3
Toxicology

This chapter is an update of the toxicological information that appeared in Chapter 4 of Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam (IOM, 1994). The chapter begins with a summary of the new information presented and a summary of information presented in the previous report. This is followed by an overview of the toxicological profile updates on 2,4-D; 2,4,5-T; cacodylic acid; picloram; and TCDD. The toxicological profile updates on these five substances are a review of the results of experimental studies published during the period 1992-95 and comprise the remainder of this chapter.

Summary

Introduction

In this section, we summarize information on the following:

  • Toxicokinetics: the way in which dioxin and the herbicides enter and leave the bodies of animals; that is, the way these substances are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by animals;
  • Mechanism of action: the way in which dioxin and the herbicides act on the body to produce a toxic effect; and
  • Toxicity: the toxic effects from exposure to dioxin and the herbicides on laboratory animals and nonhuman systems.

Understanding how dioxin and the herbicides affect animals and nonhuman



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--> 3 Toxicology This chapter is an update of the toxicological information that appeared in Chapter 4 of Veterans and Agent Orange: Health Effects of Herbicides Used in Vietnam (IOM, 1994). The chapter begins with a summary of the new information presented and a summary of information presented in the previous report. This is followed by an overview of the toxicological profile updates on 2,4-D; 2,4,5-T; cacodylic acid; picloram; and TCDD. The toxicological profile updates on these five substances are a review of the results of experimental studies published during the period 1992-95 and comprise the remainder of this chapter. Summary Introduction In this section, we summarize information on the following: Toxicokinetics: the way in which dioxin and the herbicides enter and leave the bodies of animals; that is, the way these substances are absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and excreted by animals; Mechanism of action: the way in which dioxin and the herbicides act on the body to produce a toxic effect; and Toxicity: the toxic effects from exposure to dioxin and the herbicides on laboratory animals and nonhuman systems. Understanding how dioxin and the herbicides affect animals and nonhuman