Click for next page ( 382


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 381
References Abendroth, D. 1993. Ziele und organisatorische Ausgestaltung des Modellversuchs TOU/ NBL. Pp. 23-28 in Status seminar zum Modellversuch Technologieorientierte Unter- nehmensgrundungen in den neuen Bundeslandern. G. Braunling and F. Pleschak, eds. Karlsruhe: FhG-ISI. Abernathy, F. H., J. T. Dunlop, J. H. Hammond, and D. Well. 1995. The information- integrated channel: A study of the U.S. apparel industry in transition. Pp. 175-246 in Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics 1995, M. N. Baily, P. C. Reiss, and C. Winston, eds. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution. Aerospace Industry Association. 1994. Aerospace Facts and Figures, 1994-95. Wash- ington, D.C.: Aerospace Industry Association. AiF-Verwaltung. 1995. Unpublished data of the AiF management. Koln: AiF. Alic, J. A., L. M. Branscomb, H. Brooks, A. B. Carter, and G. L. Epstein. 1992. Beyond Spinoff: Military and Commercial Technologies in a Changing World. Boston, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press. AlleschJ.,D.Preil3-Allesch,andU.Spengel. 1988. HochschuleundWirtschaft. Best- andsaufnahmen und Modelle der Zusammenarbeit. Koln: Verlag TUV Rheinland. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). 1995. AAAS Report XX: Research & Development FY 1996. Table I-10 (reporting NSF data). American Chemical Society, American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Chemical Manu- facturers Association, Council for Chemical Research, Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturers Association. 1996. Technology Vision 2020: The U.S. Chemical Industry. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. Amgen, Inc. Various years. Annual Report. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Amgen, Inc. Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grol3forschungseinrichtungen (AGF). 1994. Programmbudget 1994. Bonn: AGF. Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Grol3forschungseinrichtungen. 1995. Programmbudget 1995. Bonn: AGF. 381

OCR for page 381
382 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen (AiF). 1991. Handbuch 1991. Koln: AiF. Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen. 1992. Report. Transfer und Umsetzung von Ergebnissen der industriellen Gemeinschaftsforschung. Koln: AiF. Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen. 1994. Forschungsreport. .. Offentlich finanzierte Vorhaben der industriellen Gemeinschaftsforschung. Koln: AiF. ArbeitsgemeinschaftindustriellerForschungsvereinigungen. No Year. Die Unternehmen in den Mitgliedsvereinigungen der AiF. Daten und Strukturen. Koln: AiF. Armstrong, J. 1997. Institutional cultures and individual careers. The Bridge 27, 1: 4-10. Association of University Related Research Parks. 1997. What Is a Research Park? [Online]. Available: http://www.siue.edu/AURRP/whatis.html [September 16, 1997]. Association of University Related Research Parks. 1995. 1994/1995 Worldwide Re- search and Science Park Directory. Washington, D.C.: AURRP. Association of University Technology Managers (AUTM). 1993. The AUTM Licensing Survey, Fiscal Years 1991 and 1992. Cranbury, N.J.: AUTM. Association of University Technology Managers. 1994. The AUTM Licensing Survey: Fiscal Years 1993, 1992, and 1991. Norwalk, Conn.: AUTM. Association of University Technology Managers. 1995. Working with federal labs. Chap- ter 2 in AUTM Manual, Part VI. Norwalk, Conn.: AUTM. Association of University Technology Managers. 1996. AUTM Licensing Survey FY 1991-FY 1995. Norwalk, Conn: AUTM. BankBoston. 1997. MIT: The Impact of Innovation. A BankBoston Economics Depart- ment Special Report. March. Boston, Mass.: BankBoston. Becher, G., G. Gielow, R. Herden, S. Kuhlmann, and U. Kuntze. 1989. FuE-Personal- kostenzuschusse: Strukturentwicklung, Beschaftigungswirkungen und Konsequenzen fur die Innovationspolitik. Final report to the BMWi. Karlsruhe/Berlin: FhG-ISI/ DIW. Becher, G., T. Gering, O. Lang, and U. Schmoch. 1996. Patentwesen an Hochschulen. Eine Studie zum Stellenwert gewerblicher Schuztrechte im Technologietransfer Hochschule-Wirtschaft. Bonn: Bundesministerium fur Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie. Beise, M., G. Licht, and A. Spielkamp. 1995. Technologietransfer an kleine und mittlere Unternehmen Analyse und Perspektiven fur Baden-Wurttemberg. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlag. Bianchi-Streit, M., N. Blackburne, R. Budde, H. Reitz, B. Sagnell, H. Schmied, and B. Schorr. 1984. Economic Utility Resulting from CERN Contracts (Second Study). Geneva: CERN. Bierhals, R., and U. Schmoch. 1997. Aktive Patentpolitik an Einrichtungen der Ressort- forschung. Report to the BMWi. Karlsruhe: FhG-ISI. Bild der Wissenschaft. 1994a. bdw-Patentindex Gentechnik, 11/94:6. Bild der Wissenschaft. 1994b. Von wegen zweckfrei, 11/94: 108-109. Bilstein, R. E. 1989. Orders of Magnitude: A History of the NACA and NASA, 1915- 1990. NASA Special Publication 4406 in the NASA History Series. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Blumenthal, D. 1992. Academic-industry relationships in the life sciences. Journal of the American Medical Association 268:3344-3349.

OCR for page 381
REFERENCES 383 Blumenthal, D., M. Gluck, K. S. Louis, and D. Wise. 1986a. Industrial support of univer- sity research in biotechnology. Science 231:242-246. Blumenthal, D., M. Gluck, K. Louis, M. Stoto, and D. Wise. 1986b. University-industry research relationships in biotechnology: Implications for the university. Science 232: 1361-1366. Borrus, M. 1988. Competing for Control: America's Stake in Microelectronics. Cam- bridge, Mass.: Ballinger Publishing. Boston Consulting Group. 1993. The Changing Environment for U.S. Pharmaceuticals: The Role of U.S. Pharmaceutical Companies in a Systems Approach to Healthcare. Boston, Mass.: BCG. Bottger, J. 1993. Forschung fur den Mittelstand: Die Geschichte der Arbeitsgemeinschaft industrieller Forschungsvereinigungen "Otto von Guericke" e.V. (AiF) im wirt- schaftspolitischen Kontext. Koln: DeutscherWirtschaftsdienst. Bozeman, B., K. Coker, and M. Papadakis. 1995. Industry Perspectives on Commercial Interactions with Federal Laboratories. Atlanta: School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology. Brandt, R. 1991. Can the U.S. stay ahead in software? Business Week (March 11~:98. Brooks, H. 1986. National science policy and technological innovation. Pp. 119-167 in The Positive Sum Strategy, R. Landau and N. Rosenberg. eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Brooks, H. B. 1996. The problem of attention management in innovation and sustain- ability. Technological Forecasting and Social Change 53:21-26. Bundesministerium fur Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie (BMBF). 1995a. Forderfibel 1995. Forderung von Forschung, Entwicklung und Innovation. Bonn: BMBF. Bundesministerium fur Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie. l995b. Grundung der Helmholtz-Gemeinschaft Deutscher Forschungszentren (HGF). Press release of June 29, 1995. Bonn: BMBF. Bundesministerium fur Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie. 1996. BundesberichtForschung 1996. Bonn: BMBF. Bundesministerium fur Bildung, Wissenschaft, Forschung und Technologie. 1997. Zur technologischen Leistungsfahigkeit Deutschlands. Aktualisierung und Erweiterung 1996. Bonn: BMBF. Bundesministerium fur Forschung und Technologie (BMFT). Forschung 1988. Bonn: BMFT. 1988. Bundesbericht Bundesministerium fur Forschung und Technologie. 1992. Situation der Grol3forschungs- einrichtungen, Pressedokumentation 18/92. Bonn: BMFT. Bundesministerium fur Forschung und Technologie. 1993a. Bundesbericht Forschung 1993. Bonn: BMFT. Bundesministerium fur Forschung und Technologie. 1993b. Ratgeber Forschung und Technologie, Ausgabe 1993/94. Koln: DeutscherWirtschaftsdienst. Bush, V. 1945. Science The Endless Frontier. A Report to the President on a Program for Postwar Scientific Research (July 1945~. Reprinted by the National Science Foun- dation, Washington, D.C., 1990. Carr, R. K. 1995. U.S. Federal Laboratories and Technology Transfer. Prepared for the Binational Study on Technology Transfer Systems in the United States and Germany: Lessons and Perspectives. National Academy of Engineering, Washington, D.C.. [Online]. Available: http://millkern.com/rkcarr/fedlbpap.html [September 15, 1997].

OCR for page 381
384 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY Carr, R. K., and C. T. Hill. 1995. R&D and technology transfer in the United States: The least-known piece of the puzzle. Paper prepared for the Binational Study on Technol- ogy Transfer Systems in the United States and Germany: Lessons and Perspectives. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Engineering. [Online]. Available: http:// millkern.com/rkcarr/fourth.html [September 15, 1997]. Coburn, C., ed. 1995. Partnerships: A Compendium of State and Federal Cooperative Technology Partnerships. Columbus, Ohio: Battelle Press. Cohen, W. M., R. Florida, and W. R. Goe. 1994. University-Industry Research Centers in the United States. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Center for Economic Development, Carnegie Mellon University. Cohen, W. M., R. Florida, and L. Randazzese. 1995. American University-Industry Re- search Centers in Biotechnology, Computers, Software, Semiconductors and Manu- facturing. Report to the National Academy of Engineering. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Carnegie Mellon University. Cohen, L. R., and R. G. Noll. 1991. The Technology Pork Barrel. Washington, D.C.: The Brookings Institution. Cohen, W. M., and L. Randazzese. 1996. Eminence and enterprise: The impact of indus- try support on the conduct of academic research in science and engineering. Paper presented to the NBER Technology Policy Workshop, August 14, 1996. Pittsburgh, Pa.: Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University. Commission of the European Communities. 1992. Large Scientific Installations in the Community and the Development of Advanced Technologies. Report of a study group. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities. Committee on Criteria for Federal Support of Research and Development. 1995. Allocat- ing Federal Funds for Science and Technology. National Academy of Sciences, Na- tional Academy of Engineering, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Coun- cil. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. 1992. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Building a New Alliance. Washington, D.C.: National Acad- emy Press. Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. 1996. An Assessment of the National Science Foundation's Science and Technology Centers Program. Washing- ton, D.C.: National Academy Press. Competitiveness Policy Council. 1993. Reports of the Subcouncils. March. Washington, D.C. Council on Competitiveness. 1996. Electronics. Pp. 89-103 in Endless Frontier, Limited Resources: U.S. R&D Policy for Competitiveness. Washington, D.C.: Council on Competitiveness. Council of Consortia CEOs. 1997. Home page. [Online]. Available: http://www.oai.org/ CofC/index.html [June 15, 1997]. Creedon, J. F. 1992. NASA Technology Transfer. Report of the Technology Transfer Team, J. F. Creedon, chair. Washington, D.C.: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Dasgupta, P., and P. David. 1994. Toward a new economics of science. Research Policy 23:487-521. David, P. A., D. C. Mowery, and W. E. Steinmuller. 1992. Analyzing the economic payoffs from basic research. Economics of Innovation and New Technology 2:73-90.

OCR for page 381
REFERENCES 385 Defense Contract Audit Agency. 1997. Independent Research and Development and Bid and Proposal Costs Incurred by Major Defense Contractors in the Years 1995 and 1996. April 1997. Washington, D.C.: Defense Contract Audit Agency. Defense Science Board. 1994. Defense Science Board Task Force on Lab Management (DSB-LM), Interim Report, 14 April 1994. [Online]. Available: http:// www.dtic.dla.mil/labman/projects/interim.html [1997, June 15]. Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. 1993. Jahresbericht 1993, Band 1: Aufgaben und Ergebnisse. Bonn: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Deutsches Patentamt (DPA). 1993. Jahresbericht 1993. Munchen: DPA. Deutsches Patentamt. 1995. Jahresbericht 1995. Munchen: DPA. Dibner, M. D. 1988. Biotechnology Guide U.S.A. Basingstoke/New York: Macmillan Publishers. Dickens, C. H. 1996. The academic engineering research enterprise: Status and trends. Pp. 69-132, in Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineering Research Enterprise, National Academy of Engineering. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Doctors, S. I. 1971. The NASA Technology Transfer Program: An Evaluation of the Dissemination System. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers. Dolata, U. 1995. Nachholende modernisierung und internationales innovations- management. Strategien der deutschen chemie- und pharmakonzerne in der neuen biotechnologie. Pp. 456-480 in Biotechnologie - Gentechnik. Eine Chance fur neue Industrien. T. Von Schell and H. Mohr, eds. Berlin/Heidelberg/New York: Springer Verlag. Dose, N. 1993. Alte und neue handlungsformen staatlicher steuerung im bereich von forschung und technologie. Pp. 399-452 in Instrumente und Formen staatlichen Handelns. K. Konig and N. Dose, eds. Munchen: Heymann. Eberhardt, D. 1989. Campusnahe entwicklungszentren (Beispiel: Science-park in der wissenschaftsstadt ulm). Pp. 207-222 in Aus der Praxis des Technologietransfers Wissenschaft / Wirtschaft. Bericht der Arbeitsgruppe Technologietransfer der Kanzler und leitenden Verwaltungsbeamten der wissenschaftlichen Hochschulen der BundesrepublikDeutschland, G. Selmayer, ed. Karlsruhe: Universitat Karlsruhe. Economist (The). 1994. Technology in Utah: Software valley. (April 3~:69. Eichborn, v. J. F. 1985. Die wirtschaftliche nutzung der biotechnologie. In Bio- technologie. Herrschaft oder Beherrschbarkeit einer Sclusseltechnologie. Proceed- ings of a conference on November 23/24, 1994. Munchen: Hans-Bockler-Stiftung. Ergas, H. 1987. Does technology policy matter? Pp. 191-245 in Technology and Global Industry: Companies and Nations in the World Economy. H. Brooks and B. Guile, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Ernst and Young. 1993. Biotech 94. Long-Term Value, Short-Term Hurdles. San Fran- cisco: Ernst and Young. Etzkowitz, H. 1988. Making of an entrepreneurial university: The traffic among MIT, industry and the military, 1860-1960. In Science, Technology and the Military, Vol. 12, E. Mendelsohn, M. R. Smith and P. Weingart, eds. Norwell, Mass.: Kluwer Academic Publishers. EUREKA. 1993. Evaluation of EUREKA industrial and economic effects. Paris: EU- REKA. EUREKA. 1995. Technologische Zusammenarbeit in Europa. Dokumentation 1995. Koln: EUREKA.

OCR for page 381
386 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY Executive Office of the President. Office of Science and Technology Policy. 1995. Inter- agency Federal Laboratory Review. Final Report. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office. Federal Coordinating Council for Science, Engineering, and Technology. 1993. FCCSET Initiatives in the FY 1994 Budget. Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the Presi- dent, Office of Science and Technology Policy. Feller, I. 1990. Universities as engines of it&D-based economic growth: They think they can. Research Policy 19:335-348. Feller, I. 1994. The university as an instrument of state and regional economic develop- ment: The rhetoric and reality of the U.S. experience. Paper presented at the CERP/ AAAS Conference on "University Goals, Institutional Mechanisms, and the Industrial Transferability of Research," Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University, March 18-20. Ferguson, C., and C. Morris. 1993. Computer Wars: The Fall of IBM and the Future of Global Technology. New York: Basic Books. Ferne, G., and P. Quintas. 1991. Software Engineering: The Policy Challenge. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. FhG-Zentralverwaltung. 1995. Unpublished data of the central administration of the Fraunhofer Society. Munchen: FhG. Florida, R., and D. F. Smith. 1993. Venture capital and industrial competitiveness. A research report to the U.S. Economic Development Administration. Pittsburgh, Pa: Carnegie Mellon University. Fonds der Chemischen Industrie. 1995. Leistungsbilanz. Forderaufwendungen 1950 his 1995. Frankfurt: Fonds der Chemischen Industrie. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. 1996. Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Technik und Umwelt. Auf einen Thick. Karlsruhe: Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft (FhG). 1985. Modell Fraunhofer Gesellschaft, Entwicklung, Analyse, Fortschreibung. Munchen: FhG. Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft. 1988. Fraunhofer-Verbund Mikroelektronik. Munchen: FhG. Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft. 1993. Jahresbericht 1993. Munchen: FhG. Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft. 1994. Jahresbericht 1994. Munchen: FhG. Freeman, C. 1968. Chemical process plant: Innovation and the world market. National Institute Economic Review 45(August):29-57. Friedland, J. 1993. Japan's soft spot. Far Eastern Economic Review (August 5~:54. Frisch, F., A. Imbusch, and W. Zitzelsberger. 1982. Die vertragsforschung in der FhG: Ein unternehmerisches konzept und seine realisierung. FhG-Berichte 4/82:4-10. Gaden, E. L., Jr. 1991. Biotechnology. Pp.103-109 in National Interests in an Age of Global Technology, T. H. Lee and P. P. Reid, eds. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Gale Research. 1996. Research Centers Directory, 1996-1997. Detroit, Mich.: Detroit, Mich.: Gale Research. Gehrke, B., and H. Grupp. 1994. Innovationspotential und Hochtechnologie. Tech- nologische Position Deutschlands im internationalen Wettbewerb. 2. Auflage. Heidel- berg: Physica-Verlag. Geimer, H., and R. Geimer. 1981. Research Organisation and Science Promotion in the Federal Republic of Germany. Munchen/New York/London: Saur-Verlag. Gibson, D. V., and E. M. Rogers. 1994. R&D Collaboration on Trial. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard Business School Press.

OCR for page 381
REFERENCES 387 Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. 1991. Industrial Perspectives on Innovation and Interaction with Universities. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable, Industrial Research Institute, and Council on Competitiveness. 1996. Industry-University Research Collaborations. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Gray, D. O., W. A. Hetzner, J.D. Eveland, and T. Gidley. 1986. NSF's industry/univer- sity cooperative research centers program and the innovation process: Evaluation- based lessons. Pp. 175-193 in Technological Innovation: Strategies for a New Part- nership, D. O. Gray, T. Solomon, and W. A. Hetzner, eds. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers B. V. (North Holland). Gray, D., T. Gidley, and N. Koester. 1988. Evaluation of the NSF Industry/University Cooperative Research Centers: Longitudinal Analyses of Outcome and Process. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. Grindley, P. 1996. The future of the software industry in the United Kingdom: The limitations of independent production. Pp. 197-239 in The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industrial Evolution and Structure, D. Mowery, ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Grupp,H.,ed. 1993. TechnologieamBeginndes21. Jahrhunderts. Heidelberg: Physica- Verlag. Grupp, H., G. Munt, and U. Schmoch. 1995. Wissensintensive Wirtschaft und ressource- nschonen Technik, Teile D and E: Abgrenzung der Technik- und Wissenschafts- gebiete und Potentialanalyse. Report to the BMBF. Karlsruhe: FhG-ISI. Grupp, H., G. Munt, and U. Schmoch. 1996. Assessing different types of patent data for describing high-technology export performance. Pp. 271-287 in Innovation, Patents and Technological Strategies. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Develop- ment (OECD), ed. Paris: OECD. Hagedoorn, J. 1995. Strategic technology partnering during the 1980s: Trends, networks, and corporate patterns in non-core technologies. Research Policy 24:207-231. Hamburg Institute for Economic Research, Kiel Institute for World Economics, and Na- tional Research Council. 1996. Conflict and Cooperation in National Competition for High-Technology Industry. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Harhoff, D., G. Licht, and M. Smid. 1995. Innovationsverhalten der deutschen Wirtschaft. Die Innovationsaktivitaten kleiner und mittlerer Unternehmen. Report to the BMBF. Mannheim: ZEW. Hartl, M., and W.-P. Hentschel. 1989. Abwicklung von drittmittelauftragen uber private institute von hochschullehrern und wissenschaftlichen mitarbeitern. Pp. 11-54 in Aus der Praxis des Technologietransfers Wissenschaft / Wirtschaft. Bericht der Arbeitsgruppe Technologietransfer der Kanzler und leitenden Verwaltungsbeamten der wissenschaftlichen Hochschulen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, G. Selmayer, ed. Karlsruhe: Universitat Karlsruhe. Hausler, J. 1989. Industrieforschung in der Forschungslandschaft der Bundesrepublik: Ein Datenbericht. Discussion Paper. Koln: Max-Planck-Institut fur Gesellschafts- forschung. Henderson, R., A. B. Jaffe, M. Trajtenberg. 1994. Numbers up, quality down? Trends in university patenting 1965-1992. Presentation at the CEPR/AAAS Conference "Uni- versity Goals, Institutional Mechanisms, and Industrial Transferability of Research," Stanford Calif.: Stanford University, March 18-20.

OCR for page 381
388 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY Henderson, R., A. Jaffe, and M. Trajtenberg. 1995. Universities as a Source of Commer- cial Technology: A Detailed Analysis of University Patenting, 1965-88. NBER Working Paper No. 5068. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Re- search. Herden, R. 1992. Technologieorientierte AulSenbeziehungen im betrieblichen Innovations- management. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag. Herrmann, W.A. 1995. Industrie und hochschule. Gemeinsam sind wir starker. Chemie heute edition 95/96:58-61. Hetzner, W. A., T. R. Gidley, and D. O. Gray. 1989. Cooperative research and rising expectations: Lessons from NSF's Industry/University Cooperative Research Cen- ters. Technology in Society 11:335-345. Hill, C. T. 1995. Review of R&D Collaboration on Trial: The Microelectronics and Computer Technology Corporation, by D. V. Gibson and E. M. Rogers. Issues in Science and Technology 11~3~:87-90. Hilts, P. 1993a. Lab limits plan to give company discoveries. Science Times: New York Times, July 13. Sec. C, p.12. Hilts, P. 1993b. Research group's tie to drug maker is questioned. New York Times. Junel8. Sec.A,p.24. Hochschulrektorenkonferenz (HRK). 1996. Zur Finazierung der Hochschulen. Doku- mente zur Hochschulreform 110/1996. Bonn: Hochschulrektorenkonferenz. Hohmeyer, O., B. Husing, S. Mal3feller, and T. Reil3. 1994. Internationale Regulierung der Gentechnik. Praktische Erfahrungen in Japan, den USA und Europa. Heidel- berg: Physica-Verlag. Hohn, H. W. 1989. Forschungspolitik als Ordnungspolitik. Das Modell Fraunhofer- Gesellschaft und seine Genese im Forschungssystem der Bundesrepublik Deutsch- land. Koln: Max -Planck-Institut fur Gesellschaftsforschung. Hooper, L. 1993. The creative edge: Nurturing high-tech talent requires a delicate balanc- ing act; but the payoff can be huge. Wall Street Journal (May 24~:R6. Hoppenstedt Verlag. 1995. Verbande, Behorden, Organisationen der Wirtschaft. Darmstadt: Verlag Hoppenstedt. Horsley, P. 1997. Trends in private equity. Presentation to the Committee on Science Engineering and Public Policy/National Research Council Workshop "The Role of Private Finance in Capitalizing on Research," Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences, April 21. Humphrey, A. E. 1993. Engineering challenges in rDNA technology. Annuals of the New York Academy of Sciences 721: 1-11. Humphrey, A. E. 1995. R&D and technology transfer in biotechnology. Presentation to the National Academy of Engineering/Fraunhofer Society binational panel on Tech- nology Transfer Systems in the United States and Germany, Freising, Germany, No- vember 8. Imbusch, A., and U. Buller. 1990. Die funktionen der Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft im innovationsprozel3. Pp. 373-388 in Handbuch des Wissenschaftstransfers, H. J. Schuster, ed. Berlin/Heidelberg/New York: Springer-Verlag. Internal Revenue Service. 1995. 1992, S Corporation All Returns: Balance Sheet by Major Industrial Group. [Online]. Available: http://www.irs.gov/plain/tax_stats/soi/ corp_gen.html [September 15, 1997]. JESSI. 1995. Excerpts from the April Review 1995. Munchen: JESSI.

OCR for page 381
REFERENCES 389 Kantzenbach, E., and M. Pfister. 1995. Nationale Konzeptionen der Technologiepolitik in einer globalisierten Weltwirtschaft. Der Fall Deutschlands und der Europaischen Union. HWWA-Report No. 154. Hamburg: HWWA. Kash, D. E. 1989. Perpetual Innovation: The New World of Competition. New York: Basic Books. Reck, O. 1993. The national system of technical innovation in Germany. Pp. 115-157 in National Innovation Systems. A Comparative Analysis, R. R. Nelson, ed. New York/ Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kircher, M. 1993. Zur situation allgemeiner und angewandter gentechnik in Deutschland. BioEngineering 2:16f. Kline, S. J. 1990. Models of Innovation and Their Policy Consequences. Report INN-4B. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University. Kline, S. J., and N. Rosenberg. 1986. An Overview of Innovation. Pp. 275-305 in Positive Sum Strategy, R. Landau and N. Rosenberg, eds. Washington, D.C.: Na- tional Academy Press. Klodt, H. 1995. Technologiepolitik in Europa. Konflikte zwischen nationaler und gemeinschaftlicher kompetenz. Wissenschaftsmanagement 1/3:122-125. Knorr, C., U. Schmoch, P. Keen, and D. Agrafiotis. 1996. Legal and Institutional Con- straints and Opportunities for the Dissemination and Exploitation of R&D Activities, Scientific Institutions in Plant Biotechnology. Report to the Commission of the Eu- ropean Union. Karlsruhe: FhG-ISI. Kommission der Europaischen Gemeinschaften. 1990. Forschungs- und Technologie- forderung der KG. Brussels: Kommission der Europaischen Gemeinschaften. KoWi (Koordinierungsstelle EG der Wissenschaftsorganisationen). 1992. Forschungs- und Technologieforderung der Europaischen Gemeinschaft: Ziele, Instrumente, Prinzipien. Brussels/Bonn: KoWi. Kruger, H. 1995. Institut an der universitat. Wissenschaftsmanagement 1:42-43. Krull, W., and F. Meyer-Krahmer. 1996. Science, technology, and innovation in Ger- many Changes and challenges in the 1990s. Pp. 3-29 in Science and Technology in Germany, W. Krull and F. Meyer-Krahmer, eds. London: Cartermill Publishing. Krupp, H., and G. Walter. 1990. Die Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft in den 90er Jahren - gesellschaftliche Verantwortung, Internationalitat und Mitbestimmung bei Forschung und Entwicklung. Karlsruhe: FhG-ISI. Kuhlmann, S. 1991. Report: Federal Republic of Germany. Pp. 75-142 in The Univer- sity-Industry and Research-Industry Interfaces in Europe, S. Kuhlmann, ed. Brus- sels/Luxembourg: Commission of the European Communities. Kuhlmann, S. 1992. Thematic Evaluation of Community Support Frameworks for Re- search and Technology Development in Greece. Karlsruhe: FhG-ISI. Kuhlmann, S., and U. Kuntze. 1991. R&D Cooperation by Small and Medium-sized Companies. Pp. 709-712 in Proceedings of PICMET 1991. Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology, Portland, Oregon. Kulicke, M. 1990. Regionale Beteiligungsgesellschaften in der Bundesrepublik Deutsch- land 1990 - ihre Geschaftsfelder, Beteiligungsstrategien und jungeren Strategie- anderungen. Karlsruhe: FhG-ISI. Kulicke, M. 1993. Chancen und Risiken junger Technologieunternehmen. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag.

OCR for page 381
390 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY Kulicke, M. 1994. Haben wir einen Mangel an technologieorientierten Unternehmen in Deutschland im internationalen Vergleich? Karlsruhe: FhG-ISI. Kulicke, M., and U. Wupperfeld. 1996. Beteiligungskapital fur junge Technologie- unternehmen. Ergebnisse des Modellversuchs "Beteiligungskapital fur junge Tech- nologieunternehmen." Report to the BMBF. Karlsruhe: FhG-ISI. Lageman, B., W. Friedrich, M. Korbel, A. Oberheitmann, and F. Welter. 1995. Der volkswirtschaftliche Nutzen der industriellen Gemeinschaftsforschung fur die mittel- standische Industrie. Essen: RWI. Lampe, D., and S. Rosegrant. 1992. Route 128: Lessons from Boston's High-Tech Com- munity. New York: Basic Books. Licensing Executives Society. 1993. Consultants & Brokers in Technology Transfer. Hartford, Conn. Lundgren, P. 1979. Technisch-wissenschaftliche vereine zwischen wissenschaft, staat und industrie, 1860-1914: Umrisse eines Forschungsfeldes. Technikgeschichte 46: 181-191. Lutz, S. 1993. Die Steuerung industrieller Forschungskooperationen. Funktionsweise und Erfolgsbedingungen des staatlichen Forderinstrumentes Verbundforschung. Frankfurt/New York: Campus-Verlag. Management-Informationen. 1995. Grol3forschungseinrichtungen und industrie. Man- agement-Informationen/Politik, April 10, 1995, Nr. 644/655:2-3. Mansfield, E. 1988. Industrial R&D in Japan and the United States: A comparative study. American Economic Review 78~2~:223-228. Mansfield, E. 1995. Academic research underlying industrial innovations: Sources, char- acteristics, and financing. The Review of Economics and Statistics (February). Markusen, A, and M. Oden. 1996. National laboratories as business incubators and re- gion builders. The Journal of Technology Transfer 21~1-2~:93-108. Matkin, G. W. 1990. Technology Transfer and the University. American Council on Education and Macmillan Publishing Co. New York: Macmillan Publishing Co. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. 1994a. Jahrbuch 1994. Veroffentlichungen. Gottingen/ Munchen: Verlag Vandenhoek & Rupprecht. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. 1994b. Jahrbuch der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft 1994. Gottingen/Munchen: Verlag Vandenhoek & Rupprecht. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. 1994c. Jahresbericht 1994. Munchen: MPG. Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. 1995. Wissen fur das 21. Jahrhundert. Munchen: MPG Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. Various years. Jahrbuch der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft. Gottingen/Munchen: Verlag Vandenhoek & Rupprecht. Mayntz, R. 1991. Scientific research and policy invention: The structural development of public-financed research in the Federal Republic of Germany. Pp. 45-60 in The University Within the Research System: An International Comparison, A. Orsi Battaglini and F. Roversi Monaco, eds. Baden-Baden: Nomos-Verlag. McNaughton, W. P., and B. Dooley. 1995. Demonstration projects for diffusion of multi- faceted technology: Characterization and strategy. International Journal of Technol- ogy Management 10~2/3~. MerrillLynch. 1996. Investmentinsights: Biotechnology On the verge. [Online]Avail- able: http://merrill-lynch.ml.com/ [March 27, 1996]. Meusel, E.-J. 1990. Einrichtungen der grol3forschung und wissenstransfer. Pp. 359-371 in Handbuch des Wissenschaftstransfers, H. J. Schuster, ed. Berlin/Heidelberg/New York: Springer-Verlag.

OCR for page 381
REFERENCES 391 Meyer-Krahmer, F. 1990. Science and Technology in the Federal Republic of Germany. Harlow: Longman. Meyer-Krahmer, F. 1996. Fraunhofer 2000. Strategies of applied research. Pp. 145-162 in Science and Technology in Germany, W. Krull and F. Meyer-Krahmer, eds. Lon- don: Cartermill Publishing. Ministry of International Trade and Industry. 1989. Small Business in Japan 1989: White Paper on Small and Medium Enterprises. Tokyo, Japan. Morgan, R. M., D. E. Strickland, N. Kannankutty, and J. Grillon. 1994a. How engineer- ing faculty view academic research: Part II. ASEE Prism (November). Morgan, R. M., D. E. Strickland, N. Kannankutty, and J. Grillon. 1994b. Summary of responses to engineering research in U.S. universities: Survey of engineering faculty. Unpublished paper of preliminary survey results. April. Mossinghoff, G. 1992. Parental Guidance for Orphan Drugs. Letter to the Editor, Wall Street Journal, April 17. Sec. A, p.l 1. Mowery, D. 1996. Introduction. Pp.3-14 in The International Computer Software Indus- try: A Comparative Study of Industrial Evolution and Structure, D. Mowery, ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Mowery, D., and R. Langlois. 1996. The federal government role in the development of the U.S. software industry. Pp.53-85 in The International Computer Software Indus- try: A Comparative Study of Industrial Evolution and Structure, D. Mowery, ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Mowery, D. C., and Nathan Rosenberg. 1989. Technology and the Pursuit of Economic Growth. New York: Cambridge University Press. Mowery, D. C., and N. Rosenberg. 1993. The U.S. national innovation system. Pp. 29- 75 in National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis, R. R. Nelson, ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Mowery, D. C., and A. A. Ziedonis. 1997. The commercialization of national lab technol- ogy through the formation of "spinoff,' firms: Evidence from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Unpublished paper. Haas School of Business, University of California at Berkeley. National Academy of Engineering. 1989. Assessment of the National Science Found- ation's Engineering Research Centers Program. Washington, D.C.: National Acad- emy Press. National Academy of Engineering. 1993. Mastering a New Role: Shaping Technology Policy for National Economic Development. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Academy of Engineering. 1995a. Forces Shaping the U.S. Academic Engineer- ing Research Enterprise. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Academy of Engineering. l995b. Revolution in the U.S. Information Infrastruc- ture. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Academy of Engineering. l995c. Risk and Innovation: The Role of Small High- Tech Companies in the U.S. Economy. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Academy of Engineering. 1996a. Defense Software Research, Development, and Demonstration: Capitalizing on Continued Growth in Private-Sector Investment. Summary of a Workshop, July 17, 1995. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of ~ . . engmeermg.

OCR for page 381
392 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY National Academy of Engineering. 1996b. Foreign Participation in U.S. R&D: Asset or Liability? Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, Insitute of Medicine, National Research Council. 1995. Allocating Federal Funds for Science and Tech- nology. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Press. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 1994. NASA Commercial Technology: Agenda for Change. Washington, D.C.: National Business Incubator Association. 1992. The State of the Business Incubation Industry, 1991. Athens, Ohio: NBIA. National Business Incubator Association. 1997. [Online] Available: http://www.nbia.org/ whatis.htm [September 15, 1997] . National Institute of Standards and Technology. 1997. NIST at a Glance. [Online]. A v a i 1 a b 1 e : h t t p : I I w w w . n i s t . g o v / p u b 1 i c _ a f f a i r s / g u i d e / g 1 p a g e . h t m [ S e p t e m b e r 15, 1997] . National Research Council. 1983. Risk Assessment in the Federal Government: Manag- ing the Process. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1987. Agricultural Biotechnology: Strategies for National Competitiveness. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1990. Keeping the U.S. Computer Industry Competitive: Defining the Agenda: A Colloquium Report. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1992a. Computing the Future: A Broader Agenda for Com- puter Science and Engineering. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1992b. Putting Biotechnology to Work: Bioprocess Engi- neering. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1992c. The Government Role in Civilian Technology: Build- ing a New Alliance. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1992d. U.S.-Japan Technology Linkages in Biotechnology: Challenges for the 1990s. Office of Japan Affairs. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1993a. Learning to Change: Opportunities to Improve the Performance of Smaller Manufacturers. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1993b. Survey of Doctorate Recipients. Unpublished data. Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel. Washington, D.C.: National Re- search Council. National Research Council. 1994. Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment. Washing- ton, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1995a. Maximizing U.S. Interests in Science and Technology Relations with Japan: Report of the Defense Task Force. Washington, D.C.: Na- tional Academy Press. NationalResearch Council. l995b. Unit Manufacturing Processes. ManufacturingStud- ies Board. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1996. An Assessment of the National Science Foundation's Science and Technology Centers Program. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. National Research Council. 1997. Review of the Research Program of the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles: Third Report. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

OCR for page 381
REFERENCES 393 National Research Council and Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy. 1997. Financing Technology-Based Start-Ups. Washington, D.C.: National Acad- emy Press. Forthcoming. National Science Board. 1989. Science & Engineering Indicators 1989. NSB 89-1. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. National Science Board. 1992. The Competitive Strength of U.S. Industrial Science and Technology: Strategic Issues. NSB-92-138. Committee on Industrial Support for R&D. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation. National Science Board. 1993. Science & Engineering Indicators 1993. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. National Science Board. 1996. Science & Engineering Indicators 1996. NSB 96-21. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. National Science Foundation. 1990. National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1990. NSF 90-316. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. National Science Foundation. 1991. Federal Funds for Research and Development: Fis- cal Years 1989, 1990, 1991. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation. 1992a. National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1992. NSF 92-330. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation. 1992b. Research and Development in Industry: 1990. Arlington, Virginia.: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation. 1994. Federal R&D Funding by Budget Function: Fiscal Years 1993-95. NSF 94-319. Washington D.C.: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation. 1995a. Federal Scientists and Engineers: 1989-93. NSF 95-336. Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation. l995b. National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1994. Ar- lington, VA: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation. l995c. Research and Development in Industry: 1992. NSF 95-324. Arlington, Virginia.: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation. 1996a. Academic Science and Engineering: Research and Development Expenditures, FY 1994. [Online]. Available: http://www.nsf.gov./sbe/ srs/dexp/94dst/start.htm [September 15, 1997]. National Science Foundation. 1996b. National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1996. Ar- lington, Va.: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation. 1996c. Research and Development in Industry: 1994, (early release tables). Arlington, Va.: National Science Foundation. National Science Foundation. 1997. National Patterns of R&D Resources: 1997. Arling- ton, Va.: National Science Foundation. National Technical Information Service/National Technology Transfer Center. 1994. Directory of Federal Laboratory and Technology Resources, 5th Edition. [Online] Available: http://iridium.nttc.edu/brs.html [October 2, 1995]. Nelson, R. R. 1989. What is private and what is public about technology? Science, Technology, and Human Values 14(Summer):229-241. Nelson, R. R., and R. Levin. 1986. The Influence of Science University Research and Technical Societies on Industrial R&D and Technical Advance. Policy Discussion Paper Series Number 3. Research Program on Technology Change. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University.

OCR for page 381
394 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY Nelson, R. R., and N. Rosenberg. 1993. Technical innovation and national systems. Pp. 3-21 in National Innovation Systems: A Comparative Analysis, R. R. Nelson, ed. New York: Oxford University Press. NERAC, Inc. 1997. home page. [Online] Available: http//www.nerac.com.80/about/ about.html [June 15, 1997]. Office of Science and Technology Policy. 1994. High Performance Computing and Com- munications: Towards a National Infrastructure. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govern- ment Printing Office. Office of Science and Technology Policy. 1995. Critical Technologies Report. Washing- ton, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Olson, S. 1986. Biotechnology: AnIndustry Comes of Age. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 1985. Software: An Emerg- ing Industry. Paris: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). 1994a. Frascati Manual. Proposed Standard Practice for Surveys of Research and Experimental De- velopment. Paris: OECD. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 1994b. Using Patent Data as Science end technology Indicators. Patent Manual 1994. Paris: OECD. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 1995. Main Science and Tech- nology Indicators. 1995/2. Paris: OECD. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 1996a. Main Science and Technology Indicators, 1996/2. Paris: OECD. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 1996b. OECD in Figures: Statistics on the Member countries. 1996 Edition. Published with The OECD Ob- server, No. 200, June/July. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. 1996c. Research and Devel- opment in Industry 1973-93. Paris: OECD. Pavitt, K. 1991. What makes basic research economically useful? Research Policy 20: 109-119. Perry, W. J. 1995. Memorandum on DOD Domestic Technology Transfer/Dual Use Technology. U.S. Department of Defense Website http://www.dtic.dla.mil/techtransit/ techtransfer/perry.html. Pfirrmann, O., U. Wupperfeld, and J. Lerner. 1997. Venture Capital and New Technol- ogy-Based Firms. A U.S.-German Comparison. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag. Puttner, G., and U. Mittag. 1989. Rechtliche Hemmnisse der Kooperation zwischen Hochschulen und Wirtschaft. Baden-Baden: Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft. Rabbitt, M. C. 1997. The United States Geological Survey: 1879-1989, USGS Circular 1050 [Online]. Available: http://www.usgs.gov/reports/circulars/clO50/05-20- 97_clO50.html [September 15, 1997]. Randazzese, L. P. 1996. Exploring university-industry technology transfer of CAD tech- nology. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management 43~4~:393-401. Rappa, M., and K. Debackere. 1992. Technological communities and the diffusion of knowledge. R&D Management 22/3:209-220. Rea, D., H. Brooks, R. M. Burger, and R. LaScala. 1996. The semiconductor industry- A model for industry/university/government cooperation. Research and Technology Management (forthcoming).

OCR for page 381
REFERENCES 395 Read, J., and K. Lee, Jr. 1994. "Datawatch." Health care innovation: Progress report and focus on biotechnology. Health Affairs (Summer):215-225. Rees, J. 1990. Industry Experience with Technology Research Centers. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Economic Development Administration. Reger, G. 1997. Koordination und strategisches Management internationaler Innovations- prozesse. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag. Reger, G., and S. Kuhlmann. 1995. European Technology Policy in Germany. The Im- pact of European Community Policies upon Science and Technology in Germany. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag. Reingold, J. 1995. Under watchful eyes: What's behind the sudden improvement in the FDA's notoriously slow drug approval process? Financial World (August 1~:40-41. Reinhard, M., and H. Schmalholz. 1996. Technologietransfer in Deutschland. Stand und Reformbedarf. Berlin/Munchen: Duncker & Humblot. Reiss, T., and B. Husing. 1992. Potentialanalyse der Auftragsforschung in der Bio- technologie. Report to the BMBF and the board of directors of the Fraunhofer Soci- ety Karlsruhe. Karlsruhe: FhG-ISI. Roberts, E. 1991. Entrepreneurs in High Technology: Lessons from MIT and Beyond. New York: Oxford University Press. Roessner, J. D. 1993. Patterns of Industry Interaction with Federal Laboratories. Atlanta: School of Public Policy, Georgia Institute of Technology. Rosenberg, N., and R. Nelson. 1994. American universities and technical advance in industry. Research Policy 23 :323-348. Rosenbloom, R., and W. Spencer. 1996. The transformation of industrial research. Issues in Science and Technology (Spring):68-74. Saccocio, D. 1996. Advanced displays and visual systems. Included in Small Companies in Six Industries: Background Papers for the NAE Risk and Innovation Study. Wash- ington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Scherer, F. M. 1996. The size distribution of profits from innovation. Presentation at the International Conference on the Economics and Econometrics of Innovation, Strasbourg, June 3. Schiele, O. H. 1993. The importance of cooperative research for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) as the foundation for a successful free enterprise system. Speech at the 20th Annual Apparel Research Conference, Atlanta, Georgia. December 1-2, 1993. Schimank, U. 1988a. Institutionelle Differenzierung und Verselbstandigung der deutschen Grol3forschungseinrichtungen. Koln: Max-Planck-Institut fur Gesellschafts- forschung. Schimank, U. 1988b. Wissenschaftliche Vereinigungen im deutschen Forschungssystem: Ergebnisse einer empirischen Erhebung. Max-Planck-Institut fur Gesellschafts- forschung. Koln. Knowledge in Society 1/2:69-85. Schimank, U. 1990. Technology policy and technology transfer from state-financed re- search institutions to the economy: Some German experiences. Science and Public Policy 17/4:219-228. Schmoch, U., and N. Kirsch. 1994. Analysis of International Patent Flows. Report to the OECD. Karlsruhe: FhG-ISI. Schmoch, U., E. Strauss, and T. Reiss. 1992. Patent law and patent analysis in biotechnol- ogy. Biotechnology Forum Europe 9/6 (June):379-384.

OCR for page 381
396 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY Schmoch, U., K. Koschatzky, M. Kulicke, T. Laube, and D. von Wichert-Nick. 1996a. Freie Erfindungen erfolgreich verwerten. Koln: Verlag TUV Rheinland. Schmoch, U., S. Hinze, G. Jacket, N. Kirsch, F. Meyer-Krahmer, and G. Munt. 1996b. The role of the scientific community in the generation of technology. Pp. 1-138 in Organisation of Science and Technology at the Watershed. The Academic and Indus- trial Perspective, G. Reger and U. Schmoch, eds. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag. Schuster, H. J., ed. 1990. Handbuch des Wissenschaft Transfers. Berlin: Springer Verlag. Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. 1995. Alternative Futures for the Department of Energy National Laboratories. (The Galvin Report.) Washington, D.C.: U.S. De- partment of Energy. Selmayr, G. 1986. Hemmnisse und Barrieren bet der Kooperation zwischen Wissen- schaftlern und Praxis. Pp. 73-89 in Hochschullehrer und Praxis, J. Allesch, R. Amann, and D. Preil3-Allesch, eds. Berlin: WeidlerBuchverlag. Selmayr, G., ed. 1987. Organisationsformen des Technologietransfers Wissenschaft / Wirtschaft, Band II, Bericht der Arbeitsgruppe Technologietransfer der Kanzler und leitenden Verwaltungsbeamten der wissenschaftlichen Hochschulen der Bundes- republik Deutschland. Karlsruhe: Universitat Karlsruhe. Selmayer, G. 1989. Drittmittel aus der wirtschaft. umfrage der arbeitsgruppe technologie- transfer der kanzler und leitenden verwaltungsbeamten der wissenschaftlichen hoch- schulen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Pp. 225-243 in Aus der Praxis des Technologietransfers Wissenschaft / Wirtschaft. Bericht der Arbeitsgruppe Technologietransfer der Kanzler und leitenden Verwaltungsbeamten der wissen- schaftlichen Hochschulen der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, G. Selmayer, ed. Karlsruhe: Universitat Karlsruhe. Shapira, P. 1990. Modernizing Manufacturing: New Policies to Build Industrial Exten- sion Services. Washington, D.C.: Economic Policy Institute. Shapira, P. 1997. Manufacturing extension services: Performance, challenges, and policy issues. Unpublishedworkingpaper.[Online]. Available: http://www.cherry.gatech.edu/ mod/pubs/mespcp.htm [June 15, 1997]. Shapira, P., D. Roessner, and R. Barke. 1995. New public infrastructures for small firm industrial modernization in the USA, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development 7:63-84. Smilor, R. W., and D. B. Gibson. 1991. Technology transfer in multi-organizational environments: The case of R&D consortia. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Man- agement 38~1~:3-13. Software Productivity Consortium. 1996. Home page. [Online] Available: http:// www.software.org [April 29, 1996]. Stankiewicz, R. 1994. Spin-off companies from universities. Science and Public Policy 21~2) (April):99-107. Steinmueller, W. E. 1996. The U.S. software industry: An analysis andinterpretivehis- tory. Pp. 15-52 in The International Computer Software Industry: A Comparative Study of Industrial Evolution and Structure, D. Mowery, ed. New York: Oxford University Press. Straus, J. 1997. The present state of the patent system in the European Union as compared with the situation in the United States of America and Japan. EUR 17014 EN. Lux- embourg: European Commission.

OCR for page 381
REFERENCES 397 SV-Wissenschaftsstatistik. 1994. Forschung und Entwicklung in der Wirtschaft 1991 - mit ersten Daten his 1993. Essen: SV - Gemeinnutzige Gesellschaft fur Wissen- schaftsstatistik. SV-Wissenschaftsstatistik. 1996. Forschung und Entwicklung in der Wirtschaft 1993 - mit ersten Daten his 1995. Essen: SV - Gemeinnutzige Gesellschaft fur Wissen- schaftsstatistik. Syrbe, M. 1989. Wissenschaft als unternehmen, Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft 1949-1989. FhG-Berichte 3/89:6-14. Tettinger, P. J. 1992. Das forschungsinstitut an der unversitat. Eine effiziente organ- isationseinheit zur forderung des wissenstransfers im geiste der "public private part- nership." Wissenschaftsrecht-Wissenschaftsverwaltung-Wissenschaftsforderung26/ 1:1-12. Tornatzky, L. G., Y. Bats, N. E. McCrea, M. L. Shook, and L. M. Quittman. 1996. The Art and Craft of Technology Business Incubation: Best Practices, Strategies and Tools from 50 Programs. Research Triangle Park, N.C., and Athens, Ohio: Southern Tech- nology Council and the National Business Incubator Association. Tregarthen, S. 1992. Prescription to stop drug companies' profiteering. Counterpoint, Wall Street Journal, March 5. Sec. A, p.l5. Universitat Karlsruhe. 1995. Unpublished data of the central administration. Karlsruhe: Universitat Karlsruhe. U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 1996. CDC National AIDS Clearing- house home page. [Online]. Available: http://www.cdcnac.org/ [April 26, 1996]. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (OTA). 1986. Research Funding as an Investment: Can We Measure the Returns? Washington, D.C.: Office of Technology Assessment. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment. 1993. Background Paper: Advanced Network Technology. Washington, D.C. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1989. Manufacturing Technology 1988. Current Indus- trial Reports SMT(88~-1. Washington, D.C., May. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1993. U.S. Industrial Outlook 1993. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S.Departmentof Commerce. 1994. U.S.IndustrialOutlook. Washington,D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. Department of Commerce. 1996. Foreign Direct Investment in the United States: Operations of U.S. Affiliates of Foreign Companies, Preliminary 1994 Estimates. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Dept. of Commerce, July 1996. U.S. Department of Defense, Advanced Research Projects Agency. 1995. The Technol- ogy Reinvestment Project: Dual-Use Innovation for a Stronger Defense. [Online] Available: http://www.trp.arpa.mil/trp/annual_95/cover.html [June 15, 1997]. U.S. Department of Energy. 1993. DOE-Approved CRADA Language and Guidance. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. U.S. Department of Energy. 1994. Our Commitment to Change: A Year of Innovation in Technology Partnerships. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy. U.S. General Accounting Office. 1983. The Federal Role in Fostering University-Indus- try Cooperation. GAO/PAD-83-22. Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office.

OCR for page 381
398 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY U.S. General Accounting Office. 1992. University Research: Controlling Inappropriate Access to Federally Funded Research Results. GAO/RCED-92-104. Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office. U.S. General Accounting Office. 1995. Manufacturing Extension Programs: Manufactur- ers' Views of Services. GAO/GGD-95-216BR. Washington, D.C. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. 1995. Number of Utility Patent Applications Filed in the United States, by Country of Origin, Calendar Year 1965 to Present. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. U.S. Small Business Administration. 1988. Capital Formation in the States. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Small Business Administration. Vademecum. 1985. Vademecum deutscher Lehr- und Forschungsstatten. Stuttgart: Raabe Verlag. Vademecum. 1993. Vademecum deutscher Lehr- und Forschungsstatten. Stuttgart: J. Raabe Verlag. VDE/VDI, Gesellschaft fur Mikroelektronik. 1994. Technologietransfer fur Anwender der Mikroelektronik. Frankfurt: VDE/VDI. Venture Economics. 1994. The National Venture Capital Association 1993 Annual Re- port. Washington, D.C.: National Venture Capital Association. VentureOne. 1997. National Venture Capital Association 1996 Annual Report. San Francisco: VentureOne Corporation. Vonortas, N. S. 1996. Research Joint Ventures in the United States. Unpublished paper. Center for International Science & Technology Policy and Department of Econom- ics. Washington, D.C.: The George Washington University. Washington Post. April 25, 1996. The Road to a Human Gene Map [Figure]. Completion of Yeast Cells' Genetic Blueprint is Hailed as Scientific "Milestone." Sec. A, p.l0. Wegner, G. 1995. Grundlagenforschung zur Verwissenschaftlichung technischer Prozesse. MPG Spiegel. 1/95:38-45. Weule, H., et al. 1994. Zusammenarbeit GFE/Industrie. Stuttgart: Daimler-Benz. Weule-Kommission. 1994. Zusammenarbeit GEE / Industrie. Stuttgart: Daimler-Benz. Whitehead, J. 1992. Parental guidance for orphan drugs. Letter to the Editor, Wall Street Journal, April 17. Sec. A, p.ll. Whiteley, R. L., A. S. Bean, and M. J. Russo. 1996. Meet your competition: Results from the 1994 IRI/CIMS annual survey. Research Technology Management (January- February). Wisconsin BioIssues. 1994. Bayh-Dole, tech transfer and the public good: An interview with Howard Bremer. March. Madison: University of Wisconsin. Wissenschaftsrat. 1986. Stellungnahmen zur Zusammenarbeit zwischen Hochschule und Wirtschaft. Koln: Wissenschaftsrat. Wissenschaftsrat. 1992. Zur Forderung von Wissenschaft und Forschung durch wissen- schaftliche Fachgesellschaften. Koln: Wissenschaftsrat. Wissenschaftsrat. 1993a. Daten und Kennzahlen zur finanziellen Ausstattung der Hochschulen. - Alte Lander 1980, 1985, 1990. Koln: Wissenschaftsrat. Wissenschaftsrat. 1993b. Drittmittel der Hochschulen 1970 bis 1990. Koln: Wissenschaftsrat. Wissenschaftsrat. 1994. Empfehlungen zu einer Prospektion der Forschung, 1945/94. Koln: Wissenschaftsrat.

OCR for page 381
REFERENCES 399 Wolek, F. W. 1977. The Role of Consortia in the National R&D Effort. Report submitted to the National Science Foundation, July 1977. Wolff, H., G. Becher, H. Delpho, S. Kuhlmann, U. Kuntze, and J. Stock. 1994. FuE- Kooperation von kleinen und mittleren Unternehmen. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag. Wupperfeld, U. 1994. Strategien und Management von Beteiligungsgesellschaften im deutschen Seed-Capital-Markt. Ergebnisse einer empirischen Untersuchung von 33 Beteiligungsgesellschaften und Banken. Karlsruhe: FhG-ISI. Wust, J. 1993. Technologietransfer am Rande gemeinnutziger Forschungseinrichtungen. Unpublished lectures. Dresden: TU Dresden. Zucker, L., M. Darby, and M. Brewer. 1994. Intellectual Capital and the Birth of U.S. Biotechnology Enterprises. Working Paper No. 4653. Cambridge, Mass.: National Bureau of Economic Research.