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--> Appendix A Public Law 102-484—Oct. 23, 1992 (Extract) Subtitle G—Chemical Demilitarization Program SEC. 171. CHANGE IN CHEMICAL WEAPONS STOCKPILE ELIMINATION DEADLINE Section 1412(b)(5) of the Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1986 (50 U.S.C. 1521 (b)(5)), is amended by striking out "July 31, 1999" and inserting in lieu thereof "December 31, 2004." SEC. 172. CHEMICAL DEMILITARIZATION CITIZENS ADVISORY COMMISSIONS (a) ESTABLISHMENT.— (1) The Secretary of the Army shall establish a citizens' commission for each State in which there is a low-volume site (as defined in section 180). Each such commission shall be known as the "Chemical Demilitarization Citizens' Advisory Commission" for that State. (2) The Secretary shall also establish a Chemical De militarization Citizens' Advisory Commission for any State in which there is located a chemical weapons storage site other than a low-volume site, if the establishment of such a commission for such State is requested by the Governor of that State. (b) FUNCTIONS.—The Secretary of the Army shall provide for a representative from the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations, Logistics, and Environment) to meet with each commission under this section to receive citizen and State concerns regarding the ongoing program of the Army for the disposal of the lethal chemical agents and munitions in the stockpile referred to in section 1412(a)(1) of the Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1986 (50 U.S.C. 1521 (a)(1)) at each of the sites with respect to which a commission is established pursuant to subsection (a). (c) MEMBERSHIP.— (1) Each commission established for a State pursuant to subsection (a) shall be composed of nine members appointed by the Governor of the State. Seven of such members shall be citizens from the local affected areas in the State; the other two shall be representatives of State government who have direct responsibilities related to the chemical demilitarization program. (2) For purposes of paragraph (1), affected areas are those areas located within a 50-mile radius of a chemical weapons storage site. (d) CONFLICTS OF INTEREST.—For a period of five years after the termination of any commission, no corporation, partnership, or other organization in which a member of that commission, a spouse of a member of that commission, or a natural or adopted child of a member of that commission has an ownership interest may be awarded— (1) a contract related to the disposal of lethal chemical agents or munitions in the stockpile referred to in section 1412(a)(1) of the Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1986 (50 U.S.C. 1521(a)(1)); or (2) a subcontract under such a contract. (e) CHAIRMAN.—The members of each commission shall designate the chairman of the commission from among the members of the commission. (f) MEETINGS.—Each commission shall meet with a representative from the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army (Installations, Logistics, and Environment) upon joint agreement between the chairman of the commission and that representative. The two parties shall meet not less often than twice a year and may meet more often at their discretion. (g) PAY AND EXPENSES.—Members of each commission shall receive no pay or compensation for their involvement in their activities of the commission. (h) TERMINATION OF COMMISSIONS.—Each commission shall be terminated after the stockpile located in that commission's State has been destroyed.
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--> Appendix B Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program The Call for Disposal The United States has maintained a stockpile of highly toxic chemical agents and munitions for more than half a century. Three unitary1 agents are stored and exist largely as liquids: nerve agent VX, a high-boiling point liquid that will adhere to surfaces for days or weeks; nerve agent GB (sarin), a liquid that evaporates quickly and has a volatility similar to water; and mustard, a blister agent that evaporates slowly. These agents are stored in a variety of munitions and containers. Lethal chemical agents are extremely hazardous, which is why they have been used in weapons. The manufacture of such agents and munitions and their subsequent stockpiling were undertaken in the belief that they were valuable as deterrents to similar materials being used against U.S. forces. That deterrence is no longer considered necessary. Consequently, the United States can no longer justify the continuing risk and expense of storage. In an attempt to avoid the worldwide risk posed by chemical warfare, the United States is entering into agreement with many other nations to rid the world of all such materials. There is ample incentive for disposing of U.S. chemical agents and munitions as promptly as safe procedures permit. In 1985, Congress passed Public Law 99-145 initiating the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP) to eliminate the unitary chemical stockpile, starting with an "expedited" effort to dispose of M55 rockets, a particularly hazardous munition. The program was expanded to treat the entire stockpile and led to the development of the current baseline incineration system. In 1992, after setting several intermediate goals and dates, Congress enacted Public Law 102-484 directing the Army to dispose of the entire unitary chemical warfare agent and munitions stockpile by December 31, 2004. Disposal Program Background and Role of the National Research Council The Army's search for the best disposal system for bulk agents and munitions has continued for some time, with input from several committees of the National Research Council. Prior to 1969, disposal was mainly by land burial, open pit burning, and deep ocean dumping.2 An NRC review committee (NAS, 1969) concluded that: It should be assumed that all agents and munitions will require eventual disposal and that dumping at sea should be avoided. Therefore, a systematic study of optimal methods of disposal on appropriate military installations, involving no hazards to the general population and no pollution of the environment, should be undertaken. The use of the terms "no hazard" and "no pollution" is unfortunate. The stockpile is a hazard, and both storage and disposal entail some risk. The only way to eliminate the hazard and associated storage risk is to eliminate the materials themselves. The Army commissioned studies of different disposal technologies and tested several in the 1970s, including incineration and chemical neutralization (Moynihan et al., 1983). In 1982, the Army selected component disassembly and incineration with 1 The term unitary distinguishes a single chemical loaded in munitions or stored as a lethal material. More recently, binary munitions have been produced in which two relatively safe chemicals are loaded in separate compartments to be mixed to form a lethal agent after the munition is fired or released. The components of binary munitions are stockpiled apart, in separate states. They are not included in the present Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. However, under the Chemical Weapons Convention of 1993, they are included in the munitions that will be destroyed. 2 Dumping at sea was later banned by the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act of 1972 (P.L. 92-532).
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--> associated pollution abatement systems, now known as the baseline system, as the preferred disposal system. The NRC Committee on Demilitarizing Chemical Munitions and Agents was formed in August 1983 to review the status of the stockpile and technologies for disposal. That committee reviewed a range of technologies and, in its final report in 1984, endorsed incineration as an adequate technology for the safe disposal of chemical agents and munitions (NRC, 1984). The committee also concluded that the stockpile was well maintained and posed no imminent danger but added, "It is not possible to give assurance at this time that an increased rate of deterioration may not occur within the relatively near future." In 1987, at the request of the Undersecretary of the Army, the Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (referred to as the Stockpile Committee) was established under the aegis of the National Research Council Board on Army Science and Technology to provide the Army with technical advice and counsel on specific aspects of the disposal program. Under this charter, the Army has requested and received 14 reports from the Stockpile Committee. Construction of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System (JACADS), the first facility to bring together and integrate the elements of the baseline system, was begun in 1984. JACADS began operations using agents in July 1990 with Operational Verification Testing (OVT) that concluded in March 1993. The MITRE Corporation was engaged to monitor four test series (MITRE, 1991, 1992, 1993a, 1993b) and to provide a summary report upon conclusion of OVT (MITRE, 1993c). The Stockpile Committee issued a preliminary review and commentary on MITRE's reports in July 1993, Evaluation of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Operational Verification Testing: Part I (NRC, 1993b), including comments and broad recommendations on the implications of JACADS performance for disposal facilities in the continental United States. The committee then issued a more detailed review containing expanded recommendations for improvement of the baseline system, Evaluation of the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System Operational Verification Testing: Part II (NRC, 1994a). In 1989, construction of the first disposal facility in the continental United States, the Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility (TOCDF), was begun at the Tooele Army Depot in Utah. The design of the TOCDF represents a second generation baseline system, incorporating improvements based on experience with the JACADS facility, advances in technology, and recommendations made by the Stockpile Committee. Pre-operational testing, or "systemization," of the TOCDF started in August 1993. During the systemization period, additional modifications were made to systems and procedures at the TOCDF in response to recommendations by the Stockpile Committee in the two OVT reports mentioned above and in Review of Monitoring Activities Within the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (NRC, 1994b) and Recommendations for the Disposal of Chemical Agents and Munitions (NRC, 1994c). In addition, the Stockpile Committee issued a letter report concerning the chemical stockpile disposal risk management process (NRC, 1993a). In that report, the committee recommended that a site-specific risk assessment be performed at each continental U.S. site prior to the start of agent operations. Each risk assessment is expected to include all site operations, including continuing risks from storage as well as risks from accidental agent releases and from chronic exposures during plant operations. The Army has retained Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) to perform the site-specific risk assessments. Description of the Stockpile Agents The two principal types of agent in the U.S. stockpile are nerve agents (GB and VX)3 and blister or mustard agents (H, HD, HT). Each is found in a variety of containers and munitions. Nerve agents are organophosphonate compounds that contain phosphorus double-bonded to an oxygen atom and single-bonded to a carbon atom. Nerve agents are highly toxic and lethal in both liquid and vapor forms. In pure form, the nerve agents are practically colorless and odorless. GB evaporates at about the same rate as water and is relatively nonpersistent in the environment. VX evaporates much more slowly and can persist for a long time under average weather conditions. 3 GB is O-isopropyl methylphosphonofluoridate. VX is O-ethyl, S[2-(diisopropyl amino)ethyl]methylphosphonothiolate.
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--> Bis (2-chloroethyl) sulfide is the principal active ingredient in blister agents, or mustard.4 Mustard has a garlic-like odor. It presents both vapor and contact hazards. Because it is practically insoluble in water, mustard is very persistent in the environment and can contaminate soils and surfaces for a long time. Containers and Munitions The stockpile of unitary chemical agents can be found in containers (various bombs stored without explosives, aerial spray tanks, and ton containers) and munitions (land mines, M55 rockets, bombs, artillery projectiles, and mortar projectiles) (see figures B-1, B-2, and B-3). Some munitions are stored with no explosives or propellant, whereas others contain some combination of fuse, booster, burster, and propellant (table B-1). These components are referred to collectively as ''energetics." They include a variety of chemical compounds that must be eliminated as part of the chemical stockpile disposal operation. The fuse, a small, highly sensitive explosive element, initiates an explosive chain by detonating a booster. The booster is an intermediate charge sensitive enough to be detonated by the fuse and energetic enough to detonate the much larger burster. The burster, the end of the chain, bursts the munition with sufficient energy to disperse the agent. The M55 rocket also contains an integral solid rocket propellant that can be removed only by cutting open the rocket.5 4 Names such as mustard gas, sulfur mustard, and yperite have also been applied to this agent. The term mustard "gas" is often used, but the chemical is a liquid at ambient temperature. 5 Fuses may contain cyclonite, lead styphnate, lead oxide, barium nitrate, antimony sulfide, tetracine, and potassium chlorate. Bursters may have tetryl, tetrytol (tetryl plus trinitrotoluene [TNT]), or Composition B (cyclonite plus TNT). Propellants may include nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, lead stearate, triacetin, dibutylphthalate, and 2-nitro diphenylamine. Figure B-1 M55 rocket and M23 land mine. Source: USATHAMA, 1982, 1983; NRC, 1993c, 1994a,c.
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--> Figure B-2 105-mm, 155-mm, 8-inch, and 4.2-inch projectiles. Source: USATHAMA, 1982; NRC, 1993c, 1994a,c. Geographical Distribution The unitary chemical stockpile is located at eight continental U.S. storage sites (see figure B-4) and at Johnston Atoll in the Pacific Ocean about 700 miles southwest of Hawaii. The nature of the stockpile at each continental U.S. site, by type of container or munition and by type of agent, is indicated in table B-2. The amount of agent, energetics, and metals stored at each site varies. (table B-3). Within the continental United States, the largest quantity of chemical agent and munitions is at Tooele Army Depot, Utah, with 42.3 percent of the stockpile. All three types of agent and all types of munitions are stored there. The Baseline Incineration System In this section the baseline system is briefly described. The first-generation system, JACADS, is now operating on Johnston Island, having successfully completed Operational Verification Testing (OVT) in March 1993. Figure B-5 shows the major components of the baseline system. Storage, Transportation, and Unloading of Munitions and Containers Munitions are stored in vented igloos, and the igloo area is monitored for agent. Most bulk containers are stored in the open or in monitored warehouses. Prior to Figure B-3 Bomb, spray tank, and ton container. Source: USATHAMA, 1982; NRC, 1993c, 1994a,c.
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--> Table B-1 Composition of Munitions in the U.S. Chemical Stockpile Munition Type Agent Fuse Burster Propellant Dunnage M55 115-mm rocketsa GB, VX Yes Yes Yes Yes M23 land mines VX Yesb Yes No Yes 4.2-in. mortars Mustard Yes Yes Yes Yes 105-mm cartridges GB, mustard Yes Yes Yes Yes 105-mm projectiles GB, mustard Yesc Yesc No Yes 155-mm projectiles GB, VX, mustard No Yesc No Yes 8-in. projectiles GB, VX No Yesc No Yes Bombs (500-750 lb) GB No No No Yes Weteye bombs GB No No No No Spray tanks VX No No No No Ton containers GB, VX, GA,d mustard, Lewisitee No No No No a M55 rockets are processed in individual fiberglass shipping containers. b Fuses and land mines are stored together but not assembled. c Some projectiles have not been put into explosive configuration. d GA (Tabun), or ethyl-N,N-dimethylphosphoramidocyanidate, is a nerve agent. e Lewisite, or Dichloro(2-chlorovinyl) arsine, is a volatile arsenic-based blister agent. Source: U.S. Army, 1988. transporting munitions and containers, the area is checked for signs of leakage. If agent contamination is found, special procedures are followed to isolate and contain leaking munitions and to decontaminate the area. The munitions or ton containers are then loaded into robust, vapor-tight transport containers designed to withstand impacts and exposure to fire. (A transport container for spray tanks is yet to be designed.) The transport container is moved from the storage area to the unpacking area within the disposal building, where munitions and agent containers are unpacked manually. Packing materials (dunnage) are transported to the dunnage furnace. Disassembly and Draining Munitions are moved into an explosive containment room that is maintained below atmospheric pressure to prevent leakage of agent outside the enclosure and is designed to withstand overpressures that might result from the explosion of munitions during processing. Ventilation air from this room is passed sequentially through six charcoal filter beds, with agent monitors after the first, second, and fourth beds. Agent traces were rarely found after the first bed and were never detected beyond the second bed throughout the OVT at JACADS. After OVT and years of operation, some trace agent leakage through maintenance door gaskets on the carbon filtration system was detected at JACADS. Testing of improved gasket materials is under way at JACADS, and the new materials will be installed at the TOCDF prior to the start of agent operations. Bulk storage containers are taken to a bulk drain station where they are mechanically punched and drained within an enclosure; the air of the enclosure also passes through the charcoal bed filter banks. Agent is removed from munitions and containers by automated machinery by one of two processes. Where possible, agent storage compartment walls in M55 rockets, land mines, bombs, spray tanks, and ton containers are simply punched and drained of agent. Heavy-walled steel artillery projectiles must be disassembled. Disassembly begins with the removal of explosive elements in the case
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--> Figure B-4 Types of agent and munitions and percentage of total agent stockpile (by weight of agent) at each storage aite. Source: OTA, 1992; NRC, 1994a,c. of armed projectiles. In all cases, mechanical extraction of a press-fit burster well gains access to the agent. Agent drainage (and subsequent destruction) can be complicated because of gelling or solidification of the material, which then does not drain from the munition or ton container. Gelling occurs mostly in aging mustard. These operations result in three separate streams of material that are fed to specially designed destruction systems: an agent stream that is stored in a feed tank prior to injection into the liquid incinerator; a mixed stream of energetics, small metal components, and residual agent that is fed to the rotary kiln deactivation furnace system; and large metal parts (e.g., ton containers, spray tanks, artillery projectiles), with residual agent but no energetics, that are fed to the metal parts furnace. The separation of these three streams is an important safety feature of the baseline system, enabling the designer to tailor each disposal system for specific material streams to ensure safe, controllable operations. As a result, most agent is treated in liquid form; energetics and metal parts where only residual agent is present are treated separately. Agent Destruction Because of the risk of earthquakes, the volume of agent stored for processing at the TOCDF has been greatly reduced (by a factor of about 5 compared to JACADS). The drained agent at the TOCDF will be stored in a 500-gallon tank inside a room designed to contain toxic substances. This tank represents the largest volume of agent in a single container on-site. A larger emergency dump tank is also provided at Tooele but is not intended to be used for normal operations. The liquid incinerator consists of two sequential combustion chambers and a pollution abatement system
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--> Table B-2 Chemical Munitions Stored in the Continental United States Chemical Munitions (Agent) APG ANAD LBAD NAAP PBA PUDA TEADa UMDA Mustard agent (H, HD, or HT) 105-mm projectile (HD) X X 155-mm projectile (H, HD) X X X X 4.2-in. mortar (HD, HT) X X X Ton container (HD) X X X Xb X X Ton container (HT) X Agent GB 105-mm projectile X X 155-mm projectile X X X 8-in. projectile X X X X M55 rocket X X X X X 500-lb bomb X 750-lb bomb X X Weteye bomb X Ton container Xb Xb Xb X X Agent VX 155-mm. projectile X X X X 8-in. projectile X X M55 rocket X X X X X M23 land mine X X X X Spray tank X X Ton container X a Small quantities of Lewisite and tabun (GA) are stored in ton containers at TEAD. b Small quantities of agent drained as part of the Drill and Transfer System assessment for the M55 rockets. Note: APG, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Md.; ANAD, Anniston Army Depot, Ala.; BAD, Blue Grass Army Depot, Ky.; NAAP, Newport Annex Army Depot, Ind.; PBA, Pine Bluff Arsenal, Ark.; PUDA, Pueblo Depot Activity, Colo.; TEAD, Tooele Army Depot, Utah; and UMDA, Umatilla Depot Activity, Ore. Source: Information supplied by the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization at a meeting of the Committee on Alternative Chemical Demilitarization Technologies, March 9–10, 1992, National Academy of Sciences. (discussed below). The first, or "primary," combustion chamber is preheated to an operating temperature of 2,7001.16F with fuel before agent is injected. The primary fuel is natural gas; liquified propane gas is stored in an on-site tank to provide a backup fuel supply. As agent flow increases, the fuel flow is decreased to maintain the desired temperature for effective agent destruction. Agent flow to the burner is stopped if the temperature drops below 2,5501.16°F. Gases from the first chamber are sent to a secondary chamber, also preheated with fuel, for a final burn stage at 2,0001.16°F. The afterburner gases are then treated in the pollution abatement system. Some slag produced during nerve agent destruction will form on the lower-temperature walls of the secondary chamber. Spent decontamination fluid is also injected into the secondary chamber to ensure destruction of any residual agent in the solution as well as the evaporation and discharge of the water vapor. This fluid also contains salts that are deposited in the bottom of the secondary chamber. The liquid incinerator at JACADS had to be shut down periodically for manual removal of glasslike solidified salts from both agent and decontamination fluid disposal. A slag removal system has been developed to discharge molten salts during operations at the TOCDF. Destruction of Energetics Energetics (fuses, boosters, bursters, and solid rocket propellant) are burned in a counterflow rotary kiln (deactivation furnace system). Energetics are all contained
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--> Table B-3 Approximate Amounts of Metals, Energetics, and Agent Contained in the Unitary Chemical Stockpile (tons), by Site Site Ferrous Metal Aluminum Explosive Propellant Estimated Agenta Tooele 22,000 570 350 175 10,500 Anniston 13,700 1,020 451 757 1,800 Umatilla 7,930 1,380 338 1,030 2,900 Pine Bluff 2,644 1,431 180 1,060 3,000 Lexington 1,631 904 115 670 400 Pueblo 10,910 0 124 0 2,500 Newport 2,455 0 0 0 1,000 Aberdeen NAb 0 0 0 1,300 JACADS NA NA NA NA 1,700 TOTAL 61,270 5,305 1,558 3,692 24,800 a Estimated values, calculated by the Alternatives Committee, based on percentages of the total stockpile at each site, multiplied by 25,000 tons. b NA—not available. Source: Information supplied by the Program Manager for Chemical Demilitarization at a meeting of the Committee on Alternative Chemical Demilitarization Technologies, March 9–10, 1992, National Academy of Sciences. in thin-walled metallic housings that must be punched or cut into pieces prior to burning; confined energetics would detonate in the kiln rather than burn. M55 rockets, after being drained of agent, are sliced into eight pieces to expose energetic material surface area so the material will burn without detonating. Draining and slicing are both done while the rocket is in its fiberglass launch tube. Bursters from artillery projectiles are also sliced, but after removal from the projectile. Explosive elements in land mines are punched in place to expose the explosive and are not removed from the munition. The pieces, most of which may be wetted with agent, are fed slowly into the downstream end of the kiln (downstream in the sense of gas flow) to avoid explosive concentrations within the kiln. Solid pieces move upstream (against the gas flow) as the energetics are burned and then moved onto an electrically heated discharge conveyor, where the temperature is maintained at 1,000°F for 15 minutes. This results in a ''5X" decontaminated material, which is the Army's classification for material that is suitable for release to the public. The resultant mixture of light steel components, melted aluminum, and glass fibers is of no commercial value. Gases discharged from the rotary kiln pass through an afterburner where they are subjected to a temperature of 2,200°F for 2 seconds. This is a higher temperature and longer time than was used for oxidation at JACADS (2,000°F for 1 second) and should ensure that the TOCDF furnace fully complies with requirements for the complete destruction of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), small quantities of which are present in some fiberglass launch tubes. The afterburner gases are then treated in the pollution abatement system. Metal Parts Decontamination Metal parts that have been drained of agent (ton containers, bombs, spray tanks, artillery projectiles, and burster wells, which were pulled to access the agent) are heated to 1,000°F and maintained at that temperature for 15 minutes in a fuel-fired metal parts furnace to produce metal suitable for release as scrap (defined by the Army as 5X). Residual or undrained (including gelled) agent that has not been removed is vaporized and burned within the furnace. This process takes additional time and can limit the system's throughput. At JACADS,
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--> Agenda WEDNESDAY, MARCH 29,1995 Tooele County Courthouse, 47 South Main Street, Tooele, Utah CITIZENS MEETING: COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT SUBGROUP COMMITTEE: Dr. Ann Fisher, Lead Dr. Dennis Bley Dr. Elisabeth Drake Mr. Gene Dyer Dr. Richard Magee Dr. Walter May Dr. Alvin Mushkatel Mr. Peter Niemiec NRC STAFF: Mr. Bruce Braun, Director, BAST Mr. Archie L. Wood, Executive Director, CETS Mr. Donald Siebenaler, Study Director Ms. Margo Francesco, Administrative Supervisor PMCD/USACDRA POC: Ms. Suzanne Fournier, Public Affairs Specialist Ms. Donna Shandle, Director, CSEPP Mr. Tim Thomas, Project Manager, TOCDF 10:00 a.m.–5:00 p.m. Tooele County Courthouse 10:00–11:00 a.m. CHEMICAL DEMILITARIZATION CITIZENS ADVISORY COMMISSION MG John L. Matthews Chairman, (USA Retired) Introductions Dr. Suzanne Winters State Science Advisor Tooele Advisory Commission, a history MG John L. Matthews Chairman, (USA Retired) Program Issues CSEPP Concerns Risk Assessment Alternative Technologies Allegations by Mr. Steve Jones M-55 Rocket Stability All Discussions with Commission Members
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--> 11:00–11:45 a.m. UTAH DIVISION OF COMPREHENSIVE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT (CEM) Mr. Don Cobb, Chief CEM Natural and Technological Hazards Bureau CEM Introductions and Welcoming Remarks Utah Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) Mission Utah ''T.E.E.M. C.S.E.P.P.'' Concept Multi-jurisdictional Approach Focus on Teamwork Utah CSEPP Functional Area Update Planning Exercise Reentry/Restoration Automation/Communications Training Public Affairs Health/Medical Utah CSEPP Readiness: Critical First-Responder Issues Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) First Responder Operations Focus Planning/Training Exercise Monitoring Utah CSEPP Jurisdictional Comments Tooele County Utah County Salt Lake County Tooele Army Depot Questions and Answers 11:45 a.m.–12:30 p.m. UTAH DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY Mr. Dennis R. Downs Executive Director 1:30–2:00 p.m. VISIT TOOELE COUNTY EMERGENCY OPERATIONS CENTER 2:00–5:00 p.m. CITIZENS MEETING
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--> Letters of Invitation Citizens Advisory Commission Invitation Letter March 7, 1995 MG John L.Matthews, USA Retired Chairman Chemical Demilitarization Citizens Advisory Commission Governor's Office of Planning and Budget, Room 116 State Capitol Building Salt Lake City, Utah 84114 Dear General Matthews: For more than seven years, the National Research Council's Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee) has been providing technical analysis and guidance to the U.S. Army regarding its program of research, development, construction, and operations relating to the task of eliminating the nation's stockpile of lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions. As Chairman of the Stockpile Committee, I am writing to inform you of an information gathering meeting on community concerns regarding the Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program. This meeting will be hosted by members of the Stockpile Committee at Tooele, Utah, on March 29, 1995. The committee's first such community meeting was held on January 4, 1995, at Aberdeen and Kent Counties in Maryland. It was quite useful and informative. The Committee will be seeking information about various facets of the Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), including such aspects as: the concerns of the community as they relate to the implementation of the CSDP; the opportunities and mechanisms for community involvement in the CSDP; the nature of community involvement in and the status of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP); and other issues of concern to affected parties. The Utah Citizens Advisory Commission's perspective regarding the CSDP is important to the Stockpile Committee. During its upcoming visit to Utah, the committee would appreciate the commission providing a briefing on this perspective relating to the aspects listed above, and on the commission's responsibilities regarding the CSDP. The committee has set aside time in the meeting agenda from 10:00–11:00 a.m. on March 29 at the Tooele City Hall, 47 South Main Street, for the commission's presentation and any ensuing discussion. Please extend an invitation to all members of the commission to attend. Should you accept this invitation, you may coordinate your presentation with Mr. Donald L. Siebenaler of the National Research Council staff in Washington, D.C., at (202) 334-2577. Thank you for your interest and efforts on this most important local and national issue. Sincerely yours, Richard S. Magee, Chairman Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program cc: The Honorable Michael O. Leavitt The Honorable Robert F. Bennett The Honorable Orrin G. Hatch The Honorable James V. Hansen The Honorable William Orton The Honorable Enid G. Waldholtz Mr. Dennis R. Downs (Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste; Intergovernmental Consultation and Coordination Board) Ms. Lorayne Frank (Division of Comprehensive Emergency Management; Intergovernmental Consultation & Coordination Board)
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--> Public Invitation Letter March 7,1995 Mr. John Doe 123 Main Street Anywhere, USA 00000 Dear Mr. Doe: For more than seven years, the National Research Council's Committee on Review and Evaluation of the Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (Stockpile Committee) has been providing technical advice and counsel to the U.S. Army regarding its program of research, development, construction, and operations relating to its task to eliminate the nation's stockpile of lethal unitary chemical agents and munitions. As the Chairman of the Stockpile Committee, I am writing to inform you of an information gathering meeting planned by members of the Stockpile Committee at Tooele, Utah, on March 29, 1995. The committee's first such meeting was held on January 4, 1995, at Aberdeen and Kent County communities in Maryland. It was quite useful and informative. The Committee is seeking information about various facets of the Army's Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), including such aspects as: the concerns of the community as they relate to the implementation of the CSDP; the opportunities and mechanisms for community involvement in the CSDP; the nature of community involvement in and the status of the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP); and other issues of concern to affected parties. Your perspectives and suggestions regarding the CSDP are important to the Stockpile Committee. Specifically, the committee requests written comments on any of the aspects listed above no later than April 24, 1995. Please send them to Mr. Donald L. Siebenaler of the National Research Council staff at the following address: Board on Army Science and Technology Room HA 258 National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Additionally, during the committee's March 29 meeting at the Tooele City Hall, 47 South Main Street, several committee members will have limited time to hear summary comments from interested parties on the CSDP between the hours of 2–5 p.m. Should you or your representative wish to address the committee, we have allocated approximately five minutes for each presentation. Enclosed is a response form where you may indicate your choice of time for meeting with the committee members. This form should be returned no later than March 22,1995. You or your representative will then be contacted and provided an approximate time to address the committee. For more information, please contact Mr. Siebenaler (202) 334-2577 or Ms. Margo Francesco (202) 334-1902 at the National Research Council. Thank you for your interest and efforts on this most important local and national issue. Sincerely yours, Richard S. Magee, Chairman Committee on Review and Evaluation of Army Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program Enclosures: Green Response Form Utah Distribution List
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--> Distribution List COMMITTEE ON REVIEW AND EVALUATION OF THE ARMY CHEMICAL STOCKPILE DISPOSAL PROGRAM CITIZENS MEETING WEDNESDAY, MARCH 29,1995 Tooele. City Hall, 47 South Main Street, Tooele, Utah Briefings Requested from: Mr. Dennis Downs Executive Director Utah Department of Environmental Quality Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste Salt Lake City, Utah Ms. Lorayne Frank Public Safety Department Comprehensive Emergency Management Division Salt Lake City, Utah MG John L. Matthews, USA Retired Chairman Chemical Demilitarization Citizens Advisory Commission State Capitol Building Salt Lake City, Utah STATE OF UTAH MAILING LIST Governor Michael O. Leavitt State Capitol Salt Lake City, Utah Honorable Eli H. Anderson State Representative Tremonton, Utah Honorable Robert F. Bennett U.S. Senate Washington, DC Honorable James Gowans State Representative Tooele, Utah Honorable James V. Hansen U.S. House of Representatives Washington, DC Honorable Orrin G. Hatch U.S. Senate Washington, DC Honorable William Orton U.S. House of Representatives Washington, DC Honorable Enid Waldholtz U.S. House of Representatives Washington, DC Mr. Doug Ahlstrom County Attorney Tooele, Utah Ms. Anne Allred Erda, Utah Mr. Scott Anderson Branch Manager Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste Salt Lake City, Utah Ms. Linda Armington Director Tooele County Public Health Tooele, Utah Dr. William Banner Division of Pediatric Critical Care Salt Lake City, Utah Mr. Malcolm Beck Provo, Utah Ms. Relky Bell Tooele, Utah Mr. Rex Benmon Tooele, Utah SGT David Bennett CSEPP Coordinator Utah County Division of Emergency Management Provo, Utah Dr. S. John Bennett Thiokol Corporation Brigham City, Utah Mr. Glade Berry Lehi, Utah Mr. E. James Bradley Salt Lake County Commission Salt Lake City, Utah Colonel Jesse Brokenburr Commander Tooele Army Depot Tooele, Utah Honorable Cosetta Castagno Mayor of the Town of Vernon Vernon, Utah Mr. David Clark Stansbury Park, Utah Mr. Edward Coale Systems Manager for Tooele Test Operations Tooele, Utah Mr. Don Cobb Bureau Chief State Office Building Salt Lake City, Utah Ms. Janet Cook Grantsville, Utah
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--> Mr. Leo Coonradt CSEPP Program Coordinator State Office Building Salt Lake City, Utah Mr. Dave Daniels Salt Lake City, Utah Councilwoman Coleen DeLaMare Tooele City Council Tooele, Utah Honorable George Diehl Mayor Tooele, Utah Mr. Ron Elton Tooele County Attorney Tooele, Utah Mr. Steven Erickson Utah Issues Salt Lake City, Utah Councilman David Faddis Tooele City Council Chairman Tooele, Utah Mr. D. Fifield SARA Title III Program Manager State Office Building Salt Lake City, Utah Mr. Mike Ford Science and Technology Corporation Tooele, Utah Mr. Bipin Gandhi Ammo Equipment Directorate Tooele Army Depot Tooele, Utah Mr. Gary Griffith Tooele County Commissioner Tooele, Utah Mr. Randy Hall Tooele, Utah Ms. Mary Hammong Grantsville, Utah Mr. Gary Herbert Provo, Utah Commissioner Rancy Horluchi Salt Lake County Commission Salt Lake City, Utah Sidney Hullinger McFarland Hullinger Co. Tooele, Utah Chairman Teryl Hunsaker Tooele County Commissioner Tooele, Utah Mr. Wendell Jensen Cedar Fort, Utah Mr. Richard Johnson Provo, Utah Mr. Troy Johnson Grantsville, Utah Mr. Leo Kelland T&E Coordinator State of Utah, Division of CEM State Office Building Salt Lake City, Utah Ms. Corrine Kenney Utah CEM State Office Building Salt Lake City, Utah Ms. Cindy King Sierra Club Representative on the L.E.P.C. Salt Lake City, Utah Dr. Richard Koehn Vice President of Research University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Mr. Allen Leung Salt Lake City, Utah Dr. Eugene Loh Department of Physics University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Dr. James MacMahon Dean College of Science Utah State University Logan, Utah Honorable George Mantes Tooele, Utah Mr. Brad Maulding Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste Salt Lake City, Utah Commissioner Lois McArthur Tooele County Commissioner Tooele, Utah Captain Ray McKaye Utah Highway Patrol Salt Lake City, Utah Ms. Norma Miner Tooele, Utah Honorable Brenda Morgan Mayor of the City of Wendover Wendover, Utah Honorable Howard L. Murray Mayor of the City of Grantsville Grantsville, Utah Honorable Ray Nelson Mayor of the City of Stockton Stockton, Utah BG David Nydam Salt Lake City, Utah Councilwoman Karen Oldroyd Tooele City Council Tooele, Utah Mr. David Ostler Salt Lake City, Utah Commissioner Brent Overson Salt Lake County Commission Salt Lake City, Utah Mayor Grant "Bud" Pendleton Tooele, Utah Chief Jess Peterson Tooele Police Department Tooele, Utah Councilman Don Peterson Tooele City Council Tooele, Utah Mr. Elwood Powell Salt Lake City, Utah Sheriff Donald Proctor Tooele County Sheriff's Office Tooele, Utah Mr. John Ready Salt Lake City, Utah Mr. Mark Roberson Salt Lake City, Utah Honorable Odell Russell Mayor of Rush Valley City Rush Valley, Utah Ms. Marianne Rutishauser Tooele County CSEPP Manager Tooele, Utah Mr. Doug Sagem Tooele, Utah
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--> Ms. Kari Sagers Director Tooele County Emergency Management Tooele, Utah Mr. Jim Salmon Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste Salt Lake City, Utah Sheriff Frank Scharmann Tooele, Utah Ms. Rachel Shilton Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste Salt Lake City, Utah Honorable Walter G. Shubert Mayor of the City of Ophir Tooele, Utah Dr. Paul Skyles Superintendent of Schools Tooele School District Tooele, Utah Mr. Robert Smith Resident Engineer U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Tooele, Utah Mr. Ed St. Clair Tooele County Commissioner Tooele County Courthouse 47 South Main Street Tooele, Utah Mr. Dennis S. Stanley L.E.P.C. Chairman Salt Lake County Fire/ Emergency Services Salt Lake City, Utah Mr. Gary Swan Tooele, Utah Mr. Robert Swensen Salt Lake County Emergency Services Salt Lake City, Utah Ms. Vicki Varela Office of the Governor State Capitol Salt Lake City, Utah Mr. Jim Wangsgard Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste Salt Lake City, Utah Mr. Everett Ward Tooele County Clean Air Coalition Grantsville, Utah Ms. Beverly White Tooele, Utah Councilman Roy Whitehouse Tooele City Council Tooele, Utah Dr. William G. Wilson Vice President Hercules, Inc. Magna, Utah Dr. Suzanne Winters State Science Advisor Office of Planning and Budget State Capitol Salt Lake City, Utah Mr. David Yarborough Stockton, Utah Ms. Dorothy D.S. Yu EG&G Defense Materials, Inc. Tooele, Utah Ms. Elizabeth Zimmerman Utah County Emergency Management State Office Building Salt Lake City, Utah
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--> E Biographical Sketches Dr. Richard S. Magee, chair is a professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and the Department of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, and Environmental Science and is executive director of the Center for Environmental Engineering and Science at New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT). He also directs U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Northeast Hazardous Substance Research Center as well as the Hazardous Substance Management Research Center, which is jointly sponsored by the National Science Foundation and the New Jersey Commission on Science and Technology, both headquartered at NJIT. He is a fellow of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) and a diplomate of the American Academy of Environmental Engineers. Dr. Magee's research expertise is in combustion, with major interest in the incineration of municipal and industrial wastes. He has served as vice chairman of the ASME Research Committee on Industrial and Municipal Wastes and as a member of the United Nations Special Commission (under Security Council Resolution 687) Advisory Panel on Destruction of Iraq's Chemical Weapons Capabilities. He presently serves as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization Science Committee's Priority Area Panel on disarmament technologies. Dr. Elisabeth M. Drake, vice chair, a member of the National Academy of Engineering, is the associate director of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology Energy Laboratory. A chemical engineer with interest and experience in technology associated with the transport, processing, storage, and disposal of hazardous materials, as well as with chemical engineering process design and control systems, she has a special interest in the interactions between technology and the environment. Dr. Drake has served extensively as both a consultant to government and industry and as a professor of chemical engineering. She has been very active with the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, in particular with their Center for Chemical Process Safety. She belongs to a number of environmental organizations, including the Audubon Society, the Sierra Club, and Greenpeace. Dr. Dennis C. Bley is president of Buttonwood Consulting, Inc., and a principal of The Wreath Wood Group, a joint venture supporting multidisciplinary research in human reliability. He has more than 25 years of experience in nuclear and electrical engineering, reliability and availability analysis, plant and human modeling for risk assessment, diagnostic system development, and technical management. He began his career in 1968 as an officer in the Navy's nuclear reactor engineering program, after graduating from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He is a registered professional engineer in the State of California. Dr. Bley has served on a number of technical review panels for Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy programs and is a frequent lecturer in short courses for universities, industries, and government agencies. Active in many professional organizations, he holds office in the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, the Society for Risk Assessment, the Orange County Engineering Council, and the International Association for Probabilistic Safety Assessment and Management. He has published extensively on subjects related to risk assessment. Dr. Bley's current research interests include bringing risk analysis to diverse technological systems, modeling uncertainties in risk analysis and risk management, technical risk communication, and human reliability analysis. Dr. Colin G. Drury is currently a professor of industrial engineering at the State University of New York at Buffalo and executive director at the Center for Industrial Effectiveness. He has served in a number of professional capacities including committees of the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and the National Institutes of Health. His expertise is in human factors and ergonomics, and he has written numerous publications on human factors.
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--> Mr. Gene H. Dyer was graduated with a bachelor of science degree in chemistry, mathematics, and physics from the University of Nebraska. Over a 12-year period he worked for General Electric as a process engineer, the U.S. Navy as a research and development project engineer, and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission as a project engineer. He then began a more than 20-year career with the Bechtel Corporation in 1963. First a consultant on advanced nuclear power plants and later a program supervisor for nuclear facilities, he then served as manager of the Process and Environmental Department from 1969 to 1983. This department provided engineering services related to research and development projects, including technology probes, environmental assessment, air pollution control, water pollution control, process development, nuclear fuel process development, and regional planning. He culminated his career at Bechtel by serving as a senior staff consultant for several years, with responsibility for identifying and evaluating new technologies and managing their further development and testing for practical applications. He is a member of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and is a registered professional engineer. He recently served as a member of the National Research Council (NRC) Committee on Alternative Chemical Demilitarization Technologies. Major General Vincent E. Falter spent more than 34 years in the Army, about half of that time dealing with nuclear weapons. He was Director of Nuclear and Chemical Warfare on the Army Staff and was the single point of contact for all chemical operations for the Department of Defense. He was then responsible for all chemical weapons and their destruction. He initiated funding for the Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System and testified on behalf of the system before Congress. He retired from the Army approximately five years ago. Since then, he has been a national security research analyst and consultant for numerous corporations. He has participated in a number of activities, including (a) Joint Strategic Targeting Planning Staff at the Strategic Air Command; (b) Scientific Advisory Committee for Nuclear Weapons Effects; and (c) Department of Defense negotiator for two of the rules for chemical disarmament talks. Dr. Ann Fisher, senior research associate, Department of Agricultural Economics and Rural Sociology, The Pennsylvania State University, has extensive academic experience. She also spent 10 years at the Environmental Protection Agency, where she analyzed the benefits of reducing environmental risks and then managed the Risk Communication Program. She initiated the Risk Communication Specialty Group within the Society for Risk Analysis. Her research examines how people form perceptions of risk and how those perceptions (and related behavior) change when new information is provided. Dr. J. Robert Gibson is the assistant director of the Haskell Laboratory, E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, and an adjunct associate professor of marine studies at the University of Delaware. After receiving his Ph.D. in physiology from Mississippi State University, Dr. Gibson specialized in toxicology for more than 20 years. Certified by the American Board of Toxicology, he has written numerous publications. Dr. Charles E. Kolb is president and chief executive officer of Aerodyne Research, Inc. At Aerodyne since 1971, his principal research interests have included atmospheric chemistry, combustion chemistry, chemical lasers, gas/surface methods for advanced materials preparation, and the chemical physics of rocket and aircraft exhaust plumes. He has served on several National Aeronautics and Space Administration panels dealing with ozone in the atmosphere, as well as on two NRC committees dealing with atmospheric chemistry. Dr. David S. Kosson was graduated with a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering, a master's degree in chemical and biochemical engineering, and a doctorate in chemical and biochemical engineering from Rutgers—The State University of New Jersey. He joined the faculty at Rutgers in 1986 and was made an associate professor with tenure in 1990. He teaches graduate and undergraduate chemical engineering courses. In addition, he is the projects manager for the Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, where considerable work is under way in developing microbial, chemical, and physical treatment methods for hazardous waste. He is responsible for project planning and coordination, from basic research through full-scale design and implementation. Dr. Kosson is a participant in several Environmental Protection Agency advisory panels involved in waste research and is the director of the Physical Treatment Division of the Hazardous Substances Management Research Center in New Jersey. He is a prolific writer in the fields of chemical engineering and waste management and treatment. He is a mem-
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--> ber of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers. He recently served as a member of the NRC Committee on Alternative Chemical Demilitarization Technologies. Dr. Walter G. May was graduated with a bachelor of science degree in chemical engineering and master of science degree in chemistry from the University of Saskatchewan and with a doctor of science degree in chemical engineering from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. He joined the faculty of the University of Saskatchewan as a professor of chemical engineering "in 1943. In 1948, he began a distinguished career with Exxon Research and Engineering Company, where he was a senior science advisor from 1976 to 1983. He was professor of chemical engineering at the University of Illinois from 1983 until his retirement in 1991. There he conducted courses in process design, thermodynamics, chemical re-actor design, separation processes, and industrial chemistry and stoichiometry. Dr. May has published extensively, served on the editorial boards of Chemical Engineering Reviews and Chemical Engineering Progress, and has obtained numerous patents in his field. He is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and a fellow of the American Institute of Chemical Engineers, and he has received special awards from the American Institute of Chemical Engineers and the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. He has a particular interest in separations research work. He is a registered professional engineer in the state of Illinois. He recently served as a member of the NRC Committee on Alternative Chemical Demilitarization Technologies. Dr. Alvin H. Mushkatel, professor of public affairs, School of Public Affairs, and director, Office of Hazards Studies, Arizona State University, is an expert in emergency response and communications. His research interests include emergency management, natural and technological hazards policy, and environmental policy. He has been a member of the NRC Committee on Earthquake Engineering. His most recent research focuses on the intergovernmental policy conflicts involving high-level nuclear waste disposal and the role of citizens in this policy area. Mr. Peter J. Niemiec, a partner in the law firm of Greenberg, Glusker, Fields, Claman & Machtinger, in Los Angeles, is an expert in environmental law and regulations. His work in the private sector has focused on the regulation of, and liability arising out of, hazardous materials, including extensive work on Superfund issues. Mr. Niemiec has also represented federal and state environmental agencies, where he was involved in the development of national enforcement policies, and permitting and enforcement issues for major industrial facilities and landfill disposal sites. Mr. Niemiec currently serves as a vice chair of the American Bar Association Special Committee on Toxic and Environmental Torts. He also served as an adjunct professor at the Indiana School of Law (Indianapolis), where he taught environmental law. He has published several articles on the availability of private remedies for environmental cleanup. Dr. George W. Parshall is a member of the National Academy of Sciences; has been with the Central Research Department of E.I. du Pont de Nemours & Company for nearly 40 years, including 13 years as director-chemical science; and is an expert in conducting and supervising chemical research, particularly in the area of catalysis and inorganic chemistry. He is a past member of the NRC Board on Chemical Science and Technology and has played an active role in National Research Council and National Science Foundation activities. Dr. James R. Wild was graduated with a bachelor of arts degree from the University of California, Davis, and with a doctorate in cell biology from the University of California, Riverside. Following service as a research microbiologist-biochemist at the U.S. Navy Medical Research Institute, he joined the faculty at Texas A&M University in 1975 as an assistant professor of genetics. He was associate professor of biochemistry and genetics from 1980 to 1984 and was appointed professor of biochemistry and genetics in 1984. In addition to being an extremely active teacher, he has served the university in various administrative positions: currently as chairman of the Faculty of Genetics, professor and head of the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics from 1986 to 1990, and executive associate dean/associate dean for academic programs of the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences from 1988 to 1992. Dr. Wild has conducted and directed extensive genetic and biochemical research and has published more than 70 scientific articles and participated in countless seminars and invited presentations. He has been a member of the Faculty of Toxicology and has held an NIEHS Graduate Student/Postdoctoral Training Grant in Toxicology since 1992. He recently served as a member of the NRC Committee on Alternative Chemical Demilitarization Technologies.
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--> Dr. Jya-Syin Wu, principal and senior engineer of Advanced System Concepts Associates (ASCA), holds a Ph.D. in nuclear science and engineering from the University of California, Los Angeles. Early in her career she was an associate scientist at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research in Taiwan, where she held considerable responsibilities in the development of probabilistic risk assessments for nuclear power plants throughout that country. With ASCA since 1991, she has broad experience with probabilistic risk assessments; system reliability analyses; development and application of models for software safety, reliability, and quality assurance; and development and application of expert systems, automated reasoning, and advanced software techniques for automated process management of complex engineering systems.
Representative terms from entire chapter: