Appendix K Bibliography

40 CFR 191. 1995. Environmental radiation protection standards for management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes. Code of Federal Regulations Title 40, Pt. 191.

40 CFR 194. 1996. Criteria for the certification and recertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's compliance with the 40 CFR Part 191 disposal regulations; final rule. Federal Register 61(28) (February 9 ):5224-5245.

40 CFR 268. 1995. Land disposal restrictions. Code of Federal Regulations Title 40, Pt. 268.

Ahlbom, K., J. Andersson, P. Andersson, T. Ittner, C. Ljunggren, and S. Tirén. 1992. Finnsjön Study Site. Scope of Activities and Main Results: SKB Technical Report 92-33. Stockholm: Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company.

Ahrens, E. H. 1995. Data Report on the Small-Scale Seal Performance Tests, Series F Grouting Experiment in Room L3. SAND93-1000. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories.

Ahrens, E. H., and F. D. Hansen. 1995. Large-Scale Dynamic Compaction Demonstration Using WIPP Salt: Fielding and Preliminary Results. SAND95-1941. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories.

Anderson, M. P., and W. W. Woessner. 1992. Applied Ground-water Modeling: Simulation of Flow and Advective Transport. San Diego: Academic Press.


Barker, J. M., and G. S. Austin. 1995. Overview of the Carlsbad Potash District. Pp. III-1-III-26 in Evaluation of Mineral Resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, Vol. 2. Socorro, N.Mex.: New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Campus Station.

Barth, F. E. 1982. Prehistoric saltmining at Hallstatt. Bulletin, Institute of Archaeology, London 19:31-43.

Beauheim, R. L. 1987. Interpretations of Single-Well Hydraulic Tests Conducted at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, 1983-1987. SAND87-0039. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories.

Beauheim, R. L. 1989. Interpretation of H-11b4 Hydraulic Tests and the H-11 Multipad Pumping Test of the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. SAND89-0536. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories.

Beauheim, R. L., G. J. Saulnier, Jr., and J. Avis. 1991. Interpretation of Brine-Permeability Tests of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: First Interim Report. SAND90-0083. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories.

Beauheim, R. L., R. M. Roberts, T. F. Dale, M. D. Fort, and W. A. Stensrud. 1993. Hydraulic Testing of Salado Formation Evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Second Interpretive Report. SAND92-0533. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories.

Beauheim, R. L., W. W. Wawersik, and R. M. Roberts. 1993. Coupled permeability and hydrofracture tests to assess the waste-containment properties of fractured anhydrite. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts 30 , 7: 1159-1163.

Beauheim, R. L., S. M. Howarth, P. Vaughn, S. W. Webb, and K.W. Larson. 1995. Integrating Modeling and Experimental Programs to Predict Brine and Gas Flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. SAND94-0599A and CONF-941053-1. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories.

Bechtel National, Inc. 1979. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Title I Design Report, Vols. 1 and 1a. Nuclear Fuel Operations, San Francisco, Calif.



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--> Appendix K Bibliography 40 CFR 191. 1995. Environmental radiation protection standards for management and disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level and transuranic radioactive wastes. Code of Federal Regulations Title 40, Pt. 191. 40 CFR 194. 1996. Criteria for the certification and recertification of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant's compliance with the 40 CFR Part 191 disposal regulations; final rule. Federal Register 61(28) (February 9 ):5224-5245. 40 CFR 268. 1995. Land disposal restrictions. Code of Federal Regulations Title 40, Pt. 268. Ahlbom, K., J. Andersson, P. Andersson, T. Ittner, C. Ljunggren, and S. Tirén. 1992. Finnsjön Study Site. Scope of Activities and Main Results: SKB Technical Report 92-33. Stockholm: Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company. Ahrens, E. H. 1995. Data Report on the Small-Scale Seal Performance Tests, Series F Grouting Experiment in Room L3. SAND93-1000. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Ahrens, E. H., and F. D. Hansen. 1995. Large-Scale Dynamic Compaction Demonstration Using WIPP Salt: Fielding and Preliminary Results. SAND95-1941. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Anderson, M. P., and W. W. Woessner. 1992. Applied Ground-water Modeling: Simulation of Flow and Advective Transport. San Diego: Academic Press. Barker, J. M., and G. S. Austin. 1995. Overview of the Carlsbad Potash District. Pp. III-1-III-26 in Evaluation of Mineral Resources at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, Vol. 2. Socorro, N.Mex.: New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, Campus Station. Barth, F. E. 1982. Prehistoric saltmining at Hallstatt. Bulletin, Institute of Archaeology, London 19:31-43. Beauheim, R. L. 1987. Interpretations of Single-Well Hydraulic Tests Conducted at and near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site, 1983-1987. SAND87-0039. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Beauheim, R. L. 1989. Interpretation of H-11b4 Hydraulic Tests and the H-11 Multipad Pumping Test of the Culebra Dolomite at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Site. SAND89-0536. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Beauheim, R. L., G. J. Saulnier, Jr., and J. Avis. 1991. Interpretation of Brine-Permeability Tests of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Site: First Interim Report. SAND90-0083. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Beauheim, R. L., R. M. Roberts, T. F. Dale, M. D. Fort, and W. A. Stensrud. 1993. Hydraulic Testing of Salado Formation Evaporites at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Second Interpretive Report. SAND92-0533. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Beauheim, R. L., W. W. Wawersik, and R. M. Roberts. 1993. Coupled permeability and hydrofracture tests to assess the waste-containment properties of fractured anhydrite. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences & Geomechanics Abstracts 30 , 7: 1159-1163. Beauheim, R. L., S. M. Howarth, P. Vaughn, S. W. Webb, and K.W. Larson. 1995. Integrating Modeling and Experimental Programs to Predict Brine and Gas Flow at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. SAND94-0599A and CONF-941053-1. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Bechtel National, Inc. 1979. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Title I Design Report, Vols. 1 and 1a. Nuclear Fuel Operations, San Francisco, Calif.

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--> Reardon, E. J. 1981. Kd's—Can they be used to describe reversible ion sorption reactions in contaminant migration? Ground-Water 19(3):279-286. Rechard, R. P. 1995. An Introduction to the Mechanics of Performance Assessment Using Examples of Calculations Done for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Between 1990 and 1992. SAND93-1378. Albuquerque, N. Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Rechard, R. P., P. J. Roache, R. L. Blaine, A. P. Gilkey, and D. K. Rudeen. 1991. Quality Assurance Procedures for Computer Software Supporting Performance Assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. SAND90-1240. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Rechard, R. P., D. K. Rudeen, and P. J. Roache. 1992. Quality Assurance Procedures for Analyses and Report Reviews Supporting Performance Assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. SAND91-0428. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Rechard, R. P., K. M. Trauth, and R. V. Guzowski. 1992. Quality Assurance Procedures for Parameter Selection and Use of Expert Judgment Panels Supporting Performance Assessments of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant . SAND91-0429. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Reed, D. T., S. Okajima, and M. K. Richmann. 1994. Stability of Plutonium(VI) in Selected WIPP Brines. Radiochimica Acta 66/67:95-101. Reilly, T. E., O. L. Franke, H. T. Buxton, and G. D. Bennett. 1987. A Conceptual Framework for Ground-Water Solute-Transport Studies with Emphasis on Physical Mechanisms of Solute Movement. U.S. Geological Survey Water-Resources Investigation Report 87-4191. RE/SPEC. Unpublished. Calculations done under contract to Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Shaft Sealing Program. RSI Calculation File 325/11/03. RE/SPEC. Unpublished. Calculations done under contract to Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Shaft Sealing Program. RSI Calculation File 325/11/04. RE/SPEC. Unpublished. Calculations done under contract to Sandia National Laboratories WIPP Shaft Sealing Program. RSI Calculation File 325/11/05. RE/SPEC. 1995. External Memorandum to L. Diane Hurtado, Sandia National Laboratories, November 10. RSI(RCO)-325/11/95/23. Roddy, J. W., H. C. Claiborne, R. C. Ashline, P. J. Johnson, and B. T. Rhyne. 1986. Physical and Decay Characteristics of Commercial LWR Spent Fuel. ORNL/TM-9591/V16R1. Oak Ridge, Tenn.: Oak Ridge National Laboratory . Roedder, E., W. M. d'Angelo, A. F. Dorrzapf, Jr., and P. J. Aruscavage. 1987. Composition of Fluid Inclusions in Permian Salt Beds, Palo Duro Basin, Texas, U.S.A. Chemical Geology 61:79-90. Rossmanith, H.-P., ed. 1995. Mechanics of Jointed and Faulted Rock: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Mechanics of Jointed and Faulted Rock, MJFR-2, Vienna, Austria, 10-14 April, 1995. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema. Roy, D. M., M. W. Grutzeck, and L. D. Wakeley. 1983. Selection and Durability of Seal Materials for a Bedded Salt Repository, Preliminary Studies. ONWI-479. Prepared for Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio, by Pennsylvania State University. Roy, D. M., M. W. Grutzeck, and L. D. Wakeley. 1985. Salt Repository Seal Materials. A Synopsis of Early Cementitious Materials Development, BMI/ONWI-536. Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation, Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, Ohio, by Pennsylvania State University. Sandia National Laboratories. 1979. Summary of Research and Development Activities in Support of Waste Acceptance Criteria for WIPP. SAND79-1305. Albuquerque, N.Mex. Sandia National Laboratories. 1991. Preliminary Comparison with 40 CFR Part 191. Subpart B for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. December 1991, Vol. 3: Reference Data. SAND91-0893/3. Albuquerque, N.Mex. Sandia National Laboratories. 1992. Preliminary Performance Assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, December 1992, Vols. 1-5. SAND92-0700. Albuquerque, N.Mex.

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--> Sandia National Laboratories. 1995. SPM-2 Report, Revision 1, Vols. I and II. Albuquerque, N.Mex. Sewards, T., R. Glenn, and K. Keil. 1991. Mineralogy of the Rustler Formation in the WIPP-19 Core. SAND87-7036. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Sexton, T. J. 1996. Memo, April 11, to Jan van Schilfgaarde, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Sharp, J. M., Jr., N. I. Robinson, R. C. Smyth-Boulton, and K. L. Milliken. 1995. Fracture Skin Effects in Ground-water Transport. Pp. 449-454 in Mechanics of Jointed and Faulted Rock, H.-P. Rossmanith, ed. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema. Shoesmith, D. W., S. Sunder, M. G. Bailey, and N. H. Miller. 1996. Corrosion of used nuclear fuel in aqueous perchlorate and carbonate solutions. Journal of Nuclear Materials 227:287-299. Siegel, M. D., and S. Anderholm. 1994. Geochemical evolution of ground-water in the Culebra Dolomite near the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, southeastern New Mexico, USA. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58(10):2299-2323. Siegel, M. D., S. J. Lambert, and K. L. Robinson, eds. 1991. Hydrogeochemical Studies of the Rustler Formation and Related Rocks in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Area, Southeastern New Mexico. SAND88-0196. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Silva, M. K. 1994. Implications of the Presence of Petroleum Resources on the Integrity of the WIPP. EEG-55; DOE/AL/58309-55. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Environmental Evaluation Group. Silva, M. K. 1996. Fluid Injection for Salt Water Disposal and Enhanced Oil Recovery as a Potential Problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 Workshop and Analysis. EEG-62. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Environmental Evaluation Group. Stoelzel, D. M. 1996. Current Petroleum Practices and Their Application to WIPP Area Development. Pp. 79-91 in Fluid Injection for Salt Water Disposal and Enhanced Oil Recovery as a Potential Problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 Workshop and Analysis, M. K. Silva, ed. Albuquerque, N.Mex: Environmental Evaluation Group. Stormont, J. C. 1984. Plugging and Sealing Program for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). SAND84-1057. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Stormont, J. C., ed. 1986. Development and Implementation: Test Series A of the Small-Scale Seal Performance Tests. SAND85-2602. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Stormont, J. C. 1988. Preliminary Seal Design Evaluation for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. SAND87-3083. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Stormont, J. C., C. L. Howard, and J. J. K. Daemen. 1991. In Situ Measurements of Rock Salt Permeability Changes Due to a Nearby Excavation. SAND90-3134. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company. 1995. Feasibility Study for Siting of a Deep Repository Within the Storuman Municipality: SKB Technical Report 95-08, Stockholm. Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. 1987. The International HYDROCOIN Project—Background and Results. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate. 1990. The International INTRAVAL Project—Background and Results. Paris, France: Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. Tanji, K. K., and B. Yaron, eds. 1994. Management of Water Use in Agriculture. New York: Springer-Verlag. Tillerson, J. R., and W. R. Wawersik, eds. 1992. Rock Mechanics Proceedings of the 33rd U.S. Symposium,, Sweeney Convention Center, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 3-5 June 1992. Rotterdam; Brookfield: A. A. Balkema. U.S. Congress. 1980. The U.S. Department of Energy National Security and Military Applications of Nuclear Energy Authorization Act of 1980. Public Law 96-164. 93 Stat. 1259. Enacted December 1979. 96th Congress. U.S. Congress. 1992. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Act P. L. 102-579. Legislative Report for the 102nd Congress.

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--> U.S. Congress, House of Representatives. 1995. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Amendment Act. H.R. 1663. Introduced May 17, 1995 by Representative Skeen (R-N.Mex.). 104th Congress, 1st Session. U.S. Congress, Senate. 1995. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Amendment Act. S1402. 104th Congress, 1st Session. U.S. Congress, Senate. 1996. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Land Withdrawal Amendment Act. Amendment No. 4085 to S1745. 104th Congress. C. R. pp. S6587-S6591. U.S. Geological Survey. 1987. Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the United States Geological Survey, Book 3: Application of Hydraulics. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. 1975. Reactor Safety Study: An Assessment of Accident Risks in U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants. WASH-1400, NUREG-75/014. Valocchi, A. J. 1984. Describing the transport of ion-exchanging contaminants using an effective Kd approach. Water Resources Research 20(4):499-503. Van der Leeden, F., L. A. Cerrillo, and D. W. Miller. 1975. Ground-water pollution problems in the northwestern United States. EPA-660/3-75-018. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Van Sambeek, L. L., D. D. Luo, M. S. Lin, W. Ostrowski, and D. Oyenuga. 1993. Seal Design Alternatives Study. SAND92-7340. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Wakeley, L. D., P. T. Harrington, and C. A. Weiss, Jr. 1993. Properties of Salt-Saturated Concrete and Grout after Six Years n Situ at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. SAND93-7019. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Wakeley, L. D., T. S. Poole, and J. P. Burkes. 1994. Durability of Concrete Materials in High Magnesium Brine. SAND93-7073. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Wakeley, L. D., P. T. Harrington, and F. D. Hansen. 1995. Variability in Properties of Salado Mass Concrete. SAND94-1495. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Waste Isolation Plant Land Withdrawal Amendments Act. 1996. National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997, Subtitle F. (P.L. 104-201, September 23). Webb, S. W., and K. W. Larson. 1996. The Effect of Stratigraphic Dip on Brine Inflow and Gas Migration at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. SAND 94-0932. Albuquerque, N.Mex.: Sandia National Laboratories. Wikberg, P., G. Gustafson, I. Rhén, and R. Stanfors. 1991. Äspö Hard Rock Laboratory. Evaluation and Conceptual Modeling Based on the Pre-investigations 1986-1990. SKB Technical Report 91-22. Stockholm: Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company. Williams, N. 1995. The trials and tribulations of cracking the prehistoric code. Science 269:923-924. Yaron, B., and H. Frenkel. 1994. Water Suitability for Agriculture. In Management of Water Use in Agriculture, K. K. Tanji and B. Yaron, eds. New York: Springer-Verlag. Photo Section Photo 3 3. Three-dimensional view of the WIPP facility. Panel 1 is the only one of the eight panels shown that has been excavated in the waste disposal area to date. The typical stratigraphy is shown in cross-section on the right of the diagram. WIPP is located in the bedded salt Salado Formation, approximately 660 m below the surface. The Salado is approximately 230 million years old. Photo 4 4. View of Room 1, Panel 1, underground at WIPP. Photo 5 5. A tractor-trailer travels to WIPP with U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissioncertified containers, using the Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT-II) transportation system. The tractor-trailer and containers are designed specially for shipment of radioactive waste for disposal at WIPP. The location of the TRUPACT-II can be pinpointed within 150 m at any time by a satellite tracking system. Photo 6 6. Stacking of simulated contact-handled transuranic waste approximately 660 m underground at WIPP.

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Photo 1 1. Native yucca in bloom near Carlsbad, New Mexico; the U.S. Department of Energy's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is in the background. Photo 2 2. Aerial view of WIPP.

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Photo 3 3. Three-dimensional view of the WIPP facility. Panel 1 is the only one of the eight panels shown that has been excavated in the waste disposal area to date. The typical stratigraphy is shown in cross-section on the right of the diagram. WIPP is located in the bedded salt Salado Formation, approximately 660 m below the surface. The Salado is approximately 230 million years old. Photo 4 4. View of Room 1, Panel 1, underground at WIPP.

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Photo 5 5. A tractor-trailer travels to WIPP with U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commissioncertified containers, using the Transuranic Package Transporter (TRUPACT-II) transportation system. The tractor-trailer and containers are designed specially for shipment of radioactive waste for disposal at WIPP. The location of the TRUPACT-II can be pinpointed within 150 m at any time by a satellite tracking system. Photo 6 6. Stacking of simulated contact-handled transuranic waste approximately 660 m underground at WIPP.

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Photo 7 7. Conceptual release pathways for the E1E2 human intrusion event (see Chapter 2). It is assumed that at some time in the next 10,000 years, a borehole penetrates both the waste and a region of pressurized brine in the underlying Castile formation. A second borehole is also assumed to penetrate the waste but not the pressurized brine. Arrows indicate the hypothetical direction of ground-water flow and radionuclide transport; Rc indicates material released at the surface directly from the drilling operation; Racc indicates radionuclides released below the surface into a permeable bed of Culebra dolomite. This and other release pathways are considered in calculations made to evaluate whether or not a WIPP repository would comply with U.S. Environmental Protèction Agency (EPA) standards. Source: The figure is taken from the DRAFT-DOE/CAO-2056, p. 6-51 (July 1995 update). Photo 8 8. Mean Complementary Cumulative Distribution Functions (CCDFs) showing the probability of radionuclide releases from WIPP over 10,000 years for undisturbed conditions (red) and intrusive drilling scenarios (blue). This figure illustrates the dominant influence of intrusion scenarios on the predicted releases. These preliminary CCDFs are based on early models and data and do not address all the requirements of EPA regulations 40 CFR 191 or 40 CFR 194. The EPA release limits are shown as the lefthand-side limits of the region in green. Compliance is achieved if the mean CCDF never enters the green region. Source: The figure is taken from DRAFT-DOE/CAO-2056, p. 6-59 (Vol. I, March 1995) and p. 6-101 (July 1995 update).