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TABLE 1-2 Terms Used in This Report


Adaptive changes to an environment under controlled conditions, such as an environmental chamber (indoors/in the laboratory).


Adaptive changes that occur due to exposure to a natural environment (outdoors/in the field).

Altitude Designations

At high altitudes

General term to represent altitudes of 5,280 ft (1,609 m) or more above sea level.

Moderately high altitudes

8,000 to 11,000 ft (2,438 to 3,353 m).

High altitudes

12,000 to 18,000 ft (3,658 to 5,486 m).

Extremely high altitudes

Over 18,000 ft (5,486 m) (above which acclimatization is difficult).


Temperature range within which human body has difficulty functioning.

30°F to -30°F (-1°C to -34°C).


Excretion of urine; commonly denotes transient production of unusually large volumes of urine.


Core body temperature significantly below 95° F (35°C).


Mild: Body temperature of 89.6°F to 95°F (32°C to 35°C)


Moderate: Body temperature of 82.4°F to 89.6°F (28°C to 32°C).


Severe: Body temperature of less than 82.4°F (28°C).


Below normal levels of oxygen in arterial blood or tissue, short of anoxia.


Decrease in body fluids equivalent to a loss of 1% body mass or more.


SOURCE: Granberg (1991).

Clothing, equipment, state of mind, leadership, physical conditioning, mental attitude, preparation, and nutrition are considered by COL Russell W. Schumacher, Jr. in relation to success in cold and in high-altitude training and operations (see Chapter 4 in this volume). COL Schumacher suggests that the single most significant contributor to successful operations in the cold is a positive attitude. In Chapter 4 he further reviews the necessary components of developing and maintaining positive attitudes in troops in these environmental extremes. He stresses the need for unit commanders to have realistic performance expectations of their troops in the cold and at high altitudes and concludes that daily effort must be put forth to attain and maintain positive troop morale in environmental extremes.

Military operational rations are the principal source of nutrients provided for the soldier in military operations in all environments. Therefore as

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