Review of Systemization of the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility

Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program

Board on Army Science and Technology

Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1996



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--> Review of Systemization of the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Board on Army Science and Technology Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1996

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--> NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences, is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Harold Liebowitz is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. Harold Liebowitz are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. This is a report of work supported by Contract DAAH04-96-C-0016 between the U.S. Department of the Army and the National Academy of Sciences. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 96-67977 International Standard Book Number 0-309-05486-9 Copies available from: National Academy Press 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Box 285 Washington, D.C. 20005 (800) 624-6242, (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington Metropolitan Area) Copyright 1996 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America.

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--> COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY CHEMICAL STOCKPILE DISPOSAL PROGRAM RICHARD S. MAGEE, Chair, New Jersey Institute of Technology, Newark ELISABETH M. DRAKE, Vice Chair, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge DENNIS C. BLEY, Buttonwood Consulting, Inc., Oakton, Virgin COLIN G. DRURY, University at Buffalo, State University of New York GENE H. DYER, ConsultantSan Rafael, California MG VINCENT E. FALTER, U.S. Army (Retired), Springfield, Virginia ANN FISHER, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park J. ROBERT GIBSON, DuPont Agricultural Products, Wilmington, Delaware CHARLES E. KOLB, Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, Massachusetts DAVID S. KOSSON, Rutgers—The State University, Piscataway, New Jersey WALTER G. MAY, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign ALVIN H. MUSHKATEL, Arizona State University, Tempe PETER J. NIEMIEC, Greenberg, Glusker, Fields, Claman & Machtinger, Los Angeles, California GEORGE W. PARSHALL, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Wilmington, Delaware JAMES R. WILD, Texas A&M University, College Station JYA-SYIN WU, Advanced System Concepts Associates, Inc., El Segundo, California (August 1995) Staff DONALD L. SIEBENALER, Study Director MARGO L. FRANCESCO, Administrative Supervisor SHIREL R. SMITH, Senior Project Assistant DEBORAH B. RANDALL, Senior Secretary/Project Assistant

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--> BOARD ON ARMY SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY GENERAL GLENN K. OTIS, Chair, U.S. Army (Retired), Newport News, Virginia CHRISTOPHER C. GREEN, Vice Chair, General Motors Corporation, Warren, Michigan ROBERT A. BEAUDET, University of Southern California, Los Angeles GARY L. BORMAN, University of Wisconsin, Madison ALBERTO COLL, U.S. Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island LAWRENCE J. DELANEY, BDM Europe, Berlin, Germany JAMES L. FLANAGAN, Center for Computer Aids in Industrial Productivity, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey GENERAL WILLIAM H. FORSTER, U.S. Army (Retired), Westinghouse Electronics Systems, Baltimore, Maryland ROBERT J. HEASTON, Guidance and Control Information Analysis Center, Chicago THOMAS MCNAUGHER, RAND, Washington, D.C. NORMAN F. PARKER, Varian Associates (Retired), Cardiff by the Sea, California STEWART D. PERSONICK, Bell Communications Research, Inc., Morristown, New Jersey KATHLEEN J. ROBERTSON, Booz, Allen and Hamilton, McLean, Virginia JAY P. SANFORD, University of Southwestern Health Sciences Center, Dallas, Texas HARVEY W. SCHADLER, General Electric, Schenectady, New York JOYCE L. SHIELDS, Hay Management Consultants, Washington, D.C. CLARENCE G. THORNTON, Army Research Laboratories (Retired), Colts Neck, New Jersey JOHN D. VENABLES, Martin Marietta Laboratories (Retired), Towson, Maryland ALLEN C. WARD, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor Staff BRUCE A. BRAUN, Director E. VINCENT HOLAHAN, Senior Program Officer ROBERT J. LOVE, Senior Program Officer DONALD L. SIEBENALER, Senior Program Officer PATRICIA A. KIRCHNER, Administrative Associate MARGO L. FRANCESCO, Administrative Supervisor JACQUELINE CAMPBELL-JOHNSON, Senior Project Assistant ALVERA GIRCYS, Senior Project Assistant SHIREL R. SMITH, Senior Project Assistant DEBORAH B. RANDALL, Senior Secretary/Project Assistant

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--> Preface The United States has maintained a stockpile of highly toxic chemical agents and munitions for more than half a century. In 1985, Congress, in Public Law 99-145, directed the Department of Defense to destroy at least 90 percent of the unitary chemical agent and munitions stockpile, with particular attention to M55 rockets, which were deteriorating and becoming increasingly hazardous. After setting several intermediate goals and dates, Congress, in the National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 1993 (P.L. 102-484), dated October 23, 1992, directed the Army to dispose of the entire unitary chemical warfare agent and munitions stockpile by December 31, 2004. In the 1970s, the Army had commissioned studies of different disposal technologies and tested several of them. In 1982, incineration was selected as the method of disposing of agents and associated propellants and explosives and of thermally decontaminating metal parts. In 1984, the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Demilitarizing Chemical Munitions and Agents reviewed a range of disposal technologies and endorsed the Army's selection of incineration. Incineration technology is embodied in today's base-line incineration system, which was developed largely at the Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System (CAMDS) experimental facility at Tooele Army Depot, Utah. The first full-scale operational plant, the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS), is now in service on Johnston Island in the Pacific Ocean southwest of Hawaii. Also, a second plant, the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (TOCDF), has been constructed at Tooele Army Depot and has recently undergone systemization (operational testing prior to the start of agent operations), using surrogates for agent to verify that the system and all components will work as designed. The Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee) was formed in 1987 at the request of the Undersecretary of the Army to monitor the Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) and to review and comment on relevant technical issues. The Stockpile Committee is a standing committee, which will remain in service with rotating personnel until completion of the disposal program. The committee has monitored the development and implementation of the baseline system and has visited CAMDS numerous times, JACADS three times, and the TOCDF four times. The committee has also reviewed many reports and considerable technical information pre-pared by the government, government contractors, other agencies, interested civilian groups, and concerned individuals. In 1993, the Stockpile Committee issued a letter report to the Assistant Secretary of the Army for Installations, Logistics and Environment recommending specific actions to further enhance the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program risk management process. In early 1994, the Stockpile Committee issued three major reports that included recommendations to the Army concerning changes or improvements to be made to the TOCDF prior to the start of agent operations. These reports are: Evaluation of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Operational Verification Testing: Part II. (Part I was a short summary report issued in July 1993.) Review of Monitoring Activities Within the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions. The present report continues the work of the four earlier reports by (1) addressing the completion of testing of certain secondary systems that had not been completely tested at JACADS, (2) reviewing the changes implemented by the Army in response to the Stockpile Committee's earlier recommendations pertaining to the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility, and (3) providing an overview of the status of the facility at the end of the

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--> systemization period. This overview is based on the Stockpile Committee's prior knowledge about the base-line system, on information provided by the Army and others, and on site visits to the TOCDF, beginning in October 1991 (midway through the construction phase) through June 1995 (in the late stages of systemization). The committee greatly appreciates the assistance in support of committee activities and in the production of this report provided by NRC staff members Donald Siebenaler, Margo Francesco, and Deborah Randall; consultants Harrison Pannella and William Spindell; and temporary assistant Julie Harlan. RICHARD S. MAGEE, CHAIR ELISABETH M. DRAKE, VICE CHAIR COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY CHEMICAL STOCKPILE DISPOSAL PROGRAM

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--> Contents     Executive Summary   1 1   Introduction   8        Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program   8           The Unitary Chemical Agent and Munitions Stockpile   8           Fundamentals of Disposal   8           The Baseline Incineration System   10        Summary   10 2   Changes at the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility in Response to National Research Council Recommendations   11        Review of NRC Recommendations Regarding Operational Verification Testing at JACADS   11           Brine Reduction Area   11           Dunnage Furnace   13           Nitrogen Oxide Emissions   15           Liquid Incinerator Slag Removal   16           Furnace Feed System   17           Residual Gelled Agent   18           Environmental Permitting and Regulatory Requirements   19           Environmental Compliance   19           Overall Safety   20           Changes Resulting from Risk Assessment   21        Review of NRC Recommendations Regarding the Monitoring System at JACADS   21           General Recommendations for Agent/Nonagent Monitoring   22           Specific Recommendations for Agent/Nonagent Monitoring   23           Specific Recommendations for Laboratory Operations   25           Summary of Responses to Monitoring Recommendations   26        Recommendation on Carbon Filtration   26 3   Evaluation of Systemization Safety Performance   28        Safety-Related Functions and Reviews by Others   28           Systems Hazard Analysis   28           Utah Department of Environmental Quality: Required Report for the Systems Hazard Analysis   29           Facility Construction Certification   30           Inspector General Report: Courtesy Chemical Surety Inspection—Tooele CDF   32           TOCDF Safety Evaluation Report   33           U.S. Army Chief of Engineers Report: TOCDF Report on Design-Related Safety Issues and Evaluation of Construction Conformance with Design   34

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-->           U.S. Army "Lessons Learned" Programs   34           U.S. Army Subject Area Review Reports   35           State of Utah Inspections   36        Stockpile Committee Site Visits   36           Personnel Issues (Recruitment, Training, Turnover)   37           A General Observation   37           Shift Operations   38           Maintenance and Spare Parts   38           General Management Issues   39           Programmatic Issues   39        Pre-Operational Survey   40        Disposal Program Staffing   43 4   Systemization Environmental Performance   45        TOCDF Permitting Requirements   45        Surrogate Trial Burns   45           Liquid Incinerator #1   45           Deactivation Furnace System Surrogate Trial Burn   46 5   Community Interaction and Planning   48        Utah Community Involvement   48           Utah Citizens Advisory Commission and Risk Assessment: Problems of Communication   49           Personal Protective Equipment   50        Community Emergency Planning   51           Training   51           Emergency Planning   52           Emergency Communications   52           Emergency Medical Care   53        Army Citizens Involvement Program in Utah   53 6   Overview of Site-Specific Risk Assessment   55        NRC Recommendations on Risk Management   55           Report on Operational Verification Testing   56           NRC Letter Report on the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Risk Management Process   56           Recommendations Report   58        TOCDF Risk Management Plan   59           Operation of Metal Parts Furnace Feed Airlock   61           Weteye Bomb Aluminum and Agent Interaction   62           Weteye Bomb Handling and Inventories   62           Seismic Anchorage of the Liquid Propane Gas Tank   62        Tooele Risk Assessment   62        Accident Quantitative Risk Assessment   63           Methodology   63           Independent Review Committee Role and Evaluation   65           Results   66        NRC Evaluation of the Accident Risk Program   69

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--> 7 Findings and Recommendations 70      Overview 70      Findings 70         Responses to OVT II Report Recommendations 70         Responses to Monitoring Report Recommendations 72         Responses to Risk Letter Report Recommendations 74         Responses to the Recommendations Report 76      Recommendations 78         Duration of TOCDF Operations 78         Coordinated with the Start of Agent Operations 78         Prior to the Start of Agent Operations 79         During the First Year of Agent Operations 79  Appendices      A Public Law 102-484—Oct. 23, 1992 (Extract) 83      B Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program 84         The Call for Disposal 84         Disposal Program Background and Role of the National Research Council 84         Description of the Stockpile 85   Agents 85   Containers and Munitions 86   Geographical Distribution 87         The Baseline Incineration System 87   Storage, Transportation, and Unloading of Munitions and Containers 87   Disassembly and Draining 88   Agent Destruction 89   Destruction of Energetics 90   Metal Parts Decontamination 91   Pollution Abatement Systems 93   Auxiliary Systems 94   Agent Monitoring Systems 95      C Recommendations of the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee) 96      D Public Meeting, Tooele County Courthouse, Tooele, Utah 105         Agenda 106         Letters of Invitation 108   Citizens Advisory Commission Invitation Letter 108   Public Invitation Letter 109         Distribution List 110      E Biographical Sketches 113  References 117

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--> Tables and Figures Tables 3-1  Seventy Ranking Criteria  29 3-2  Criteria Used to Establish Qualitative Frequency Categories  30 3-3  Risk Assessment Code (RAC)  31 3-4  TODCF Pre-Operational Survey Team Members  41 4-1  Summary of Results from the TOCDF Liquid Incinerator #1 Surrogate Trial Burn  46 6-1  Reports Associated with the Expert Panel Review of the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Quantitative Risk Assessment  67 6-2  Presentations to the Expert Panel Review of the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility Quantitative Risk Assessment  68 B-1  Composition of Munitions in the U.S. Chemical Stockpile  88 B-2  Chemical Munitions Stored in the Continental United States  90 B-3  Approximate Amounts of Metals, Energetics, and Agent Contained in the Unitary Chemical Stockpile (tons), by Site  91 B-4  Air and Exposure Standards  94 C-1  Recommendations from Evaluation of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Operational Verification Testing: Part I (OVT 1) and Part II (OVT 2)  96 C-2  Recommendations from Review of Monitoring Activities Within the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (MON)  98 C-3  Recommendations from the Letter Report to the Assistant Secretary of the Army to Recommend Specific Actions to Further Enhance the CSDP Risk Management Process (RISK),  99 C-4  Recommendations (REC) and Findings (FIND) from Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions  100 Figures 1-1  Schematic drawing of the baseline incineration system  9 3-1  Outline of the Facility Construction Certification Process  33 6-1  Overview of the Risk Management Plan  60 6-2  Hierarchy of regulations that define safety at the TOCDF  61 6-3  Identifying upsets  64 6-4  Sample portion of a rocket handling process operational diagram  65 6-5  Schematic drawing of process operational diagram development  66 B-1  M55 rocket and M23 land mine  86 B-2  105-mm, 155-mm, 8-inch, and 4.2-inch projectiles  87 B-3  Bomb, spray tank, and ton container  87 B-4  Types of agent and munitions and percentage of total agent stockpile (by weight of agent) at each storage site  89 B-5  Schematic drawing of the baseline system  92 B-6  Schematic drawing of a pollution abatement system  93

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--> Abbreviations and Acronyms ACAMS Automatic Continuous Air Monitoring System ACS Agent Collection System AED Atomic Emission Detector AQS Agent Quantification System BDS Bulk Drain Station BRA Brine Reduction Area CAC Citizens Advisory Commission CAMDS Chemical Agent Munitions Disposal System, Tooele, Utah CDTF Chemical Demilitarization Training Facility, Aberdeen, Maryland CEM Comprehensive Emergency Management (Utah Division of) CEMS Continuous Emission Monitoring System CFR Code of Federal Regulations CHB Container Handling Building CPRP Chemical Personnel Reliability Program CSDP Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program CSEPP Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program DAAMS Depot Area Air Monitoring System DEQ Department of Environmental Quality DFS Deactivation Furnace System DoD Department of Defense DPE Demilitarization Protective Ensemble DRE Destruction Removal Efficiency dscm Dry standard cubic meter DSHW Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (Utah) DUN Dunnage Furnace EG&G Edgerton, Germerhausen and Grier, Inc. ENVCP Environmental Compliance Plan EOC Emergency Operations Center EPA Environmental Protection Agency EPZ Emergency Planning Zone ETA Event Tree Analysis FEMA Federal Emergency Management Agency FLLRT Field Lessons Learned Review Team FMEA Failure Modes and Effects Analysis FPEIS Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Study FTA Fault Tree Analysis FTIR Fourier Transform Infrared

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--> GA Tabun GB Sarin GC/FPD Gas Chromatograph with Flame Photometric Detector GC/MSD Gas Chromatograph with Mass Spectrometric Detector H, HD, HT Blister or Mustard Agents HEPA High-Efficiency Particulate Air HVAC Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning HWMU Hazardous Waste Management Unit ID Induced Draft IDLH Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health in. inch IRZ Immediate Response Zone JACADS Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System lb pound LIC Liquid Incinerator m3 cubic meter mg milligram µg microgram MHz Megahertz min minute mm millimeter mM millimolar MPF Metal Parts Furnace ng/kg nanogram per kilogram NOx Nitrogen Oxides NRC National Research Council OSHA Occupational Safety and Health Administration OTA Office of Technology Assessment OVT Operational Verification Testing PAS Pollution Abatement System PCB Polychlorinated Biphenyl PCDD/F Polychlorinated Dibenzo-p-dioxins and Dibenzofurans PIC Product of Incomplete Combustion PLL Programmatic Lessons Learned PMCD Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization PM-CSD Project Manager for Chemical Stockpile Disposal PMD Projectile/Mortar Disassembly Machine POD Process Operational Diagram POHC Principal Organic Hazardous Constituent PPE Personal Protective Equipment ppm parts per million

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--> QRA Quantitative Risk Assessment RAC Risk Assessment Code RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act RSM Rocket Shear Machine RMP Risk Management Plan s second SAIC Science Applications International Corporation SAR Subject Area Review SDS Spent Decontamination System SHA Systems Hazard Analysis SOx Sulfur Oxides TOCDF Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility TSCA Toxic Substances Control Act TWA Time-Weighted Average USACDRA U.S. Army Chemical Demilitarization and Remediation Activity USACMDA U.S. Army Chemical Material Destruction Agency USATHAMA U.S. Army Toxic and Hazardous Materials Agency VX Organophosphate Nerve Agent 3X Three-X Level of Decontamination 5X Five-X Level of Decontamination

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