Case Studies on Desktop Publishing

The concept of desktop publishing (DTP) synthesizes the capabilities of typesetting, graphic design, book production, and platemaking in one integrated, cost effective hardware and software configuration. It allows the computer user to combine text and image files into a single document and then design a page that looks like a page in a book or journal. The operator can select different typefaces and type sizes, can format the text in several columns, or can run text around graphic images. The page can then be sent to a laser printer for inexpensive page proofs or to a typesetting device for final printing.

DTP can help to invigorate Africa's struggling publishing houses. Editors and publishers can use DTP to convert manuscripts into final form and to locally produce textbooks and journals. Scientific communities can use DTP to publish and disseminate the results of their research.

As these authors show, the skills required to operate this software at a professional level are not always easy to learn. The difficulties of obtaining good design, typography, and layout are not at all diminished by desktop publishing software. Further, the authors found they needed more than a basic personal computer: they also needed high-resolution monitors; scanners for the input of text and images; a mouse (which makes manipulation of the text and graphics much easier); and laser printers. They also required special software for printing chemical formulae and scientific figures.



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--> Case Studies on Desktop Publishing The concept of desktop publishing (DTP) synthesizes the capabilities of typesetting, graphic design, book production, and platemaking in one integrated, cost effective hardware and software configuration. It allows the computer user to combine text and image files into a single document and then design a page that looks like a page in a book or journal. The operator can select different typefaces and type sizes, can format the text in several columns, or can run text around graphic images. The page can then be sent to a laser printer for inexpensive page proofs or to a typesetting device for final printing. DTP can help to invigorate Africa's struggling publishing houses. Editors and publishers can use DTP to convert manuscripts into final form and to locally produce textbooks and journals. Scientific communities can use DTP to publish and disseminate the results of their research. As these authors show, the skills required to operate this software at a professional level are not always easy to learn. The difficulties of obtaining good design, typography, and layout are not at all diminished by desktop publishing software. Further, the authors found they needed more than a basic personal computer: they also needed high-resolution monitors; scanners for the input of text and images; a mouse (which makes manipulation of the text and graphics much easier); and laser printers. They also required special software for printing chemical formulae and scientific figures.

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--> Most importantly, they demonstrate that a DTP press needs to operate on the same professional basis as a regular, commercial publisher. These authors describe how they have instituted the peer review process, good accounting practices, and high standards for timeliness and quality. The authors have used DTP to publish newsletters and journals, scholarly books and proceedings, and such materials as flyers, invitations, and announcements. Thus have they increased publishing opportunities for African scientists and created new and innovative means of disseminating scientific and technological information to a broader audience.

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--> Desktop Publishing at the University of Zimbabwe by Dr. Xavier F. Carelse Xavier F. Carelse lectures in the Department of Physics, University of Zimbabwe and is in charge of the Faculty of Science DTP Facility. He is a graduate of Fort Hare, South Africa, and has a special interest in the development of science and technology education in Africa. He has written two books that address problems relating to the construction and improvisation of science equipment in secondary schools in developing countries. Background and Context of the Project Historical Background After a period of settler rule that had lasted about 100 years, Zimbabwe attained national independence and majority rule in 1980. Before that date only 40 percent of our children entered primary school and usually stayed at school for only three years. Today 70 percent of our children stay at school for at least 11 years and graduate after completing the General Certificate of Education at the Ordinary Level, the examinations for which are set in the United Kingdom. Education in Zimbabwe The increase in the secondary school population, rising over twelvefold from 74,000 in 1979 to 871,000 in 1989, is a particular indication of the heightened aspirations of our citizens since independence. In that same period the primary school enrollment rose from 819,000 to 2,103,000. The rate of transfer of children from Grade 7 to Form One is now about 76 percent. Over the same period the national expenditure on education has risen from $200 million to $500 million. With the total population of Zimbabwe being estimated

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--> as 12 million, 30 percent of our population are now pursuing full-time education. With 25 percent of the national budget being spent on education, Zimbabwe is becoming the country in Africa with the most highly educated population and the demand for education is still growing. Education in Zimbabwe is therefore a multi-million dollar growth industry. This captive market has served to support a variety of services which have benefited from this growth. The largest growth has been in the manufacture of school uniforms and in book sales. Book Production in Zimbabwe Another area of information transfer lies, of course, in the supply and availability of information in the printed form. This includes not only textbooks, but also the form of information transfer that deals with the updating of our immediately available information. This is achieved through the publication of newspapers, journals, magazines, from which the general public usually benefits. Of equal importance in the academic world is the publication of bulletins and newsletters targeting a specialist group and that disseminate information that has a direct impact on our immediate professional knowledge. Zimbabwe has a good publishing infrastructure and is able to produce good quality books at a very low cost. With the formation of the Southern African Development Conference (SADC), Zimbabwe was chosen to be the publishing center of the group and has remained relatively unchallenged in this respect. An appreciable number of books are being written and published for schools and are usually directed at the local primary and lower secondary school syllabi and curricula, that is, up to the 11-year-old age group. A shortage of locally produced books continues to exist at the upper secondary level with a pupil population of only about 20,000. The syllabi, at this level, are drawn up by the Cambridge Examinations Board, for which a very great number and variety of books are available overseas. But, because of recurring devaluation of the Zimbabwe currency, these are becoming increasingly expensive. In the last five years, the cost of imported textbooks have increased by a factor of 5, while the cost of locally produced books have risen by a factor of 2.5. There is, therefore, a good case for reducing our dependence on imported text-books. The situation at university and polytechnic level is even more acute. Virtually all undergraduate textbooks are imported and the cost of all such books has increased seven or eight times in the same period. Although the University of Zimbabwe Press (UZP) has been in existence for decades, very few textbooks are produced in Zimbabwe. The publications they produce are usually extended reports of research findings in the humanities and are adopted as textbooks for specialized courses. In the science disciplines, the Department of Biochemistry has produced some books that were published by the UZP.

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--> Information Technology in Zimbabwe In 1990, the Posts and Telecommunications Corporation (PTC) launched ZimNet, which is based on the X.25 package switching protocol. Many financial concerns, such as banks (including the Post Office Savings Bank), building societies and insurance companies, are using it on a nationwide basis. In 1991, the University of Zimbabwe acquired its first link with the Internet via the UNINET gateway in Grahamstown, South Africa and, in 1992, a second link under the host-name of MANGO, Microcomputer Access for Non-Government Organizations, was established via ESANet, the Eastern and Southern African Network. It is hoped that, before the end of 1995, the University would have acquired our own gateway to the Internet. In fact, such a gateway already exists in the commercial sector but is too expensive for most academic users. Project Description Origin and History The Information Systems Project at the University of Zimbabwe has two phases. In the first phase, the Faculty of Science purchased desktop publishing equipment because we believed it would be a sound investment that, in the long run, would show benefits in two important areas: the local production of text books and the establishment of a facility for publicizing, to the public, the programs presented in the Faculty of Science. The second phase, for which funds are now being sought, concerns the creation of a campus computer network. In 1990, Professor C.J. Chetsanga, then the Dean of Science, and now Director of the Scientific and Industrial Research and Development Center, obtained a Carnegie Corporation grant with which he purchased for the Faculty the basics of a powerful desktop publishing system. The purpose of this facility is to encourage the publication of textbooks by the academic staff. The move was seen as an attempt to address some of the problems outlined above. Dr. N. Dune, Chairman of the Department of Computer Science, who happened to be on sabbatical leave in the United States at that time, was asked to make a suggestion for a suitable basic system for our DTP facility. He submitted a list of Macintosh-based equipment. This system was deemed to be too expensive and Mr. R. Braithwaite, the proprietor of Software Engineering, Portland, Oregon, who had spent some time as a guest lecturer in the University's Department of Computer Science, was invited to recommend an alternative system. He presented us with an IBM system based on the Intel 80386 microprocessor. This provided us with DTP equipment at a remarkably low cost and this allowed us to acquire some accessories such as a tape streamer, the full-page scanner, a surge protector, mathematics and graphics software, and other facilities without exceeding our budget. (See Box 1.)

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--> BOX 1 IBM versus Macintosh In addition to the advantage of having a lower cost, the IBM-system was preferred because, in 1989, a decision had been made at the University to standardize all purchases of computer equipment. It was decided that the university's Computer Resource Committee should only authorize the purchase of IBM-compatible computers, including clones, and also the BBC Micro, because of the impact the latter was making on the educational market at that time. The BBC Micro was a 6502-based computer commissioned by the British Broadcasting Corporation for use in a computer education series for television. It had a number of input-output ports which made it unique as an educational tool. This decision was taken to avoid the proliferation of too great a variety of computers at U.Z. as great difficulty was being experienced in servicing the wide range of computers that were appearing. Thus, at the time that the DTP system was being considered, the Macintosh was not considered to be a possible option. As almost all purchases of new computers already complied with this decision, the Mac would not have been very useful to the Faculty. General and Particular Objectives The main purpose of the new equipment was to assist the academic staff to produce textbooks or, alternatively, to compile their lecture notes in a form which could serve as a textbook. Over the last five years, a number of lecturers have used this facility for either one or the other purpose. The present Dean of Science, a mathematician, was one of the first to produce a textbook using the Faculty of Science DTP Facility. A second objective was to produce a newsletter to publicize some of the activities of the Faculty such as the research interests of the staff, new degree programs that were being offered, the announcement of conferences, workshops and seminars that were of general or specific interest, and many others. This was the first aspect of DTP that was implemented and that eventually served to popularize the service that the facility offered. The DTP equipment has been in use since January 1992, when a newsletter, entitled Integrator, was launched, under an editorial board appointed by the Board of the Faculty of Science. I was invited to be member of this board because of my previous experience in computerized type-setting and publishing. A DTP operator was also appointed and designated for training. The chief success of the program has been in the production of textbooks. Although little was accomplished in the first year—mainly because of lack of familiarity with the use of the facilities—an article that appeared in Integrator, Volume 1, No. 2, alerted the faculty to its potential. Since then, a number of publications have been produced using the equipment. Though these were compilations of lecture notes, a few are already in the process of being rewritten into textbooks.

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--> Products, Technologies, and Services Delivered The Hardware The system was specified and delivered in 1991 and reflects, in a modest way, the status of personal computers at that time. The heart of the system is a 30 MHz 80386-based computer, with 8 megabytes of RAM, installed in a tower case. It has four disk drives, as follows: Drive A is a 1.2 megabyte 5-inch floppy drive; Drive B is a 360 kilobyte 5-inch floppy drive; Drive C is a 1.4 megabyte 3-inch floppy drive; and Drive D is an 80 megabyte hard drive. We felt that two floppy drives, one high density and one double density, were needed to allow for the fact that many university departments do not have computers with high-density drives and an occasional incompatibility occurred. With the present trend towards the exclusive use of high density media, this is no longer a problem. Data security is supported with a tape unit for backing-up the contents of the hard disk. Total back-up is not usually necessary as it is seldom that user files will be stored on the hard disk. Application files can normally be reloaded if necessary. The user input-output devices include a visual display unit (VDU) that is a 14-inch (35-cm) video graphics array (VGA) color monitor with the high resolution essential for desktop publishing. A Dexxa serial mouse and an enhanced keyboard were also included. The semi-commercial, heavy-duty Hewlett-Packard LaserJet Series III printer prints at the rate of eight pages per minute. It is equipped with Hewlett-Packard's resolution enhancement feature which gives high quality, professionally acceptable typeset-quality printing of text and graphics. It has 5 megabyte of installed memory, built-in PostScript features but, more importantly, it also has built-in a wide range of mathematical and Greek symbols used by many scientists, especially physicists, mathematicians and engineers. The scanning of documents and photographs is undertaken with the Chinon Model N-207 DS-3000 overhead scanner that is capable of digitizing an A4 size page of text and graphics by using a charge-coupled device (CCD) image sensor with a camera-type flat surface scanning method. It is used for scanning the photographs and line graphics used in the newsletter. The Software The original operating system was MS-DOS, version 4, but this has now been upgraded to version 6. The main environment is Microsoft's Windows 3.1, which is a very popular GUI (graphics user interface) and is rapidly becoming the industry standard environmental software for IBM-compatible computers.

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--> Microsoft's Word for Windows, originally version 1.1, and now upgraded to version 2, was probably the most powerful word processor for the personal computer and dwarfed that of almost all dedicated word-processing machines. Its capabilities overlapped considerably with some of the sophisticated DTP programs and inclined us to the view that it would be more than sufficient for the purpose of producing our newsletter. This program was able to handle tables, graphics and mathematical formulae. It was a simple matter to insert these into the document file and to position them relative to the text. A fonts software package, Adobe Type Manager, increases the range of fonts and symbols available under Windows 3. To broaden the scope of mathematical typesetting, we have several auxiliary programs such as MathEdit (described below) and Hewlett-Packard's Type Director to assist the esoteric user. The scanner is operated through a graphics program called Paintbrush. The operation is done at various resolutions—300, 200, 150 or 75 dots per inch—and produces files with the .PCX extension. A single resolution on the printer is adopted for printing the graphic. For example, 300 dots per inch (dpi) scanned files will print out a picture that is the exact size of the original while, correspondingly, a 200 dpi scan would print out with two-thirds of the linear dimensions. We are using the latter in the newsletter. In almost all cases we have found that this resolution is suitable for our purposes and so avoids the need for shrinking the picture before printing. Graphics files consume large amounts of storage space. Typically, a 200 mm by 150 mm photograph will, at 200 dpi resolution, produce a .PCX (a graphics file format) file of 400 kilobytes. Because of this large size, these files are normally stored on the hard disk only, although back-ups of the .PCX files are kept on 1.2 megabyte floppy disks for our archives. Word for Windows requires graphics in the tagged image file format (TIFF). The .PCX files produced by Paintbrush therefore have to be converted to .TIF files before they can be loaded into the newsletter. The above .PCX file would be converted to a .TIF file of 800 kilobytes. The latter are not normally stored on floppy disks. They are invoked when an image of the picture is to be displayed on the screen or when the document is to be printed with the picture in place. When a TIFF graphic is inserted into a Word for Windows file, only references to the graphic are actually inserted. The Word file, containing references, such as the dimensions, clipping and scaling information of a 600 kilobyte TIFF file may therefore only occupy 20 kilobyte when saved on disk. The disk holding the TIFF file itself must be inserted in the drive if it is necessary to inspect the graphic on-screen or to print a document containing the references. The desktop publishing equipment includes a variety of quite sophisticated software accessories specifically directed to the needs of the academic staff of the Faculty of Science. A brief description of the facilities is enough to engage the interest and respect of a serious scientific author.

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--> PageMaker This package was rated by BYTE, the computer magazine, to be the best of the crop of DTP programs that appeared in 1991. It is considerably more powerful as a DTP tool than Word-for-Windows, which is, first and foremost, a word processor. PageMaker is a tool for preparing a newspaper and has facilities far beyond what we require for a newsletter. MathEdit As a formula-editing utility this program is heaven-sent for mathematicians. It incorporates a selection of 220 mathematical symbols and is essential for our DTP support. Word-for-Windows handles about 120 mathematical and Greek symbols, which may be enough for some but hopelessly inadequate for others. Like Word, it displays WYSIWYG (what you see is what you get). This is a major advance over other type-setting programs such as PC-TEX. It produces TIFF files that can be imported into Word. DERIVE, Version 2 Described as a Mathematical Assistant, DERIVE is used for simplifying, solving, and plotting mathematical expressions. It is capable of handling derivatives, integrals, vectors, and matrices, as well as algebraic tasks such as factorization and expansion of expressions. Fractool The inexpensive but powerful program generates splendid fractals that can be used for enhancing presentations. CSS This is a time-series program module that contains a wide range of descriptive, modeling, and forecasting methods for both time and frequency domain models. Besides incorporating transformations, modeling, and plotting program, it also includes ARIMA, the Autoregressive Moving Average Model for estimating seasonal and non-seasonal parameters for the autoregressive and moving average process and for forecasting. Project Experience and Implementation Through Integrator, the DTP has had an impact that was not originally envisaged. Although it is only produced at six-monthly intervals, each issue contains important information on the working and development of the Faculty of Science.

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--> In most developing countries, the Faculty is often underrated as being only a means of producing science teachers. The articles on careers in science and on the roles of scientists as consultants to industry, to parastatals and to the government are used to publicize the Faculty and have served to create a new image that is not often seen in other developing countries. The Newsletter The first Editorial Committee was appointed by the Dean, Professor Chetsanga. The Editorial Committee chose the title Integrator for the newsletter. They felt that it had a scientific nuance and, at the same time, reflected the spirit of unity within the Faculty. The formulation of the contents of the Integrator makes an interesting story: Without specifying the type of articles required, the editorial committee invited the departments to submit one article, relevant to each, that they would like to see published in the first edition of the faculty newsletter. A somewhat disjointed collection of articles was presented to the committee. There was an article on each of the following: the research interests of the chemists; a new research venture by the geologists; a new M.Sc. program by the biochemists; a report on a recent colloquium from the biologists; an essay on careers for physicists; and a report on the launching of the new Department of Statistics. After reading the articles, I realized that the departments had unkowingly laid down the structure of the newsletter. A newsletter is a continuing exercise with regular features as well as special one-off features. The collection of articles that we had received reflected the needs that the departments wished to express and so could be used to reflect the needs of the faculty. It was therefore appropriate that we should use this as a starting point from which to decide the nature of the articles that we would request in each regular or special feature. The editorial board agreed that the following regular features would be requested from each department in sequence: Meet the ... A description of the research interests of individuals in a chosen department and of the consultancy services they could offer to industry or to the parastals. Master of Science in ... A description of a postgraduate program offered by the featured department. Careers in ... An article directed at high school pupils and describing the career opportunities existing in the featured departmnet.

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--> Announcements. An announcement of conferences, workshops and seminars due to be held in the Faculty of Science. Student Science Societies. Reports from the students on the science societies that they operate. Special features that any individual, not necessarily from within the Faculty, could produce include: New research ventures in the Faculty; New resources and developments in the Faculty; Reports on conferences held in the Faculty; Reports on international conferences that have a bearing on the Faculty and the University; and Reports of donor agencies and sources of funds from which the Faculty could benefit. The DTP Software A general purpose WYSIWYG word processor operating in a GUI (graphic user interface) is, in our opinion, highly recommended for a small DTP facility. In addition to Word-for-Windows, most typists in Zimbabwe are familiar with WordPerfect 5.0 or 5.1. Such word processing programs may not be very useful for the production of newspapers or other materials with more than four columns, but for the purpose of producing textbooks and newsletters, it cannot be excelled by any of the more advanced DTP programs such as PageMaker or Ventura. Efforts to master PageMaker, which we had also acquired, were abandoned very early in this program. It was found that a great deal of time was required for the training of the operator and other users. The decision to use Word-for-Windows Version 1.1 almost exclusively for our DTP activity was found to be an excellent choice because of the following reasons: The ease of use once the general Windows environment was understood. The power and versatility of this program. The ability to handle and manipulate the graphics images produced by the scanner, without any additional software. We acquired it in 1993 and it has been the only program that we had used for the production of the Integrator. Other workers preferred WordPerfect Version 5.1, which was also installed, and since then WordPerfect Version 6 has appeared and seems to have become a strong rival to Word-for-Windows. Nevertheless, it is my opinion that the even newer Word-for-Windows Version 6 would prove to an excellent successor to Version 2 and I cannot envisage any foreseeable intention of moving

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--> BOX 1 External Leadership of African Science Until the founding of the AAS, the leadership for organization and management of science in Africa lay in externally-based institutions such as the United Nations family (UNESCO, UNECA, UNIDO, etc.) or in the former colonial powers, which worked through African government bureaucracies, such as the French ORSTOM; the British Commonwealth Science Council; or the United States Agency for International Development. Thus, final decisions were taken in Paris, London, or Washington, D.C. African scientists had not yet organized themselves into a community that could articulate its potential and needs, or its usefulness to society. Science was still marginalized. From the beginning, the AAS decided to be an active, practical organization whose members would address the daunting problems of the continent. For the AAS was formed at a time of deep crisis for Africa: the continent faced major famines, external debts, declining economies, social conflicts, and a growing questioning of the political leadership. (See Box 1.) The AAS vowed to take the lead in reversing Africa's decline through science-led development. It decided to tackle the problems that transcend national and ideological boundaries: drought, desertification, and food deficit. Finally, its members rallied around the theme of ''bridging the gap between the scientists, industrialists, and policy makers in Africa." The AAS chose a core program covering four areas: Mobilization and strengthening of the African scientific community; Publication and dissemination of scientific materials; Research, development, and public policy; and Capacity building in science and technology. Early on, the AAS realized that publications would be a major instrument for building the African scientific community, for making it aware of itself and its mission, and for interaction with its constituency. This constituency was very well defined: it included the scientific community itself, the policy makers, the entrepreneurs, and the general public. The publication program thus started as soon as the first staff member, Professor Peter Anyang' Nyong'o, came on board in July 1987 as Head of Programs. Using outside typesetters, he immediately started publishing Whydah, the quarterly newsletter of the AAS and working on the first book, Hope Born Out of Despair. He also helped develop the publication strategy of AAS: they would publish a newsletter, a journal, books and monographs, as well as other products. The publishing arm of the AAS was called Academy Science Publishers, or ASP.

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--> Project Description The ASP initially took on desktop publishing to underpin the publication of the AAS's Discovery and Innovation (D&I), which was a quarterly, approximately 100 page per issue, peer-reviewed, multi-disciplinary journal of research and policy discourse. The feasibility study performed prior to establishing the journal involved over 80 scholars, scientists, and professional consultants from Africa, Europe, and America and unearthed many problems facing publishing in Africa. The study found that of the 70,000 or so journals published worldwide, only about 150 were from Africa. Many of these were of dubious quality, frequency, and duration. The main problems were prioritized as lack of resources, but more significantly, there were managerial problems, such as the: Low professional capacity in editing, typesetting, printing, marketing, and distribution; and Management of the intellectual processes: peer review, content-quality assurance, timeliness; and inclusion in the world's secondary (abstracting, indexing, and citation) literature. Many African scientists were worried about publishing their best work in an "obscure journal" whose results might not be seen by their peers. This might possibly result in duplication of research or, worse, competitors might claim they got the results first. There were also doubts in some foreign quarters as to whether Africa was doing enough high-calibre science to support such an advanced journal. The leadership of the AAS, who had much experience on the African scene, insisted that the time was ripe for such a journal. All in all, the study came up with conflicting predictions that could only be tested in the field through praxis. It is a tribute to the resilience, persistence, vision, and managerial acumen of the leadership of the AAS that the journal not only started, but has survived and has become a regular, well recognized beacon of scholarly publishing in Africa. The tribute equally goes to the donors of the journal, particularly the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Science. But thirdly, and significantly, the tribute must be shared by a technological innovation—desktop publishing—which is at the base of the success of this journal and indeed of the AAS's entire program of publication and dissemination of scientific materials. In May 1988, Professor Turner T. Isoun arrived from Nigeria to take his post as the Editor of Discovery and Innovation, plus other AAS publications. On assuming duty, he immediately took steps to ensure the acquisition of good quality manuscripts for consideration for publication in the journal. He developed and sent out announcements of the new journal, instructions to contributors, and personal invitations to contribute articles to key scientists inside and outside Africa (including all Fellows of AAS). He was rewarded with an encouraging response to

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--> his campaign. Over 100 scientists indicated a willingness to contribute articles and, by the time he produced the first issue in March 1989, he already had over 60 papers undergoing the peer review process—enough to fill the first four issues of D&I. Project Experience and Implementation The feasibility study had recommended the introduction of desktop publishing for the journal. Accordingly, the AAS acquired a Macintosh IIci computer, with a laser printer and back-up dot matrix printer. It had advanced word processing (Microsoft Word) and DTP (Aldus Pagemaker) software. The AAS already had three IBM-compatible personal computers with dot-matrix printers that were used mainly for word processing. A database management program (Dbase III) was used for the project on Profiles and Databank of African Scientists and Scientific Institutions . The AAS newsletter, Whydah, had been published since 1987, using outside typesetting service. Three books and other several other products of the AAS had also been published using outside services. The new equipment was ready when the next editorial staff member joined in October 1988. Gillian Ngola had broad experience in publishing and quickly became proficient on the equipment, mainly using her familiarity with the printing terminology that had been incorporated into the DTP software (e.g., fonts and point sizes, bromides, camera-ready copy, etc.). Arriving in January 1989, as an Assistant Program Officer, I brought my experience as a physical scientist familiar with computers, science writing, and publication generally. I began to troubleshoot simple problems, conduct in-house training on computer literacy, undertake technical editing of scientific articles, and plan for expansion on the DTP path. I actively participated in the thrill and agony of putting together the first issue of D&I. When it finally came out in its purple splendor in March 1989, we celebrated! Two major issues were identified and dealt with at that time. One was the whole area of typesetting mathematical expressions, which was extremely tedious with the conventional programs then available. It was eventually solved to some extent with the Expressionist software, a shareware program supplied by Miriam Balaban of Israel. The second was a more fundamental one, dealing with refereeing of papers through a peer review process. The system of peer review designed for D&I was extremely innovative, rigorous, and uncompromising regarding what would be accepted for publication. It was based on the principle of pure peer review as applied by the best journals of the world. As 1989 ended, it was clear that D&I was succeeding beyond the expectations of its initiators. We had managed to bring out four issues of high quality material, every issue on time (in the month shown on the cover). We had received some 314 manuscripts and had processed enough of these to keep two issues ahead in terms of articles ready for production. Also, we had received 236 paid subscriptions.

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--> Innovations related to computers were becoming very useful, for instance: some authors were submitting their articles on diskette, thus obviating error-prone re-entering of text; we had the manuscript tracking system computerized; and we had introduced and mastered a mathematical typesetting software (Expressionist) that improved our handling of physical science papers. After one year of operation, we could better understand and deal with our business environment. The information technology environment within which DTP grew at the AAS was auspicious in some respects, but terrible in others, though each of these facets had to be recognized and managed by doing. Nairobi, and particularly the ICIPE campus at which the AAS was housed until 1992, was full of microcomputers, but not DTP. A good proportion of the secretaries could operate a word processor but had not been trained in the more complicated aspects of page layout or importing graphic files. Technical support was available but insufficient, especially when it came time to dealing with hardware problems. In terms of scientific content for our publications, the supply was good, as nearly all scientific and technical disciplines were well represented in Nairobi—in professional societies, universities, libraries, government agencies, research institutions, international organizations, and NGOs. The AAS, through its project on Profiles and Databank of African Scientists and Scientific Institutions, the Fellowship of the Academy, and the Network of African Scientific Organizations (NASO), was already in touch with much expertise Africa-wide and indeed world-wide. (See Box 2.) ICIPE itself represented a multidisciplinary scientific and technological milieu. Its scientific programs and activities kept the AAS replete with new visitors, contacts, information, and advice. Nairobi was (and still is) the hub of trade, communication, and commerce for Eastern and Central Africa and attracts much equipment and trade information. Telecommunication within Nairobi and outside is easy, but not cheap. Thus the ASP Editor had no major problem originating publications ready for the printers. He could mobilize peer-review and technical editing, and consult other experts and libraries for scientific and technical BOX 2 Complementary Projects The peer review process reinforced the AAS's desire to develop a deep and broad knowledge of the African scientific community. This is why the Profiles and Databank of African Scientists and Scientific Institutions project was so useful. Often the D&I Editor came to my office and said: "Alex, could you look in your database and find me an expert to review this paper—preferably not from the following country(s)." Most of the time I would succeed, and also take the opportunity to add the authors to the database, if they qualified.

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--> publishing minutiae (e.g., the current convention for depicting vectors and matrices in print). The printing industry in Nairobi responded well and turned out to be up to the task of printing a sophisticated publication like Discovery and Innovation—at reasonable prices and with acceptable timing. Although most printing had previously been taken outside (mostly to London), this was traced to the colonial legacy of Kenya and the perceived editorial shortcomings of African editors. Thus, it was actually editorial expertise that was sought. Once that editorial confidence was built—and the ASP/DTP did a lot to build it in Nairobi—there was no looking back. In other words, while the environment affected AAS, AAS did much to affect the STI environment too! The one clear negative aspect of the STI environment for the international scholarly publisher in Kenya was the prohibitively expensive international postage demanded by the government-run Kenya Posts and Telecommunications Corporation (KPTC). High prices forced the AAS to ship its publications, in bulk, to a cheaper distributor in the United Kingdom or Amsterdam. While saving us money this also led to horrible delays in fulfillment of subscriptions and orders. Telephone and fax, also managed by the KPTC, were at least four times higher than in neighboring Uganda. The other barrier in Kenya was the lack of full liberalization of foreign exchange markets (unlike Uganda) and high duty on computer equipment. Departure of Professor Isoun The first major challenge to the DTP program at the African Academy of Science came in early 1990 when Professor Isoun returned to Nigeria. He retained his post as non-resident Editor and the office in Nairobi was reorganized. I was appointed Associate Editor and was to assist him in ensuring the editorial quality, scientific content, and general sustainability of the journal. Specifically, I was to deal with: the editorial acceptance process: referee selection and manuscript traffic monitoring; technical editing for scientific content, especially in the physical sciences; and overall program development for AAS publications. I did this along with my duties as Assistant Program Officer in charge of several other projects. (See Box 3.) Mrs. Ngola, in turn, took on more responsibility for managing the journal's technical editing, production, publication, and marketing. We were lucky in October 1989 to hire, as a graduate secretary, Mrs. Nancy Amulyoto, who grew to be invaluable in running the manuscript tracking system and generally running the office. She was the de facto Assistant to the

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--> BOX 3 Profiles of African Scientists I was asked to publish Profiles of African Scientists, from my computerized databank. I was initially appalled because I thought it a retrogressive step to go from electronic to paper-based data. Later, it dawned on me that most of the world was still "paper-bound" and could not access our data anyway. But computers would still help, via DTP. There followed one of my most nightmarish exercises—converting my IBM Dbase files into Microsoft Word files ready for DTP on a Macintosh! We published the book, complete with photographs, in March 1990. It had about 400 entries. The book was an immediate hit, and generated a lot of interest and heated discussions, particularly by those who had been left out. The photos were included because, apparently, there were some people who still doubted that there actually are African scientists. This book put those doubts to rest. The second edition, revised and expanded, was published in March 1991, with over 600 entries. Editor while Mrs. Ngola became, in essence, the Production Editor. The Peer Review Process at the AAS I want to provide some detailed information about the peer review system that we used at ASP. If a journal is to be taken seriously by the international scientific community, it must follow a rigorous peer review process. The system established for the peer review of Discovery and Innovation was among the first in Africa. After preliminary assessment of a paper by the editor, we mailed copies to two or three independent referees. We first removed any information about the author—name, country of origin, and current institution—so that the reviewer would not be unduly influenced by such particulars. We looked for reviewers who were not from the same country as the authors. In order to continuously recalibrate our standards, we also chose reviewers from outside Africa. Depending on referees' comments, the editor would: 1)   accept for publication; 2)   send referees' comments (anonymously) back to author for revision/response; 3)   send copy to other referee(s) for further opinion; or 4)   reject and return the manuscript to author. The revised manuscript could be accepted or sent back to referees. Clearly the peer review process often resulted in extended cycles of interaction between authors and referees, mediated by the editor. Though expensive and time-consuming

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--> (given Africa's poor postal communications), we found this process extremely important in safeguarding the quality, credibility, and integrity of the journal. Never during the first four years of publishing D&I did the AAS receive any feedback challenging the intellectual content of the journal. Indeed, potentially embarrassing submissions were caught before damaging our reputation. Some of the exchanges generated a lot of heat. We also learned that the matter of confidentiality is often a managerial formality to protect the concerned parties: active experts worth their salt can usually guess the identity of the author or at least the institution from which a given paper originated. As long as this formality is respected by all, however, the process can obviate any suspicions of bias, plagiarism, blockage, and unfair competition in the scientific community. Another unique feature of the D&I peer review system was that it was purely voluntary. We correctly believed that if our journal was excellent, then reviewers would find it an honor to be associated with it and contribute to its success. As 1990 ended, it was clear that D&I was well established. We had fully mastered the intricacies of originating and producing a high quality, peer reviewed journal on African soil. However, D&I was now pushing the human resources to the limit, particularly at the post-production, business end: marketing, distribution, subscription fulfillment, and so on. This became the focus of our struggle: to convince our donors to support the hiring of a marketing officer. This was finally accomplished in June 1992. With this position filled, the AAS controlled all the basic functions of DTP, and ASP became, at last, a full (but still small) DTP-based publishing house. Other Publications As soon as ASP proved the viability of DTP for scholarly publishing in Africa with the release of D&I in March 1989, the managers of AAS were emboldened to widen the DTP scope to include books, monographs, and reports. The editorial office already had four manuscripts on hand, coming out of other AAS programs or through outside collaboration. These quickly became pioneer DTP books under the ASP imprint. Their titles were: Science for Development in Africa; Soil and Water Management in Africa; Directory of Scholarly Journals Published in Africa; and Regional Integration in Africa: an Unfinished Agenda. By November 1989, we had produced the African Academy of Sciences' Strategic Plan 1989–1992, much acclaimed for its design excellence and quality production in green, cream and gold, which became a major selling point among the AAS's donors and clientele. Production of equally well-designed Annual Reports became a tradition at this time. In 1992, another milestone was passed when Whydah, the AAS newsletter,

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--> was finally produced in-house by DTP. This was a major achievement, because it was accomplished through internal capacity building, without expanding the staff. Our Administrative Secretary, Miss Margaret Anaminyi, taught herself DTP basically by watching and doing over the years, until she challenged us to let her do it all. Her pioneering effort allowed us to produce the newsletter more efficiently. She also spread the skills and confidence she gained to the other staff members and other AAS projects. This caused a quantum leap in the efficiency of our secretariat and the quality of our products as we became almost 100 percent computer-literate. As 1992 ended, problems remained at the post-production, business end but these were being addressed by the new marketing officer. The biggest problem threatening the DTP operation was that many of its pioneering staff began to leave for a variety of reasons. After Professor Isoun left in mid-1990, we managed to cover for his absence through sheer energy and hard work. But when, at the end of 1991, Professor Nyong'o left to join the multiparty politics of Kenya, the pressure became unbearable. At the same time, I was making plans to return home to Uganda and decided to stay only one more year as Head of Programs and Associate Editor. Under this pressure, we still managed to produce all of our serials on time every time in 1992, but the book publishing slowed down. In the meantime, it appears that the impetus for dynamic use of DTP has been picked up by the ICIPE Science Press, which is covered by Ms. Agnes Katama's case study (included in this volume). Her study shows the development of the market-oriented, potentially sustainable strategy that we were planning at the AAS but had not yet begun to develop and implement. Results, Impacts, and Benefits of the Project By the end of 1992, DTP was well established at the AAS. The result was that all programs could confidently produce camera-ready copy: books, journals, newsletters, brochures, and reports on time and to consistently high levels of quality. Our flagship publication, D&I, had broken all records by coming out regularly, on time, for four volumes (16 issues). Its high quality content, favorably reviewed in Nature, helped us break through a thick barrier into the international science citation system. It was abstracted and indexed in the secondary literature by Chemical Abstracts and Current Contents. It was also carried in the catalogue of the African Book Collective in London, signalling its entry into worldwide promotion, marketing, and distribution. The number of papers submitted had risen to 780. Discovery and Innovation was quickly establishing itself as the principal forum for scholarly and policy discourse in Africa. ASP books and periodicals were displayed at international conferences and book fairs worldwide, and could be found in many libraries. Our books were hitting the market at a prolific rate, with 11 titles in our catalogue, plus thousands of brochures, pamphlets, flyers, catalogs, indexes, and promotional materials. Academy

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--> Science Publishers became one of the fastest growing scholarly publishing houses on the African scene. A new AAS staff member confessed that he had been misled before joining, by the number of publications reaching his institution, into thinking that AAS was a large organization with a hundred employees. He found about ten. We worked hard, and we worked smart, mostly through DTP. (See Box 4.) The AAS is pinning great hopes on ASP to become the main pillar of its quest for self-reliance and reduced donor dependence. Impacts of DTP rapidly spread throughout the organization. The dot-matrix printer was abandoned suddenly for the laser when our Director started refusing to sign non-laser printed letters. Suddenly, everyone wanted a Macintosh with laser printer. Timeliness, quality, and financial prudence became AAS management goals. DTP could ensure delivery of the required results most of the time. AAS's pioneering spirit created a mini freelance industry in DTP, mainly composed of expatriates who were unemployed because of Kenya's strict employment regulations. They set up DTP facilities in their houses and serviced the high-pressure demands of the AAS, through their spouses and friends. Miriam Isoun worked in this way to publish Science for Development in Africa, taking a great weight off Gill Ngola's shoulders; she also stepped in for an issue or two of D&I when Mrs. Ngola was away. Laura Tindimubona designed almost all the books, the Strategic Plan, and Annual Reports. She used DTP to publish Inventions of African Scientists, which was printed by ICIPE Science Press in 1992. These entrepreneurs were soon joined by others, including ICIPE secretaries and graduate students at the University of Nairobi. And so DTP spread in Nairobi. Here are some other examples of the impact of the desktop publishing program at the AAS: One industrialist saw a new food formulation reported in an AAS publication and started a new production line in his factory; An article from D&I was repackaged for the popular media and got carried by several news agencies in Africa; I won the 1992 UNESCO Swraj paul award for work on development of a science culture in Africa, an article first published as a guest editorial in D&I in 1990; BOX 4 Impact of ASP A colleague visited a foreign organization based in Nairobi with the mandate of collecting and disseminating African literature. He asked them whether they had any books on science in Africa. They said, "Sure." So he said: "Can I see some so as to acquire them for the AAS library?" They brought out the books they had, and lo and behold, they were all from the AAS.

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--> My analysis of the characteristics of the African scientific community, published in the Profiles book, led to a better understanding of the same and helped in design of new AAS programs, such as the Education of Girls and Women; and Experts who received papers to referee for D&I ended up submitting papers or getting involved in other AAS projects. Finally, I believe that D&I and other AAS publications went a long way in building the African scientific community, and perhaps, ultimately, an African science. Any journal is an expression of the scientific community that surrounds it. The famous "internationally recognized" journals that the African scientists were clamoring to publish in, e.g., Journal of the American Chemical Society (JACS), are actually quite parochial in their core, because they have to be relevant to the needs and aspirations of American chemistry. For these reasons, African papers reporting on African problems would not be easily deemed relevant to such journals. D&I, if it could overcome the problems it faced, could be such a mouthpiece, and yet be internationally recognized. This program in turn has had a great impact in making the AAS a highly visible authoritative leader of science in Africa. Analysis of Lessons Learned The main lesson we learned is that DTP should not be confused with simply typesetting or design on a computer—which is what most laymen think. It should be understood as publishing, first and foremost: this means managing the entire process or chain by which raw manuscripts are transformed and delivered to the consumer in the most appropriate fashion. This entails managing the origination, printing, marketing, and distribution—and ideally doing all of this profitably and in a self-sustaining way. The computer can play a role anywhere along this chain. Seen in this way, DTP as most people see it, is only a small part of the entire process. In our time, the AAS certainly mastered the origination process and we depended heavily on the mature printing industry of Nairobi, but we had yet to come to grips with the post-production or business end. There is still lots of room for innovation and capacity building in these areas in Africa. Otherwise, why do we still have so few reliable, sustainable scholarly journals in Africa? The key aspect we mastered was the technology of DTP—at a time when few others had much experience with its application. Another key to our rapid expansion in this period is traceable not only to the internal training of secretaries but to the more fundamental trick of strategic recruitment of a cadre of several young university-trained graduate secretaries. They had the basic knowledge, skills, and aptitude to scale the heights demanded by the high standards set by the AAS in all its work. Tribute must be paid to this cadre for

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--> many of the achievements of DTP at ASP. Most of them have since grown professionally to even higher levels and many are training their other colleagues. Marketing and distribution of scholarly materials in Africa is still tough, and more training and capacity building is needed in this area. But the imminent creation of an African market, since South Africa became free, evidenced by more free movement and the vibrant Book Fairs at Nairobi and Harare, may all improve matters in the near future. In scholarly publishing, it pays to have a good, marketable product to work on. The AAS itself, its mission of excellence, its Fellows, and programs could be sold to a good extent, inside and, more particularly, outside Africa. We had no problem getting materials to work on. But spotting and working on these took interest, vision, talent, and devotion. Conclusions and Recommendations This report has highlighted the experiences of an emerging scientific organization whose dynamism and leadership was spearheaded by DTP. In the period 1989–1992, we initiated and firmly established DTP at the African Academy of Sciences through a series of creative innovations. The AAS can now embark on the post-publication activities such as promotion, marketing, and distribution. The results today (1995) give cause for looking at the future with confidence. At the end of the reported period, ASP was also looking to consolidate and expand its scholarly publishing business. Consolidation means putting in place all the basic parts (people, funds, and equipment) of the publication chain, so as to make it market-driven and self-sustaining. This process has continued. The ASP can expand into tertiary level textbooks and other scholarly materials, while maintaining the journal and newsletter. This door remains open for ASP, since the market is still underserved. Other prospects lay in strengthening the role of the Fellows and their ownership of the Academy. The commitment of the donors, especially the Carnegie Corporation of New York and the Kuwait Foundation for the Advancement of Science, was crucial at a time when we had to build up the credibility to attract a revenue base from subscriptions and advertisements. They had the vision and patience to nurture, over a long period, what was clearly a promising idea, while keeping the pressure high for quick maturity and independence. The challenge was how to support the basic parts of the process so that donor withdrawal would not lead to collapse and thus wasted effort. Clearly, more quantitative and diverse funding and promotion are needed to sustain scholarly publishing and we look to any innovations in this regard. The challenge to Africa's supporters remains.