in the field of nutrition, including the J. Harvey Wiley Award from the Society for Nutrition Education. She was invited to give the Lenna Frances Cooper Lecture at the annual meeting of the American Dietetic Association in 1990. Dr. Dwyer is currently on the Editorial Advisory Board for Clinics in Applied Nutrition and is a Contributing Editor for Nutrition Reviews as well as a reviewer for the Journal of the American Dietetic Association and the American Journal of Public Health. She received her D.Sc. and M.Sc. from the Harvard School of Public Health, an M.S. from the University of Wisconsin, and completed her undergraduate degree with distinction from Cornell University. BERNADETTE M. MARRIOTT (FNB Staff, Program Director through November 22, 1995) is Program Director for the Committee on Military Nutrition Research and Deputy Director, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. She has a Ph.D. in Psychology from the University of Aberdeen, Scotland, and B.Sc. in Biochemistry/Immunology and post doctoral laboratory training in comparative medicine and trace mineral nutrition. She serves on the Scientific Advisory board for the Diagon Corporation and the American Health Foundation. She serves as scientific reviewer for the National Institutes of Health, National Science Foundation and National Geographic. Prior to joining the Institute of Medicine staff, she held university and medical school faculty positions at Johns Hopkins University and the University of

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--> Puerto Rico Schools of Medicine, and Goucher College. Her areas of research interest include bioenergetic modeling, trace mineral nutrition, and ingestive behavior in human and nonhuman primates. SYDNE J. CARLSON (FNB Staff, Program Officer) is Program Officer for the Committee on Military Nutrition Research and Committee on Body Composition, Nutrition, and Health of Military Women. Prior to joining the FNB staff, she served as Project Director for the Women's health Project and Adjunct Assistant Professor in the Department of Family Medicine, Wright State University School of Medicine; as a behavioral health educator for a hospital-based weight management program in Dayton, Ohio; and as a research associate at The Ohio State University Biotechnology Center. She received her B.A. from Brandeis University and her Ph.D. in Nutritional Biochemistry and Metabolism from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and completed a National Institutes of Health postdoctoral fellowship in the departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics at Ohio State. Her areas of research interest include eating disorders and diabetes management. AUTHORS INDER S. ANAND is Professor of Medicine at the University of Minnesota and Staff Cardiologist at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Minneapolis. He received his undergraduate education in India and Ph.D. in Cardiovascular Physiology from Oxford University, where he was a Rhodes Scholar, in 1970. He obtained training in clinical cardiology in London and in 1976 joined the faculty at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India, where he stayed until 1991 before moving to Minneapolis. He has had an active interest in high-altitude medicine and helped identify two varieties of subacute mountain sickness. His other academic interest is in the pathogenesis of congestive heart failure. Dr. Anand is a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians, London; Fellow of the National Academy of Medical Sciences, India; and Fellow of the American College of Cardiology. He is on the editorial boards of a number of journals. ELDON W. ASKEW is Professor of Human Nutrition and Director of the Division of Foods and Nutrition in the College of Health at the University of Utah in Salt Lake City. He teaches metabolism and sports nutrition and conducts research on nutrition and human performance. Prior to his current position at the University of Utah, he was a Medical Service Corps Officer with the U.S. Army Medical Department, and his assignments included the U.S. Army Medical Research and Nutrition Laboratory, Denver, Colorado; Letterman Army Institute of Research, Presidio of San Francisco, California; Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii; and the U.S. Army Research

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--> Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts, where he was Chief of Military Nutrition Research for the U.S. Army. His research for the U.S. Army Medical Department involved the study of biochemical adaptations to exercise training, the role of nutrition in physical performance, assessment of nutritional status, and nutrition for human performance in environmental extremes, including heat, cold, and high altitude. He is a member of the American College of Sports Medicine, the American Institute of Nutrition, the American Society for Clinical Nutrition, the International Society for Mountain Medicine, and the Wilderness Medical Society. He has served as a member of the United States Olympic Committee Nutrition Advisory Committee and is currently a member of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration Nutrition Advisory Committee. He received his Ph.D. in Nutritional Biochemistry from the Institute of Nutrition at Michigan State University. JOHN L. BEARD is a Professor in the Nutrition Department and Adjunct Professor for the Department of Neuroscience and Anatomy, College of Medicine, the Pennsylvania State University, University Park. Dr. Beard is currently a member of the American Institute of Nutrition, American Society for Clinical Nutrition, Society for Experimental biology and Medicine, American Society for International Nutrition, and American College of Nutrition. He received a B.S. in Organic Chemistry from the Stevens Institute of Technology in New Jersey, M.S. in Physical Organic Chemistry from the University of California, and Ph.D. in Human Nutrition from Cornell University. ALLEN CYMERMAN is currently the Chief of the Altitude Physiology and Medicine Division of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) and also holds the rank of Adjunct Associate Professor of Health Sciences at Boston University. He received an M.S. and Ph.D. from Jefferson University (Jefferson Medical College) in Medical Physiology. He has been associated with USARIEM for the past 27 years. He has authored or co-authored approximately 115 medical articles, book chapters, and technical reports in the areas of environmental physiology, stress, and physical and mental performance, with an emphasis on performance at high-terrestrial elevations. BEAU J. FREUND is a Research Physiologist and Executive Officer at the U.S. Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts. MAJ Freund conducts applied research for the Thermal Physiology and Medicine Division in the area of physiological responses to cold exposure. His work focuses on the effects of cold exposure on body fluid balance and physical performance. He is a fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine, member of the American Physiological Society and the Society for Uniformed Endocrinologists, and guest editor for the Journal of Applied

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--> Physiology, European Journal of Applied Physiology, and Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise. MAJ Freund received M.S. and Ph.D. degrees from the University of Arizona. ARNOLD HONIG is Head of the Institute of Physiology at the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University, Greifswald, Germany. He received his degree in medicine in 1963 from the Humboldt-University in the former East Berlin, where he also served as Assistant Professor at the Institute of Physiology. In 1973, he moved to Greifswald, Germany, where he worked as a senior scientist at the Ernst-Moritz-Arndt University. He became an Associate Professor of Physiology in 1976 after receiving his Ph.D.; in 1986, he became a full Professor of Physiology at the Institute of Physiology at the University. In 1990, he was appointed Vice Dean of the Medical Faculty and member of the university's Senate. Dr. Honig became Head of the Department of Physiology at the University in Greifswald and a member of the Senate of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the organization which oversees scientific research in Germany, in 1991. He has a long-standing research interest in hypoxia and the control of renal sodium and water excretion by the peripheral arterial chemoreceptors. REED W. HOYT is a Research Physiologist in the Altitude Physiology and Medicine Division of the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM) in Natick, Massachusetts. He received his Ph.D. in Physiology from the University of New Mexico in 1981 and spent the next 5 years at the University of Pennsylvania, first as a Postdoctoral Fellow and then as a Research Assistant Professor, before joining USARIEM. He is active in the American Physiological Society, serving as president and secretary of the Hypoxia Interest Group. His current research focuses on the effects of exercise and the environment on human energy, water, and fuel metabolism. IRA JACOBS is Head of the Environmental Physiology Section at the Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine (DCIEM), a Canadian Department of National Defence research establishment. He received his Doctorate of Medical Sciences degree in 1981 from the Department of Clinical Physiology at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden. While in Sweden he was a Research Associate in the Muscle Metabolism Laboratory at the Karolinska Hospital and a consultant to the Swedish Defence Research Institute. Since his return to Canada in 1982, Dr. Jacobs has been a scientist at DCIEM in Toronto, with adjunct faculty appointments at several Ontario universities. His research interests include the physiological responses to physical exertion in environmental extremes, the effects of substrate availability on exercise performance and/or thermoregulation, and physical training strategies of specific relevance to the military.

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--> PETER J. H. JONES is Director and Associate Professor of Nutrition within the School of Dietetics and Human Nutrition, McGill University. He obtained his Doctorate from the University of Toronto before completing postdoctoral training in the Clinical Nutrition Research Unit at the University of Chicago. His research interests include measurement of energy needs of humans in extreme environments. He has conducted work in this area with the Department of National Defence and with Canadian mountaineering expeditions examining the impact of cold and altitude on energy metabolism. IAN K. K. LEE is a fourth-year undergraduate student studying Human Nutrition at the University of British Columbia. NANCY KING is a Research Dietitian and Assistant Chief of the Military Nutrition Division at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts. LTC King received her doctoral degree in nutrition from Texas A&M University in 1990. She conducts metabolic and field research to determine the adequacy and healthfulness of the military diet fed in dining facilities and in the field, to evaluate the nutritional adequacy and effectiveness of the Army Field Feeding system in extreme environments, and to identify requirements for enhancing performance through military nutrition research. THOMAS J. LANGE is the Installation Food Advisor for the 6th Infantry Division (Light) and U.S. Army Garrison, Alaska. He is responsible to the commander for all Army foodservice activity throughout the state. CW4 Lange received an Associate Degree in Applied Sciences in Food Service Management from Central Texas College in 1981. He is a Certified Executive Chef with the American Culinary Federation. His military career of 22 years included tours in Vietnam; Ft. Bliss, Texas; Germany; and Korea. Decorations include 2 Bronze Stars, 1 for Valor; Purple Heart; 20 Air Medals; 1 Valor and 3 Meritorious Service Medals; 6 Army Commendation Medals; and 8 Army Achievement Medals. JACQUES A. LeBLANC is a Physiologist with the School of Medicine at Laval University in Quebec City. After 3 years with the Northern Research Laboratories at Fort Churchill, Manitoba, he joined the U.S. Army Medical Research Laboratories in Edgewood, Maryland. Two years later he was hired as a Physiologist at Laval University. During 20 years he has worked in applied human physiology, especially on resistance and adaptation to cold, and published a book on Man in the Cold. These studies were made on Eskimos, Gaspé fishermen, and soldiers. Subsequently Dr. LeBlanc worked on the physiology of exercise, and he has shown that exercise-training reduces by 40 percent the insulin requirements following a standard meal. He presently is interested in the nervous and hormonal control of thermogenesis following

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--> food intake. He has been sponsored by the Canadian Medical research Council and the Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine of Toronto. In 1976 he was president of the Canadian Physiological Society. HARRIS R. LIEBERMAN is currently Chief, Military Nutrition Division, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts. He joined the civilian research staff of the Military Performance and Neuroscience Division of USARIEM in 1990. Dr. Lieberman received his Ph.D. in Physiological Psychology from the University of Florida. Upon completing his graduate training, he was awarded a National Eye Institute fellowship to conduct postdoctoral research at the Department of Psychology and Brain Science at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. While at MIT, he established an interdisciplinary research program at the Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences to examine the effects of various food constituents on human behavior and brain function. Key accomplishments of the laboratory included the development of appropriate methods for assessing the effects of food constituents and other subtle environmental factors on human brain function and the determination that specific foods and hormones, reliably altered human behavior. He is an internationally recognized expert in the area of nutrition, neuroscience, and behavior and has published over 75 original, full length scientific papers in scientific journals and edited books. He has been an invited lecturer at numerous national and international conferences, government research laboratories, and universities. KENT B. PANDOLF is the Senior Research Scientist and Director of the Environmental Physiology and Medicine Directorate at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, and holds the rank of Adjunct Professor of Health Sciences at Boston University and Adjunct Clinical Professor of Sports Biology at Springfield College. He received his Ph.D. and M.P.H. from the University of Pittsburgh in environmental/exercise physiology. His current research interests involve the physiological evaluation of human performance during physical exercise at the environmental extremes of heat, cold, and high altitudes. ROBERT D. REYNOLDS is Associate Professor and Director of Graduate Studies in the Department of Nutrition and Medical Dietetics at the University of Illinois at Chicago. He received his Ph.D. in Experimental Oncology from the University of Wisconsin-Madison in 1971 and spent the next 2 years as a Damon Runyon Postdoctoral Fellow at the Biochemisches Institut, Universitat Freiburg, Germany. Following 1 year as Assistant Member at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, and 1 1/2 years as Research Associate in the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, he spent 17 years as Research Chemist at the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center in Beltsville, Maryland. He has been at the

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--> University of Illinois at Chicago since 1991. Dr. Reynolds has served as assistant editor of the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition and is on the editorial board of the Journal of Nutrition. MICHAEL N. SAWKA is Chief, Thermal Physiology and Medicine Division at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, and Associate Professor at Boston University and the Massachusetts General Hospital. He received B.S. and M.S. from East Stroudsburg University and his Ph.D. from Southern Illinois University. Dr. Sawka's research interests are environmental and exercise physiology as well as rehabilitation medicine. He is an editorial board member for Journal of Applied Physiology and International Journal of Sports Medicine. ROBERT B. SCHOENE is an Associate Professor of Medicine and Director of the Pulmonary Function and exercise Laboratory at the University of Washington. His clinical duties are primarily in the trauma and intensive care unit at Harborview Medical Center in Seattle while other clinical and research experiences encompass lung injury and exercise and high-altitude physiology. He was a climber-scientist on the 1991 American Medical Research Expedition to Everest, a collaborator in Operation Everest II (1985) at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine in Natick, Massachusetts and the Denali Medical Research Project in Mount McKinley National Park in Alaska. He is on the Nutrition Advisory Board of the U.S. Olympic Committee. He received a B.S. in Biology at Princeton University and an M.D. at Columbia College of Physicians and Surgeons in New York City. BARBARA SHUKITT-HALE is a Research Psychologist with 10 years of experience working in altitude research at the Military Performance and Neuroscience Division, U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, Massachusetts. She received her Ph.D. in Experimental Psychology from Boston University in 1993, and is currently a lecturer in the Psychology Department there. She is the author of numerous manuscripts, including a review paper, on the effects of altitude on mood and cognitive performance. Dr. Shukitt-Hale has studied both animal and human functioning during exposure to high-altitude environments. She is a member of the Society for Neuroscience, American Psychological Association, American Psychological Society, and Sigma Xi, the scientific research society. She currently is a Research Psychologist at the USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University in Boston, where her work includes studying the factors responsible for age-related behavioral changes and possible amelioration of these effects with various nutritional treatments and antioxidants.

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--> IRENE M. SIMON-SCHNASS has served as a consultant in Penzberg, Germany since 1993. Prior to starting her own company, she served as head of the medical department with Hermes Arzneimittel GmbH, a pharmaceutical firm in Grosshessolohe/Munich. Dr. Simon-Schnass earned her Ph.D. in 1983 from Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitat in Bonn. Between 1985 and 1993, she was a member of the Vitamins and Minerals Joint Working Group of the two German pharmaceutical associations (BAH and BPI) for the assessment and compiling of the scientific material on vitamins and minerals in monographs as a basis for their approval as pharmaceuticals by the Bundesgesundheitsamt (equivalent to the Food and Drug Administration). She serves as a consultant to the German Olympic and National speed skating teams. She is a member of the International Society for Mountain Medicine, the Society of Applied Vitamin Research, and the Institute for Medical Vitamin Research. KAUSHAL K. SRIVASTAVA is Director (Projects) and Head of the Department of Biochemistry at the Defence Institute of Physiology and Allied Sciences, New Delhi, India. He also oversees the activities of the human engineering, audiosonics, work physiology, and sports medicine groups. He obtained his M.Sc. in Biochemistry from the University of Licknow; Ph.D. in Biochemistry from Vallabh Bhai Patel Chest Institute, University of Delhi, Delhi; and Masters Diploma in Public Administration from the Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi. Dr. Srivastava has taught at the School of Basic Sciences, Defence Science Centre, New Delhi from 1963 to 1968 and at the School of Medicine, University of Basrah, Iraq from 1974 to 1975. He has been associated with Defence Research and Development Organisation, Ministry of Defence in India since 1963, and his research interests have been in the areas of alcoholic tolerance, environmental stress (especially high terrestrial altitudes), and use of adaptogens in the management of stress. Dr. Srivastava is a life member of several international and national academic societies, and he has been Vice President of the Indian Academy of Neurosciences and Association of Clinical Biochemists of India. He is a fellow of the Indian Association of Biomedical Scientists, Indian Academy of Neurosciences (IANS) and Association of Clinical Biochemists of India. ANDRÉ L. VALLERAND is a Defence Scientist at the Defence and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine, the human performance research establishment of the Department of National Defence in Toronto, Ontario. He received his Ph.D. in Physiology in 1986 from the Laval University School of Medicine in Quebec City, Quebec. In 1990, he spent a year on foreign exchange in the thermal physiology laboratories of the French Army Medical Research Center in Grenoble, France. In addition, he holds the rank of Adjunct Professor of Human Biology and Physiology at the University of Guelph in Guelph, Ontario and Laval University. Dr. Vallerand is also active in the

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--> American Physiological Society, Canadian Physiological Society, and Aerospace Medical Association. ANDREW J. YOUNG is a Research Physiologist in the Thermal Physiology and Medicine Division at the U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), in Natick, Massachusetts, and also holds an appointment as an Associate Professor, Department of Health Sciences, Sargen College of Allied Health Professions at Boston University. He obtained his B.S. in Biology at the Virginia Military Institute, Lexington, Virginia, and his Ph.D. in Physiology at the North Carolina State University, Raleigh. Since coming to USARIEM in 1977, Dr. Young has studied effects experienced by humans exposed to high altitude, heat and cold, the latter of which is his current focus. Ongoing work in Dr. Young's laboratory includes studies concerning chronic physical fatigue, sleep loss and caloric deprivation effects on human thermoregulatory response to cold, and research on mechanisms of human cold acclimatization. Dr. Young is a member of the American Physiological Society and a Fellow of the American College of Sports Medicine.

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