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ANNEX I Suggestions for TransatIantic/International Collaborative Projects TRANSATLANTIC COOPERATIVE COMPUTER APPLICATIONS OVER GLOBAL NETWORKS The ability of an international team to rapidly design, prototype, and manu- facture a product is a key requirement for globally active firms. The new pres- sures on business include: . . Reduced product life cycles. Time-to-market is becoming an ever more significant factor contributing to the ability to achieve market share, prof- itability, and even survival. Increased cost pressures. The need to control costs, with the correspond- ing desire to improve productivity, continues unabated with renewed em- phasis on the productivity of knowledge workers. Increased demand for quality and customer service. As competition builds, the increase in customers' expectations for responsiveness and per- sonalized support is beginning to change the culture and operation of many industries. Changing markets. The only constant for business is that things will change. The need and ability to respond rapidly to changing market forces continues to push firms to adopt and implement technology. New business models. Constant change is now pushing into the very core of many corporations with corresponding new business models emerging for the way in which organizations and people work together. These in- clude telecommuting, virtual corporations, collaborative product devel- opment, and integrated supply-chain management. There is a need to develop computer-based methods and applications to ad- dress the challenges of a global marketplace. One major challenge is to demon 53

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54 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SYSTEMSIN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY strafe the feasibility of conducting business over transatlantic Asynchronous Trans- fer Mode (ATM) and Integrated Service Digital Network (ISDN) networks and in particular to show the real-world benefits of conducting the entire international prod- uct development in such an environment. A second challenge is to enable SMEs to become world-class companies by providing them the capabilities to effectively synchronize, manage, and develop their resources throughout the world. The goal of such a project should be to show to small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the United States and Germany that private ATM- and ISDN-based intranets will provide a reliable and secure means of transporting data, voice, and video services among distributed firms. This will include inte- gration of existing technologies to support the concurrent engineering method as it is applied to the product development process. These technologies include telemedicine, enterprise resource planning, CAD modeling, computer-supported cooperative work, user interface design, process management and documenta- tion, virtual reality, and ATM and ISDN wide-area networking. A set of realistic, factory-oriented product development scenarios and quan- titative metrics for evaluating success should be developed, and the scenarios and metrics using the technology base developed for concurrent engineering should be implemented. Furthermore, distributed and collaborative virtual prototyping practices for future enterprise models should be demonstrated. An important activity within such a project might be the development of a distributed decision-support system for medical diagnosis and training. This should address the following problems: Utilization of distributed competence centers for different diagnosis tasks on demand; Utilization of intelligent data handling and diagnosis; Integration of different data sources and diagnosis methods; and Remote training support. Several institutions have already shown interest in such a project (e.g., in Germany, the Fraunhofer Institut for Graphische Datenverarbeitung, Darmstadt, and the Gesellschaft cur Forderung Angewandter Informatik e. V., Berlin, and in the United States, the International Computer Science Institute [ICSI] in Berkeley, California, and the Center for Research in Computer Graphics, in Providence, Rhode Island). There are many companies in both Germany and the United States interested in getting involved in and prototyping and evaluating applications developed to run on such a platform. SUGGESTED DEVELOPMENT OF A TRANSATLANTIC NETWORK OF INFORMATION ANALYSIS CENTERS The U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) has a long history of active support for specialized information analysis. The DOD Information Analysis Centers

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ANNEX I it 55 (IACs) are unique organizations with the mission of collecting and disseminating information to practicing scientists and engineers in both the government and the private sector. As of October 1991, there were 23 IACs in operation. The IACs' information collection activities systematically identify, catalog, and collect published information in specified subject areas. Many of the sub- ects would not be suitable for a joint U.S.-German effort; however, many of the IACs are active in areas which have broad technical interests in both countries. To explore further the opportunities and obstacles related to joint U.S.-German activity in this area, a study is proposed that would: examine the mission and authority of the existing IACs to determine if it is within current authority to expand the client base to foreign scientists and engineers. survey existing German research institutions to identify similar informa- tion-analysis organizations in Germany; design a collaborative effort for information analysis on a multinational basis; build collaborative relationships between U.S. Information Analysis Cen- ters and their German counterparts; and evaluate the results of the collaborative effort and identify communica- tions methods that contributed to success. It is anticipated that a multinational information analysis center would achieve greater effectiveness with a larger client base and realize economies of scale. The long-term objectives of the German-American binational panel will be advanced as a result of the experiment and collaborative effort. . COLLABORATION AMONG GERMAN AND U.S. INDUSTRIAL RESEARCH ASSOCIATIONS The following suggestions of possible collaborative projects were collected by a German delegation member from member associations of the German AiF. The project ideas differ as to their level of concreteness (i.e., concerning the detailed definition of the project methodology and aims, the potential for support by German and American sponsors, etc.~. In any case, they show a broad interest by German and American institutions in collaborating in the area of pre- competitive applied research. Project title: Integrated Supply Chain Management Program R&D partners: Sponsorts): Gesellschaft fur Verkehrsbetriebswirtschaft und Logistik, Nurnberg Lehrstuhl fur Logistik der Universitat Erlangen-Nurnberg Center for Transportation Studies, MIT, Cambridge Amoco, AT&T, CVS, Monsanto, Proctor & Gamble, Roadway Logistics Services, XEROX, Siemens Volkswagen, Quelle

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56 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY Project title: Traffic information system R&D partners: Forschungsinstitut fur Logistiksysteme in Ballungsraumen, Herne California State Department of Transportation Sponsorts): California State Department of Transportation Project title: Customer information system R&D partners: Forschungsinstitut fur Logistiksysteme in Ballungsraumen, Herne California State Department of Transportation Sponsorts): California State Department of Transportation R&D partners: Project title: Value management/value engineering as an instrument of inno vation management in small and medium-sized enterprises Lehrstuhl Industriebetriebslehre, Universitat Dortmund Society of the American Value Engineers (SAVE), Franklin, Pennsylvania AiF, SAVE Sponsorts): Project title: Standard production planning and control system for globally operating production networks R&D partners: Forschungsinstitut fur Rationalisierung, RWTH Aachen BDO Seidmann Ltd., Atlanta N. N., U.S. research institute; N. N., production company Possibly AiF for the German part Sponsorts): Project title: Tools for the design of flexible organization structures R&D partners: Forschungsinstitut fur Rationalisierung, RWTH Aachen Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity, MIT, Cambridge Sponsorts): Possibly AiF for the German part Project title: Analysis of cooperation in supply chains in the area of production technology on the basis of an American-German comparison R&D partners: Forschungsinstitut fur Rationalisierung, RWTH Aachen Sloan School of Management, MIT, Cambridge Possibly AiF for the German part Sponsorts): Project title: R&D partners: Friction reduction at the forming edge by compressed air lubrication Institut fur Umformtechnik und Umformmaschinen, Universitat Hannover Alcoa Technical Center, Pennsylvania Sponsorts): Possibly AiF for the German side

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ANNEX I Project title: R&D partners: Sponsor(s): Project title: R&D partners: Sponsor(s): Project title: R&D partners: 57 Pressure control of blank-holder in relation to drawing force Institut fur Umformtechnik und Umformmaschinen, Universitat Hannover Alcoa Technical Center, Pennsylvania Possibly AiF for the German side Pulsating pressure of blank-holder Institut fur Umformtechnik und Umformmaschinen, Universitat Hannover Ohio State University, Columbus Possibly AiF for the German side Determination of elastic recovery in deep drawing Institut fur Umformtechnik und Umformmaschinen, Universitat Hannover Ohio State University, Columbus Sponsor(s): Possibly AiF for the German side Project title: Smoke development in arc spraying processes R&D partners: Forschungsvereinigung SchweilSen und Schneiden, Dusseldorf Lehrstuhl fur Werkstofftechnologie, Universitat Dortmund High Temperature Laboratory, University of Minnesota Thermal Spray Lab, University of New York, Stony Brook Sponsor(s): Possibly AiF for the German side Project title: Joining of plastic and light metal parts R&D partners: Forschungsvereinigung SchweilSen und Schneiden, Dusseldorf Fraunhofer-Institut fur Angewandte Materialforschung, Bremen Center for Composite Materials, University of Delaware, Newark Sponsor(s): Possibly AiF for the German side Project title: Orbital welding of tubes with tungsten-inert gases R&D partners: Forschungsvereinigung SchweilSen und Schneiden, Dusseldorf SchweilStechnische Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt, Munchen Astro Arc Polysoude, Sun Valley, California Sponsor(s): Possibly AiF for the German side Project title: Bolt welding with lift ignition for aluminum R&D partners: Forschungsvereinigung SchweilSen und Schneiden, Dusseldorf SchweilStechnische Lehr- und Versuchsanstalt, Munchen TRW NELSON Stud Welding Division, Elyria, Ohio Sponsor(s): Possibly AiF for the German side

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58 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SYSTEMS IN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY Project title: Use of neural networks for controlling welding processes R&D partners: Institut fur SchweilStechnische Fertigungsverfahren, RWTH Aachen N. N. (Negotiations with various American partners) Sponsorts): Possibly AiF for the German side Project title: Structure and characteristics of glass melts R&D partners: Huttentechnische Vereinigung der Deutschen Glasindustrie, Frankfurt/M. Center of Glass Research, Alfred University, Alfred, New York N.Y. State College of Ceramics, Alfred University SponsortsJ: Presently: Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft National Science Foundation Problem: Orientation too basic because of requirements of funders. interest in AiF support for more practice-oriented research Project title: Revolution control of ring spinning machines R&D partners: Institut fur Textil- und Verfahrenstechnik, Denkendorf Milliken & Company Sponsorts): Milliken & Company R&D partners: SponsortsJ: Project title: Development of composite textiles and garment ensembles for foul-weather protection with optimized comfort Bekleidungsphysiologisches Institut, Hohenstein Adidas, Herzogenaurach W. L. Gore Maiden Mills Pearl Izumi In Sport Adidas, W. L. Gore, Maiden Mills, Pearl Izumi, In Sport Project title: Production of emulsions by membranes R&D partners: InstitutfurLebensmittelverfahrenstechnik,UniversitatKarlsrOhe Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Sponsorts): Possibly AiF for the German part Forschungskreis der Ernahrungsindustrie, Bonn R&D partners: Sponsorts): Project title: Improvement of reaction flavors with respect to the original food flavors Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Lebensmittelchemie, Garching The State University of New Jersey, Rutgers Forschungskreis der Ernahrungsindustrie, Bonn Flavor Extract and Manufacturing Association

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ANNEX I 59 Project title: Effects of fatty trans-acids in food on the composition of fatty acids in human blood plasma and fatty tissue Institut fur Biochemie und Lebensmittelchemie, Universitat Hamburg R&D partners: U.S. Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition, Washington, D.C. Sponsorts): Forschungskreis der Ernahrungsindustrie, Bonn U.S. Food and Drug Administration Project title: Effects of phase transitions in food on deterioration of quality R&D partners: Institut fur Lebensmitteltechnologie, Technische Universitat Berlin Center for Advanced Food Technology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey Sponsorts): Forschungskreis der Ernahrungsindustrie, Bonn Project title: Application of high electric field pulses in food processing and preservation R&D partners: Institut fur Lebensmitteltechnologie, Technische Universitat Berlin Department of Food Science, Ohio State University, Columbus SponsortsJ: Forschungskreis der Ernahrungsindustrie, Bonn The Ohio Research Foundation Project title: Authenticity control of fruit juice flavors R&D partners: Institut fur Lebensmittelchemie, Universitat Frankfurt Citrus Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Lake Alfred, Florida Sponsorts): Forschungskreis der Ernahrungsindustrie, Bonn Project title: Inactivation kinetics and molecular modeling of conformational transitions in enzymes at high pressure R&D partners: Institut fur Lebensmitteltechnologie, Technische Universitat Berlin Center for Advanced Food Technology, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New Jersey Sponsorts): Forschungskreis der Ernahrungsindustrie, Bonn Project title: Investigation of the nutritional balance of cereal-based products made from unconventional raw material R&D partners: Institut fur Lebensmitteltechnologie, Technische Universitat Berlin Department of Grain Science, Kansas State University, Manhattan

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60 TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER SYSTEMSIN THE UNITED STATES AND GERMANY Sponsorts): Forschungskreis der Ernahrungsindustrie, Bonn American Association of Cereal Chemistry, St. Paul, Minnesota Project title: Sponsor(s): Investigation of the role of resistant starch in cereal-based products from a nutritional and a technological point of view R&D partners: Institut fur Lebensmitteltechnologie, Technische Universitat Berlin Department of Grain Science, Kansas State University, Manhattan Forschungskreis der Ernahrungsindustrie, Bonn American Association of Cereal Chemistry, St. Paul, Minnesota Project title: Investigation of the shelf-life of cereal-based products enriched with high unsaturated fatty acids R&D partners: Institut fur Lebensmitteltechnologie, Technische Universitat Berlin Department of Grain Science, Kansas State University, Manhattan Sponsorts): Forschungskreis der Ernahrungsindustrie, Bonn American Association of Cereal Chemistry, St. Paul, Minnesota R&D partners: Project title: Investigation of the functional and nutritional properties of p-glucans in cereal-based products Institut fur Lebensmitteltechnologie, Technische Universitat Berlin Department of Grain Science, Kansas State University, Manhattan Sponsorts): Forschungskreis der Ernahrungsindustrie, Bonn American Association of Cereal Chemistry, St. Paul, Minnesota