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in cold and in high-altitude environments. The CMNR believes that the military services, through their pool of volunteer personnel, offer an excellent and often unique opportunity to generate research data and statistics on the nutrition, health, and well-being of service personnel. It is important that future studies include men and women representative of the full range of ages in the active duty military. These findings can be directly applied to improve both the health of military personnel and that of the general U.S. population.

Water and Dehydration

Further research is needed:

  • to define the best strategies (including pharmacological ones) to avoid cold-induced dehydration.
  • to define the water needs of the body during the early phases of exposure to high altitudes, along with its relationship to the diuresis experienced by many subjects, and importantly, to the development of acute mountain illnesses.
  • to define the potential "value" of dehydration in association with long-term stays at moderate altitudes and to define the limits whereby such dehydration might be preventable, beneficial, or detrimental.

Further research is needed:

  • to assess the applicability to the military, both men and women, of the finding that it may be possible to maintain body weight, nitrogen balance, and muscle protein mass at optimal values during high-altitude missions.
  • to define energy requirements during military operations in which simultaneous exposures to intense cold and high altitudes occur, by validation of the "free-living" estimation of energy requirement based on Hoyt and Honig's proposed use of body weight, foot strike, and terrain (see Chapter 20 in this volume).
  • to understand the metabolic aspects of shivering.

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