• 12.  

    The Consequences Assessment Tool uses a model to predict damage from high winds that is adapted from a nuclear blast effects model developed by the Defense Nuclear Agency. The assessment tool is described in detail in Linz and Bryant (1994).

  • 13.  

    For additional details, see NOAA HPCC home page, http://hpcc1.hpcc.noaa.gov/hpcc.

  • 14.  

    Workshop participants observed that good judgments require not only access to information, but also a good general education on the part of judgment makers.

  • 15.  

    See Drabek (1991) for results of a detailed investigation of the relationship between training and information technology use in crisis management organizations.

  • 16.  

    Workshop series participant Clifford Lynch, Office of the President, University of California, made valuable contributions to this section. For a discussion of these research issues in greater depth and breadth, see Lynch and Garcia-Molina (1995).

  • 17.  

    The unpredictable timing of such demands highlights the potential benefit of continuous update of information in both GIS and digital libraries, or at least the incorporation of associated information (meta-data) about the currency and expected reliability of information.

  • 18.  

    Ordering and distribution of information-based (intangible) products can be nearly simultaneous, but the supporting accounting and inventory information, payment, and actual funds transfer may lag. The resulting decoupling of the accounting and payment information from the ordering and delivery of goods and services increases the credit risks associated with a transaction.

  • 19.  

    Each payment mechanism tends to work in a manner analogous to a physical mechanism such as credit cards, checks, or cash. Developing and deploying interoperable, seamless support for multiple payment mechanisms at an economically feasible cost is a challenge with both institutional aspects (e.g., negotiating contractual frameworks) and requirements for research.

  • 20.  

    Incorporation of video and sound into Web pages increases the richness of the content provided, but also increases the bandwidth required for access.

  • 21.  

    Networks among ATMs involve links with known and stable locations and relatively predictable load patterns (unlike the networks needed for crisis management).

  • 22.  

    For a more complete overview, see CSTB (1995b).

  • 23.  

    This illustrates what might be called ''Amdahl's law for practical HPCC." For a classic discussion of key principles, see Amdahl (1967).

  • 24.  

    For a detailed description, see Syracuse University and Multidisciplinary Analysis and Design Industrial Consortium Team 2 (1995).

  • 25.  

    Workshop series participant Joel Saltz, of the University of Maryland, made valuable contributions to this section. For a discussion of these research issues in greater depth and breadth, see Davis et al. (1995).

  • 26.  

    For a discussion of medical record privacy issues in a networked environment, see IOM (1994).

  • 27.  

    Robots may find application in other elements of health care, such as handling and inspection of clinical or research specimens.

  • 28.  

    The current research frontier is petabyte-sized databases. An estimate from the NSF Workshop on High Performance Computing and Communications and Health Care (Davis et al., 1995) postulated that nationwide adoption of computerized patient records over the next decade will yield a full database size of 10 terabytes, which is well beyond current database management capabilities. This corresponds to the equivalent of 100 text pages for each of 100 million patients.



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