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  • to improve the understanding of mood and performance changes over time in subjects exposed to high altitudes and hypoxia, using animal models for the purpose of identifying the neurochemical cause(s) of those changes.
  • to develop follow-up drug and nutrient intervention strategies for ameliorating chemical changes, and thus, ideally mood and performance decrements at high altitudes.
  • to develop and evaluate diet-focused pharmacologic countermeasures (e.g., tyrosine and caffeine), with the ultimate goal of applying such countermeasures in field situations to stem the decline in cognitive function that accompanies the exposure to adverse environmental conditions.
  • to define the effects of acclimatization to high altitudes in terms of altered performance measures and to optimize nutrition for more rapid acclimatization.
  • to address the impact of preexisting malnutrition on the performance of soldiers at environmental extremes of cold and altitude, possibly through the use of key nutrient deficiency screening procedures to be administered to individuals prior to their participation in unique military missions or training in the cold and at high altitudes.
Military Ration Development and Guidance

Further research is needed:

  • to insure that consumption of rations specially developed by the Army for use in cold-weather conditions provides intakes of energy, protein, and micronutrients that fully meet the increased requirements of troops operating in the field.
  • to optimize packaging, delivery, and serving of these rations to insure that adequate amounts are consumed.

CONCLUSIONS

In conclusion, the CMNR wants to emphasize the critical importance of water discipline, availability of safe fluids for drinking, and a clear understanding on the part of all troops involved in operations or training in cold and in high-altitude environments. High energy, palatable rations supplying at least 400 g carbohydrate per day must be provided to insure that energy intake matches energy expenditure. Restriction of fat calories to only 30 percent is not appropriate in these operational rations. All military personnel who participate in cold and in high-altitude operations or training must be well informed about the symptoms and signs of AMS, HAPE, HACE, and possible changes in physical and cognitive performance, and trained in appropriate



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