boundary conditions around the areas examined in finer detail. The model, called the Advanced Regional Prediction System, is written in Fortran and designed for scalability. See Droegemeier (1993) and Xue et al. (1996). See also "The Advanced Regional Prediction System," available on line at http://wwwcaps.uoknor.edu/ARPS.

  • 8.  

    A CAPS technical paper explains that "although no meteorological prediction or simulation codes we know of today were designed with massive parallelism in mind, we believe it is now possible to construct models that take full advantage of such architecture." See "The Advanced Regional Prediction System: Model Design Philosophy and Rationale," available on line at http://wwwcaps.uoknor.edu/ARPS.

  • 9.  

    The ability to effectively handle time as a resource is an issue not only for integrating real-time data, but for distributed computing systems in general. Formal representation of temporal events and temporal constraints, and scheduling and monitoring distributed computing processes with hard real-time requirements, are fundamental research challenges. Some research progress has been made in verifying limited classes of real-time computable applications and implementing prototype distributed real-time operating systems.

  • 10.  

    Details about I-WAY are available on line at http://www.iway.org.

  • 11.  

    One key data fusion challenge involves data alignment and registration, where data from different sources are aligned to different norms.

  • 12.  

    Some key challenges underlying communication between people and machines relate to information representation and understanding. These are addressed primarily in the section, "Information Management," but it should be understood that without semantic understanding of, for example, a user's requests, no interface technology will produce a good result.

  • 13.  

    This concept is currently used for military training in instances when high-performance computation is available; trainees' computers are linked to the high-performance systems that generate the simulation, and the trainees see a more or less realistic virtual crisis (OTA, 1995). Nonmilitary access to such simulations likely requires lower-cost computing resources.

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