• 4.  

    For a discussion of the relationship between the study of deployed systems and the development of new research directions, see CSTB (1989) and CSTB (1992).

  • 5.  

    A different kind of negative effect that people may have on systems occurs when, in hostile situations such as crime or warfare, they attack systems to harm their performance.

  • 6.  

    Research in scientific visualization aims at permitting computational scientists to observe and understand intuitively the effects of variations in models of phenomena they are studying; see, for example, Hibbard et al. (1994). Extending this sort of visualization into the crisis management context not only requires better models of uncertain phenomena such as mass social behavior, but also challenges the ability to display results meaningfully on equipment of a performance that crisis management agencies are likely to be able to afford.

  • 7.  

    The diversity of organizations with different structures and patterns of working makes it necessary for these communications models to accommodate different modes, when collaboration crosses organizational boundaries as it frequently does.

  • 8.  

    An important feature of the problem-solving environment would be the ability to abstract application requirements and translate those requirements into specifications for software system functionality. Developing such an ability will require considerable research.

  • 9.  

    Middleware provides services within an information infrastructure that are used in common among multiple applications. For a discussion, see CSTB, 1994b, p. 49.

  • 10.  

    The ARPANET, precursor to the Internet, exhibited emergent phenomena related to network control functions that unpredictably produced massive slowdowns in the network. Fundamental design principles to predict and avoid such phenomena in large-scale systems remain lacking.

  • 11.  

    Revisions to code are no guarantee of improvement; managing the proliferation of different versions of the same code is another formidable challenge.

  • 12.  

    Alternatively, Java and similar network-centered models of computing illustrate an emerging, distributed approach to software development. In this approach, developers across the Internet are participating in group development projects using the models of consortia and distributed applications based on multiple interactive Web services. These projects do not look like software development projects in the traditional sense, but they may yield workable, large-scale solutions.

  • 13.  

    In fact, because genetic influences on medical conditions may be understood increasingly, maintaining medical histories longer than a lifetime may become more and more valuable to descendants.

  • 14.  

    Kunze, John A, "Functional Recommendations for Internet Resource Locators," Internet Request for Comments (RFC) 1736, February 1995; and Sollins, Karen, and Larry Masinter, "Functional Requirements for Uniform Resource Names," Internet RFC 1737, December 1994. Both are available on line at http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/information/rfc.html.

  • 15.  

    Examples include the Wide Area Information Service (WAIS) and Harvest, a project at the University of Colorado. There are also a number of searching tools designed specifically for the World Wide Web, such as AltaVista from Digital Equipment Corporation, Lycos, and others.

  • 16.  

    For example, doctors might decide that only the full level of performance is acceptable, whereas medical insurers might opt for lower resolution and professors showing chalkboard diagrams might opt for fewer frames per second.

  • 17.  

    Such tools exist, but are difficult to use and require a higher level of technical expertise than is readily available in a crisis response.

  • 18.  

    Research has achieved some success in one aspect of this problem, that of producing real-time systems. These are systems that can vary their algorithmic approach to a problem in order to converge on a solution by a specified deadline, perhaps sacrificing some accuracy to meet the time constraint. However, much more work is required to generalize this understanding to aspects of performance other than converging before deadlines and to the less well-defined problems characteristic of crises.

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