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INDEX

A

A Ration, 103, 116, 120.

   See also Arctic T;

   B Ration;

   Rations and terms beginning with "Ration";

   T Ration

Aberdeen, Scotland. See Rowett Research Institute

Acclimation

   definition, 7

Acclimation, altitude. See Altitude simulation studies

Acclimation, cold, 17

   cold-induced diuresis, 165

   skin temperature, 130

   thermogenesis, 143

Acetazolamide, 34

Acetylcholine (ACh), 445.

   See also Cognitive performance

Acute mountain sickness (AMS), 2, 29, 31-33, 47, 75-76, 97, 293, 351

   AMS-cerebral (AMS-C), 443-444

   cognitive effects, 442

   CMNR identifies research needs for, 74

   CMNR recommendations regarding, 72

   food and, 38, 364, 375

   high incidence of, 45

   hormones and, 34, 331

   nutrients and, 63, 304

   performance and, 27

   studies and, 333

   symptoms, 305-306

   time and, 442-443

   treatments, 34

   water loss and, 69, 73, 298, 306, 332, 342

   See also Carbohydrates;

   Fat;

   Subacute mountain sickness;

   Water and water discipline

Adaptogens

   chemical composition and efficacy, 44

   environmental stress and, 481-484 passim.

   See also CIHP

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 224, 225, 234-235, 248, 249, 395

Adrenergic agonists, β. See Ephedrine; Thermogenic agents

Adrenocorticoids, 34

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 344-346

Alaska

   Alaska Army National Guard, 117



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--> INDEX A A Ration, 103, 116, 120.    See also Arctic T;    B Ration;    Rations and terms beginning with "Ration";    T Ration Aberdeen, Scotland. See Rowett Research Institute Acclimation    definition, 7 Acclimation, altitude. See Altitude simulation studies Acclimation, cold, 17    cold-induced diuresis, 165    skin temperature, 130    thermogenesis, 143 Acetazolamide, 34 Acetylcholine (ACh), 445.    See also Cognitive performance Acute mountain sickness (AMS), 2, 29, 31-33, 47, 75-76, 97, 293, 351    AMS-cerebral (AMS-C), 443-444    cognitive effects, 442    CMNR identifies research needs for, 74    CMNR recommendations regarding, 72    food and, 38, 364, 375    high incidence of, 45    hormones and, 34, 331    nutrients and, 63, 304    performance and, 27    studies and, 333    symptoms, 305-306    time and, 442-443    treatments, 34    water loss and, 69, 73, 298, 306, 332, 342    See also Carbohydrates;    Fat;    Subacute mountain sickness;    Water and water discipline Adaptogens    chemical composition and efficacy, 44    environmental stress and, 481-484 passim.    See also CIHP Adenosine triphosphate (ATP), 224, 225, 234-235, 248, 249, 395 Adrenergic agonists, β. See Ephedrine; Thermogenic agents Adrenocorticoids, 34 Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), 344-346 Alaska    Alaska Army National Guard, 117

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-->    Fort Greely, 195, 199    nutritional requirements of troops in, 191    vitamin and mineral needs, 240    See also Rations and terms beginning with "Ration" Aldosterone, 343-345 Altitude acclimatization, 1, 4, 5, 7, 30, 32, 45, 304-305, 319, 381 -382, 453    adrenocorticoid therapy, 34    aging and gender, 36, 74    appetite and, 27, 42-44, 61, 38, 359    basal energy rate and, 36-38, 66, 372-373    cardiac response, 30, 303, 322, 324    cognition, 42-43, 435, 444-445, 453    definition, 7, 435    diuresis, 30, 298    energy expenditure, 37    glycogen and, 38    hypobaric hypoxia and, 42, 83, 384, 399    indices of, 303-304    military operations and, 45    mood states, 438    nutrients and, 46, 64, 75, 235    physical performance, 60, 319-330    rate of, 32, 304    sleep and, 298    training and, 97-98    ventilation, 32-33, 302, 321    weight loss and gains, 306, 312, 358, 359, 368, 372    See also AMS;    Cardiovascular system;    Desert Storm;    HVR;    Hypothermia;    MCR;    Water and water discipline Altitude simulation studies, 439-449.    See also Operation Everest II American Medical Research Expedition on Everest    efficacy, 241 Amphetamines. See Thermogenic agents Anaerobic threshold. See Oxidative stress Andes Mountains, 304 Anemia, 248-249.    See also Minerals, iron Angiotensin II, 342, 344-346 Annapurna    oxidative stress study, 402, 409    See also Oxidative stress Anorexia. See Food and food discipline Antarctica    expeditions, 181    Mawson Australian Antarctic expedition, 218    vitamin and mineral requirements, 240    weight and appetite in, 20, 210 Anthropometry, 139-140.    See also Thermoregulation Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), 31, 163, 176, 342-343, 347.    See also Diuresis Anti-obesity compounds, 263.    See also Thermogenic agents Antioxidants. See Oxidative stress Aphasia, 325 Apraxia, 325 Arctic    C-130 crash, 182    expeditions, 181, 207-212, 231    field exercises, 196    food intake, 190, 193, 199, 211    scurvy during expeditions, 231    weight gain during expeditions, 209-210 Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory, 83-86 Arctic T Ration, 8, 62, 112, 122    augmentation of Tray Pack, 104    tactical mission needs, 109    See also A Ration;    B Ration;    Rations and terms beginning with "Ration";    T Ration Army Field Feeding System (AFFS). See Field feeding Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), 342-343, 437-448, 350.    See also Water and water discipline B B Ration, 103, 116.    See also Rations and terms beginning with "Ration" Baffin Island, Northwest Territory, Canada, 195

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--> Bakan vigilance task, 439-440.    See also Cognitive performance Basal energy needs, 66-67, 76    at altitude, 30, 39, 45, 293, 361, 364-365, 367, 372, 374, 382, 387    caloric consumption, 35    defined, 19    nutrition, 5 (table)    shivering and, 22    See also BMR;    Shivering;    Thermoregulation Basal energy requirement. See Basal energy needs Basal metabolic rate (BMR), 364-366    age and gender, 36    cold and altitude exposure, 66-67    defined, 19, 66    energy expenditure and, 204    energy intake, 309, 361    hypoxia and, 382    nutrition, 37    thermal balance, 246    weight loss and starvation, 358, 369-370    work intensity, 381    See also Basal energy needs;    Nutrition Biological clocks    circadian oscillators, 150-152    infradian cycles, 150    military operations, 149    sleep and, 125, 150-152    ultradian clocks, 150    See also Sleep Blood    blood urea nitrogen (BUN), 24    flow, oxidative stress and, 303-304, 407-410    gases, 322-323    volume, 340-341    See also ERPF;    PV;    RBF Body temperature pressure saturated (BTPS)    insensible water loss measured, 298    See also Water and water discipline Bolivia    nutrient studies, 219, 225-226, 228, 237 Bosnia    equipment needs in, 156, 158    See also Equipment and clothing Brown adipose tissue (BAT). See Nonshivering thermogenesis C Caffeine    CMNR identifies research needs for, 74-75    high altitude, 463    thermogenesis, 16, 259, 263-266    See also Methylxanthines;    Thermogenic agents Calories. See Carbohydrates; Energy; Fat; Nutrition Canadian forces    C-130 crash, 182    survival rations, 260    See also Carbohydrates;    Rations Carbohydrates    absorption of, 310, 366, 374    AMS, 34, 63    anorexia, 309    appetite, 364    basal energy requirement, 22, 45    body reserves, 385    CMNR conclusions regarding, 75-77    CMNR identifies research needs for, 74    CMNR recommendations regarding, 71    cold versus high altitude, 85    Eskimo diets, 210    intake, 74, 190, 217, 375, 380, 387    rations, 11, 104, 108, 192, 312, 361, 384    sleep, 154    thermogenesis, 16, 23, 36-39, 46, 60, 62, 65, 66, 69, 71, 133-134, 143, 182, 204-205, 215, 260, 262-264, 267, 372, 386    utilization, 20-21, 23, 25, 198-199, 201, 224-225    weight loss, 35, 358, 449    See also AMS;    Canadian forces;    Fat;    Food and food discipline;    Shivering;    Thermoregulation

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--> Cardiovascular system    diet and, 63    exercise in cold, 138    nutrients and, 65    output, 12, 302-303, 323-324    risks, 61-62, 132-133    See also Altitude acclimatization Carotenoids    β-carotene, 398-399    See also Vitamins Catecholamines, 249-250, 348, 455-463.    See also TYR Central nervous system (CNS), 9, 14, 15, 325, 454, 462 Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), 456 China    ancient experience, 295    selenium deficiency in, 246    subacute infantile mountain sickness, 332 Cholinergic system, 461.    See also ACh Chukchi people (Siberia)    vitamin C deficiency, 231    See also Vitamins CIHP, 481-482.    See also Adaptogens Circadian clocks. See Biological clocks; Sleep Circadian oscillators. See Biological clocks; Sleep Clothing. See Equipment and clothing Clyde Mood Scale, 436, 439-440.    See also Mood states Cognitive performance, 42-43, 96    CHIP and, 482-483    effect of high altitude, 435-436, 438, 449    enhancing, 125    hippocampal NE, 456-458    hypoxia and, 297    military operations, 171-173    neurotransmitters, 445    time and, 442-447    See also ACh;    Altitude acclimatization;    Clyde Mood Scale;    Eight-arm radial maze;    ESQ;    Memory; Mood states;    MWM;    Porsolt swim test Cold acclimatization, 13    aging and gender, 144    anthropometric factors, 139    diuresis, 17, 165    human, 13    hypoxia, 144, 248    nutrients, 68, 218    sleep, 153    See also Thermoregulation Cold Buster sport bar, 260-261, 268.    See also Thermogenic agents Cold-induced diuresis (CID), 17-18, 68, 125, 163-166, 171, 176.    See also Diuresis Cold-induced injuries, 130, 174, 176 Cold-induced vasodilation (CIVD), 9, 130.    See also Thermoregulation Committee on Military Nutrition Research (CMNR)    adaptogens, 44    answers to Army questions, 60-70    Army questions to, 5 (table), 6    conclusions of, 75-77    dietary guidelines, 25, 62, 69-73, 75-77, 90    identifying research needs, 72-75    previous reports of, 61, 70, 87    ration consumption, 61    recommendations of, 70-72    task from the Army, 1, 4-6, 59    workshops of, 87, 90 Convective heat transfer. See Thermoregulation; Vasomotor responses Cushing's syndrome, 258 D Dehydration    CMNR recommendations regarding, 70-71, 73    cold-induced, 125-126, 163-176 passim., 412    decreases in performance from, 18, 112, 162    high altitudes and, 32, 297, 310    See also Water and water discipline Denver, 337.    See also Water and water discipline Desert Storm    acclimatization and, 4 Detoxification enzymes, 397

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--> Diuresis, 46, 66, 84, 293, 342, 351, 370, 374-377    AMS and, 63, 73, 298, 308    anti-diuresis, 31-32    cardiovascular responses, 30    defined, 7    food and, 372    hematologic response, 324    hormones, 343, 347    weight loss and, 35-36, 358, 368, 371, 373    See also CID;    Hypodipsia;    Water and water discipline Division Support Command (DISCOM)    ration request procedures, 121 Doubly-labeled water (DLW) method    caloric consumption, 384    and energy needs, 19, 361, 381    food intake, 191-192    use, 194-195    See also Water and water discipline Dysbarism, 308-309.    See also Hypobaric hypoxia E Effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), 31, 349.    See also Blood Eight-arm radial maze, 462.    See also Cognitive performance Electroencephalogram (EEG), 14, 151.    See also Cognitive performance;    Sleep Electromyogram (EMG), 151.    See also Cognitive performance;    Sleep Electrooculogram (EOG), 151.    See also Cognitive performance;    Sleep Endocrine system, 258 Endoxidation. See Oxidative stress Endurance. See Physical activity and performance Energy    altitude and, 366, 373    CMNR conclusions regarding, 75-77    CMNR identifies research needs for, 73, 75    CMNR recommendations regarding, 71    measurements, 190, 192, 360-361    physiology and, 395    shivering and, 133-134    See also ATP Ensure diet, 309.    See also Nutrition Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ), 443-444.    See also Cognitive performance Ephedrine    CMNR identifies research needs for, 74    Thermogenesis, 16, 263-268    See also Thermogenic agents Equipment and clothing    hobbling effect of, 103, 196-197    increased energy requirement, 103, 197    respiratory water loss and, 167-169, 176    sleeping bags, 156-158    technically advanced, 98-99    See also Bosnia;    ECWCS;    Physical activity and performance Eskimo diet. See food and food discipline Extracellular volume (ECV) (of water), 336-337, 339.    See also Water and water discipline F Fat, 85, 144, 212, 215, 312-313, 363, 372, 375    absorption, 219, 366    age and gender, 12, 13, 36, 142    anorexia, 309    appetite, 364    cardiovascular system and, 61-63    CMNR conclusions regarding, 75, 76    CMNR identifies research needs for, 74    CMNR recommendations regarding, 71    cold-induced stress and, 139-140    digestibility, 310-311    hormones, 250    hypothermia and, 155    hypoxia, 399    metabolism, 311-312    MRDAs, 192

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-->    palatability, 209-210, 360    ration content of, 10-11, 104, 108, 110, 194    thermoregulation and, 129, 133-136, 139-141, 184-185, 204-205, 257 , 324, 401    utilization and, 20-25, 36, 38-39, 47, 60, 63, 65, 69, 71, 74, 182 -183, 190-191, 195, 198-199, 201, 220, 385-387    water and, 31, 334, 337    weight loss and, 35, 362, 367-368    See also AMS;    Carbohydrates;    Food and food discipline;    Himalayan Medical and Mountaineering Expedition;    Nutrition;    Protein;    Rations and terms beginning with ''Ration";    TEF Fat-soluble vitamins. See Vitamins, A, D, E, K Field feeding, 109, 122    Army Field Feeding System (AFFS), 120    cold weather rations, 103    environmental extremes, 45    food intake, 61, 71    U.S. Army regulations and standards, 101, 116, 120    weight loss and performance, 201    See also Food and food discipline;    Rations and terms beginning with "Ration" Field Rations. See Rations Finnish Skolt. See Lapps Fluids and fluid balance. See Water and water discipline Food and food discipline    anorexia, 38-39, 69, 74, 309, 358, 364, 373, 383, 447-448    appetite, 26-27, 61, 203-212 passim., 293, 364, 384    CMNR conclusions regarding intake, 76    CMNR recommendations regarding intake, 71-72    diet, 97, 102    Eskimos, 20, 23, 191, 198, 204, 207-208, 210, 230-231, 233    intake, 19-20, 37-38, 65, 68, 125, 190, 413    sharing of ration packs, 195-196, 200-201    starvation, 358-359    See also Carbohydrates;    CMNR, previous reports of;    Fat;    Nutrition;    Physical activity and performance;    Rations;    TEF;    Water and water discipline Food packet, 116.    See also Rations and terms beginning with "Ration" Forced expiratory volume (FEV), 232.    See also Vitamins, C Fort Churchill, Northwest Territory, Canada    caloric intakes at, 190-191    vitamin C intakes at, 231 Fort Wainwright, Alaska. See Arctic Aeromedical Laboratory Fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2)    hypoxia studies, 332    See also Hypobaric hypoxia Free radicals, 64, 394-396, 401, 408, 411, 412.    See also Hypobaric hypoxia;    Thermoregulation Frostbite, 97, 212, 412 G Geriforte. See CIHP Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), 349.    See also Thermoregulation Glycogen. See Carbohydrates H Heat dissipating mechanism. See Thermoregulation Heat productive mechanisms. See Thermoregulation Hematologic response, 324 Hemostasis, 409-410.    See also Blood High-altitude cerebral edema (HACE), 28-29, 33, 293, 304    AMS and, 35, 298    CMNR conclusions regarding, 75-76    CMNR recommendations regarding, 72    nutrition, 304

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-->    symptoms, 305    training, 45, 72, 97    vitamin E, 223    water loss and, 298    See also HAPE;    Protein High-altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE), 28-29, 33, 35, 47, 69, 97    CMNR conclusions regarding, 75-76    CMNR recommendations regarding, 72    fluid metabolism, 69, 321, 331    training, 45, 72    vitamin E, 223, 410    water loss and, 298 Himalayan Medical and Mountaineering Expedition    fat malabsorption during, 366    See also Fat Hippocampal NE. See Cognitive performance History of research, 85-91 Hobbling effect. See Equipment and clothing Hunting response. See Vasomotor responses Hydration. See Dehydration Hypobaric chamber. See Altitude simulation experiments Hypobaric hypoxia, 29, 31, 144, 299-300, 333, 340, 399-400, 414, 435, 444, 462    adaptation to, 295-297, 359, 385    appetite and, 364, 384    BMR and, 382-383    blood flow, 407    carbohydrates and, 63, 387, 449    cholinergic system, 461    CIHP adaptogen testing and, 482-483    CMNR recommendations regarding, 72    cognitive performance, 42-43, 435-436, 439, 442, 445-446, 453-458, 460-461    defined, 7    energy, 36, 359, 374, 379    exercise, 30, 394, 396, 438    free radicals, 64    hormones, 343-348, 351    hypothermia, 248    mood, 75    nervous system, 325    nutrients and, 70, 83, 312, 385, 447    oxidative stress, 294, 394-395    renal function, 349    studies, 75, 144, 332-333    temperature fluctuations, 297, 407    training, 72    ventilation, 321, 325    weight loss and diuresis, 293, 297, 306, 332, 342, 368, 370-372, 49, 483    See also Dysbarism;    FIO2;    Free radicals;    HPVR;    HVR;    TYR Hypodipsia, 306, 308, 310.    See also Diuresis;    Water and water discipline Hypohydration, 7, 66.    See also Water and water discipline Hypothermia, 154-155, 212, 248    aging and gender, 141    anemia and, 249    chemicals and, 16    defined, 7, 152    drug-induced delay of, 16, 126, 257-268 passim.    glycogen depletion, 184    hypoxia and, 248    macronutrients, 63    minerals, 251-252    shivering and, 182, 185    TEC, 207    temperature variations, 411    time, 459    vitamins and, 25-26    See also Cold acclimatization;    TEC Hypoxemia. See Oxidative stress Hypoxia. See Hypobaric hypoxia Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstrictive response (HPVR), 323-324.    See also Hypobaric hypoxia Hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR), 321, 325-326.    See also Hypobaric hypoxia I India    studies of soldiers, 336    See also CIHP

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--> Individual Meal Pack (IMP), 195.    See also Rations International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO)    standardized chart for studies, 301 Intestinal gas. See Dysbarism Inuits, 143 Isotope dilution techniques fluid studies, 333.    See also Water and water discipline J Jungle warfare training    comparative energy needs, 381 K K-2    oxidation and nutrition, 412    vitamin E tests, 400 Kilocalorie (kcal). See Carbohydrates; Energy; Fat; Nutrition; Protein; Rations Kitchen Company Level Field Feeding (KCLFF) equipment, 8, 116, 120 -123 Korean War    cold injuries, 127    environmental medicine research during, 85, 90-91 Krebs cycle, 218, 223-225, 229 L La Paz. See Bolivia Laboratory of Environmental Hygiene, 86 Lapps    thiamin intake, 224-225    vitamin A intake, 218-219    vitamin C deficiency, 23    See also Vitamins Leadville, Colorado    altitude, 300 Lean body mass (LBM), 2    CMNR recommendations regarding, 72, 76    protein and, 39 Logistics, 115 Long-Range Patrol, Improved (LRP I) rations, 8, 62, 112, 116    contents described, 108-109    CMNR recommendations regarding, 71    tactical mission needs, 109    See also Rations M Macronutrients. See Carbohydrates; Fat; Protein Mawson Australian Antarctic expedition. See Antarctica Meal, Ready-to-Eat (MRE), 8, 116-117, 123-124, 217    caloric intake, 384    energy intakes and expenditures, 217, 380    nutritional content, 10-11, 24, 62, 104-112, 192    ration request procedures, 121-122    tactical mission needs, 109    See also Nutrition;    Rations Medical Nutrition Laboratory Army Winter Project, 89 Memory, 445-446, 458.    See also Cognitive performance Mental performance. See Cognitive performance Metabolic clearance rate (MCR), 373.    See also Altitude acclimatization Metabolic heat production (M). See Thermoregulation Methylxanthines, 16.    See also Caffeine, Theophylline;    Thermogenic agents Military Recommended Dietary Allowances (MRDAs), 10-11, 20, 24-26, 103    chart, 102, 126    defined, 101-102    energy requirements, 20, 68, 200    minerals, 26, 234, 233-239

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-->    nutrient levels of, 24-26, 65, 67-68, 70, 102, 109, 189, 192, 216, 219-222, 224-228, 240, 249    protein, vitamins and minerals, 40-41    See also Minerals;    MRE;    Nutrition;    Protein;    Rations and terms beginning with "Ration";    Vitamins Minerals    calcium, 233-234    copper, 251-252    iron, 236-237, 246-251    magnesium, 235-236    phosphorus, 234-235    potassium, 347    selenium deficiency, 246    sodium, 68, 71, 77, 341, 350, 387    zinc, 252    See also Anemia;    Food and food discipline;    MRDAs;    Nutrition;    Protein Mobile Kitchen Trailer (MKT), 8, 82, 116    testing, 118-120    See also Rations and terms beginning with "Ration" Mood states, 42-43, 74-75, 297, 435-438.    See also Clyde Mood Scale;    Cognitive performance Morale, 7, 81 Morris water maze (MWM), 445-447, 458, 460.    See also Cognitive performance Mount Denali, Alaska. See U.S. Marine Corps Mount Everest    atmospheric biophysics of, 299-300    hyperventilation on, 321    nervous system effects, 326    See also American Medical Research Expedition on Everest;    On Top Everest;    Operation Everest II Mount McKinley    altitude, 300 Mount Rainier    energy expenditures on, 380-381    See also Special Operations Forces N Nagawa    anaerobic threshold and oxidative stress study, 405-406 Naval Research group    nutrients and performance, 70 Neurohormones, 249-250 Neurotransmitters. See ACh; Catecholamines; TYR Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). See Vitamins, niacin Nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. See Sleep Nonshivering thermogenesis, 132 Noradrenaline. See Catecholamines Norepinephrine (NE). See Catecholamines North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO)    Bosnia experience, 156 North Pole expedition. See Arctic Norway, 108 Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, 325 Nutrients. See Carbohydrates; Fat; Minerals; Nutrition; Protein;Vitamins Nutrition, 1, 5-7, 74    absorption of nutrients, 311, 366, 373-374    digestibility, 310-311    macronutrients, 19, 20-23, 37, 60, 65, 77, 189-201 passim., 379, 387    minerals, 26, 41    muscle maintenance, 60    nutritional content of rations, 10-11    shivering and, 133-135, 185    special requirements, 69    study needed, 215-216    weight loss at high altitudes, 35-36, 61, 357-375 passim.    vitamins, 25-26, 40-41, 88-90, 398-406, 409, 413-14    See also Carbohydrates;    CMNR, previous reports of;    Ensure diet;    Fat;    Food and food discipline;    Minerals;    Protein;    Thermoregulation;    Vitamins

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--> Nutrition Under Climactic Stress, 90.    See also Nutrition O On Top Everest Expedition    efficacy, 241    mineral intake, 237-239    nutrition research expedition, 234, 236    See also American Medical Research Expedition on Everest;    Mount Everest;    Operation Everest II Operation Desert Storm. See CMNR, previous reports of; Desert Storm Operation Everest II    appetite, 364    appetite shifts, 364    assessment, 240    calcium intakes, 233-234    folic acid intake, 230    food intake, 361, 449    iron intake, 237    micronutrient intake, 217    nervous system, 325-326    niacin intake, 225    oxidation, 240, 325    riboflavin intake, 226    thiamin intake, 225    vitamin intake, 219, 227-228, 232    weight loss, 337    zinc and copper intake, 238    See also Mount Everest;    On Top Everest Expedition Oriental medicine. See CIHP Oxidative stress, 483    anaerobic threshold, 405    antioxidants, 393    endoxidation, 395    hypoxemia, 301    studies, 400-401    See also Annapurna;    Solo Khumbu;    Sulfhydryl groups P Packed cell volume (PCV), 341.    See also Water and water discipline Partial pressure of oxygen (Po2), 301-302 Pernicious anemia, 230. See Vitamins, folic acid Personality traits. See Mood states; Cognitive performance Physical activity and performance, 298, 319-327 passim.    conditioning, 98, 140-141    efficiency and endurance, 12, 60    food intake and, 211-212    high altitude, 319-330    military operations, 171-173, 246    performance tests, 15-16, 89, 327    thermoregulation and, 18, 33, 136-137, 140    See also Food and food discipline Pike's Peak, Colorado    altitude research facility, 86    mood states study, 436    See also Mood states Plasma renin activity (PRA), 343-347, 350 Plasma volume (PV), 336-338, 340-341.    See also Blood Porsolt swim test, 458, 460.    See also Cognitive performance Pouch bread. See Rations Profile of Mood States (POMS), 436, 439-440.    See also Mood states Prooxidants, 393 Protein, 20-25, 39-40, 46, 60, 73-75, 85, 104, 182, 190, 198-199, 200, 215, 263, 311-312, 363, 375    absorption, 366, 374    CMNR identifies research needs for, 73-75    consumption at high altitude, 364    consumption in the cold, 198-199    content of Eskimo diet, 198, 204, 210    digestibility of nutrients, 310    exercise and, 370    HACE, 35    metabolism, 311-312    minerals and, 233, 235, 245    MRDAs, 102, 192    in rations, 10, 62, 108-110    sleep and, 132, 205    thermoregulation and, 65, 132    vitamins and, 398, 401, 408-410

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-->    See also Cardiovascular system;    Fat;    Free radicals;    HACE;    MRDAs;    Minerals;    Nutrition;    Rations and terms beginning with "Ration";    Thermoregulation;    Vitamins;    Water and water discipline Pyridoxal. See Vitamins, B Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP). See Vitamins, B Q Quality of Life doctrine, 116 R Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. See Sleep Rasayan. See CIHP Ration, Cold Weather (RCW), 116-117, 123    caloric intake from, 384    CMNR recommendations regarding, 71    energy expenditures and, 380    fluid content, 171    history and contents described, 8, 105-108    nutritional content, 10-11, 24, 72, 216-217, 220-221, 233, 238, 240    ration request procedures, 121    tactical mission needs, 109    See also A Ration;    Alaska;    MKT;    Rations;    RLW;    Sixth Infantry Division (Light);    TEMPER;    TOC;    T Ration Ration, Lightweight (RLW)    caloric intake from, 384    energy expenditures and, 380    neurotransmitters and design of, 456    See also A Ration;    Alaska;    MKT;    MRDAs;    Rations;    RCW;    Sixth Infantry Division (Light);    TEMPER;    TOC;    T Ration Rations, 82-111, 311-212, 383    anorexia studies, 359-360    CMNR identifies research needs for, 75    nutritional content, 110-111    pouch bread, 123    tactical mission needs and, 109    See also A Ration;    Alaska;    Canadian forces;    MKT;    MRE;    Nutrition;    RCW;    RLW;    Sixth Infantry Division (Light);    TEMPER;    TOC;    T Ration Renal blood flow (RBF), 348-351.    See also Blood Respiration    antioxidants, 393, 397-399, 401, 406, 414    brain and, 30    and hypothermia, 17-18    respiratory exchange ratio (RER), 183 Resting metabolic rate (RMR), 22 Retinol equivalents (RE). See Vitamins, A Rowett Research Institute    Thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances use, 402 S Safe and Adequate Daily Dietary Intake (ESADDI), 229    Zinc intake, 239    See also Vitamins, pantothenic acid Scardu, Pakistan    oxidative stress studies, 400-401 Scurvy, 231.    See also Vitamins, C Seasonal affective disorder (SAD), 211 Shivering, 22-23, 61, 125-126, 132-137, 143, 181-186 passim., 246-247    acclimatization, 143    age and gender, 141-142    carbohydrates and, 60    cardiovascular system, 29, 138    drugs and, 267    energy requirements, 21-23    fat, 140    hormones and, 411    hypoxia, 248    metabolic heat production, 9, 12, 65, 73, 131-138, 246-247, 261    sleep, 15, 153

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-->    See also Basal energy needs;    Carbohydrates;    Thermoregulation Sixth Infantry Division (Light), 115-122 passim.    See also Rations and terms beginning with "Ration" Sleep, 14-15, 25, 42, 125    AMS, 305    at altitude, 298-299    circadian oscillators and, 151-152    cross-cultural studies, 155-156    nutrition and, 154    stress and, 454    temperatures and, 152-154    See also Biological clocks Small Unit Support Vehicle (SUSV), 120 Solo Khumbu    food supply, 413    oxidative stress study, 401-402    See also Food and food discipline;    Oxidative stress South American Indians, 304 South Pole. See Antarctica Special Forces Mountain Teams    nutrition studies at altitude, 299 Special Operations Forces    energy expenditures, 380-381    See also Mount Rainier Starvation. See Food and food discipline Stress. See Oxidative stress Subacute infantile mountain sickness, 332 Subacute mountain sickness    awareness by military personnel, 72    characteristics, 34-35    water and, 332, 340    See also AMS;    Subacute infantile mountain sickness Sulfhydryl (SH) groups, 396, 407.    See also Oxidative stress Suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). See Biological clocks; Sleep Surgeon General of the U.S., 87-89 T Tactical Operations Center (TOC)    tentage for cooking, 120-121    See also Rations and terms beginning with "Ration" Technical Cooperation Program, 266 Temperature (external)    hormones and, 257, 411    variations, 29-30, 296, 411-412 Tent, Expendable, Modular, Personnel (TEMPER)    tentage for cooking, 120    See also Rations and terms beginning with "Ration" Terrain    effect on metabolic rates, 169    energy use in mountainous, 380, 386    locomotion, 196-197 Theophylline    CMNR identifies research needs for, 74    thermogenesis, 16, 263-268    See also Methylxanthines; Thermogenic agents Thermic effect of food (TEF), 19-21, 66n, 204-205    protein intake and, 25    See also Food and food discipline;    Thermoregulation Thermogenesis. See Thermoregulation Thermogenic agents, 258-268    depressants and stimulants, 301    See also Thermoregulation Thermogenic effect of cold (TEC), 205-209.    See also Fat;    Hypothermia;    Thermoregulation Thermogenic effect of exercise (TEE), 207-208.    See also Physical activity and performance Thermoregulation, 1, 9, 12, 125, 128, 144, 152-153, 182, 246    age and gender, 12-13, 36, 141-142, 144    in animals, 258    anthropometry, 139    Army questions to CMNR, 5    behavior, 13-14, 127    CIHP, 481-483    cold acclimatization, 9, 13, 17, 64-67, 143-144    defined, 9    energy requirements, 19, 138-139, 143, 197, 259, 261-262

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-->    glycogen and, 134    hypothermia, 182    metabolic heat production (M), 131-133, 264-265, 267-268    neurohormones and, 249-250    nutrients, 13, 21, 26, 46, 64-65, 74, 90, 245-253 passim.    physical fitness and performance, 136, 169, 140-141, 379    sleep and, 15, 151-154    temperature variations, 153, 411-412    water discipline, 66, 162, 166, 171, 173-176, 342    See also Carbohydrates;    CIVD;    Cold acclimatization;    Free radicals;    GFR;    Nutrition;    Shivering;    Thermogenic agents;    Vasomotor responses Thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), 40, 402-404.    See also Rowett Research Institute Thyroid gland    cold-induced thermogenesis and, 247    hormones, 246-252 Thyroid-stimulating hormones (TSH), 249-250.    See also Thyroid gland Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH), 250, 252 Tibet    subacute infantile mountain sickness, 332    See also Subacute mountain sickness Total body sodium (TBNa). See Minerals, sodium Total body water (TBW), 336-338, 340-341.    See also Water and water discipline Tour de France    energy needs, 381 Tower of Hanoi optimal tests, 439.    See also Cognitive performance Tray Pack. See T Ration Tray Ration (T Ration)    cold weather use, 103-104, 121, 123-124    described, 8    menus, 105-107    nutritional content of, 10-11    See also A Ration;    Arctic T;    B Ration;    Rations and terms beginning with "Ration" Troop Issue Subsistence Activity. See U.S. Army regulations and standards, ration request procedures TTCP Nations. See Technical Cooperation Program Tyrosine (TYR), 459-460, 463    CMNR identifies research needs for, 74-75    See also Catecholamines;    Hypobaric hypoxia U Ultraviolet radiation (UV), 403-405 U.S. Army Cold Regions Test Center (CRTC), 118-120 U.S. Army Extended-Cold-Weather Clothing System (ECWCS), 167.    See also Equipment and clothing U.S. Army Medical Research Laboratory, 86 U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command, 77 U.S. Army Quartermaster Center and School, 116 U.S. Army Quartermaster Research and Engineering Center, 86 U.S. Army Ranger Training, 64 U.S. Army regulations and standards    nutritional requirements, 102, 109-113, 118, 120, 189, 216    ration request procedures, 121 U.S. Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine (USARIEM), 1, 4, 77, 176, 295n, 379n, 435n    brain function studies, 454-456, 458    CID research, 165    energy intake estimates, 217    glycogen utilization studies, 185    historical research role, 86-87    nutrients and performance, 70    ration studies, 109 U.S. Army volunteers    mood states study, 437, 438 U.S. Marine Corps    Mount Denali, Alaska, expedition, 155

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-->    Mountain Warfare Training Center, 97-98    RCW use, 123 V Vasoconstriction. See Thermoregulation Vasomotor responses, 129-131.    See also Thermoregulation Vietnam conflict    influence on research, 86    See also History of research Vitamins, 40    A, toxicity during polar expeditions, 218    B, 227-228    biotin, 229-230    C intake, 231-232, 238, 398    D intake, 222-223    E intake, 223, 398, 400, 406, 410    folic acid, 230    K intake, 223-224    niacin, 225-226    pantothenic acid, 229    riboflavin, 226-227    thiamin, 224-225    See also Carotenoids;    Chukchi people;    Fat-soluble vitamins;    FEV;    Lapps;    Minerals;    MRDAs;    Protein W Water and water discipline, 2, 69, 76, 112, 161-162, 171, 175, 312 , 382, 387, 412-413    CMNR identifies research needs for, 73-75    CMNR recommendations regarding, 70-71    energy and, 84    fluid balance at high altitude, 331-351 passim.    fluid balance in the cold, 161-189 passim.    hypoxic environments, 300    logistical and sanitary problems, 169-170, 309    sensible versus insensible losses, 45, 166, 297-298, 301, 310, 370 -371    weight loss, 368    See also Altitude acclimatization;    BTPS;    Cold acclimatization Dehydration;    Diuresis;    DLW;    Hypohydration;    Isotope dilution techniques;    MWM;    TBW World War II    campaign examples, 155    climate and food intake, 190    cold injuries, 127    environmental medicine research during, 85, 88, 90-91    See also History of research