STD (etiologic agent)

Estimated Annual Incidence, 1994a

Estimated Prevalence, 1994b

Estimated Annual Total Costs (millions of 1994$)c

Routes of Transmissiond

Frequency of Asymptomatic Infectionse

Major Long-Term Health Consequences.f

Increases Risk for Acquisition or Transmission of HIV Infection?g

Effective Curative Treatment Available/ Vaccine Available?h

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adults

Pregnant Women and Infants

 

 

Chlamydial infection (Chlamydial trachomatis)

4,000,000

NA

2,013

Vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Mother-to-infant transmission.

Women: very common. Men: common.

Women: pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain. Men: epididymitis, urethral stricture. Women and men: Reiter's syndrome (arthritis), complications of septicemia.

Infants: neonatal eye disease, pneumonia. Pregnant women: prematurity and other complications.

Yes

Yes/No

Gonorrhea (Neisseria gonorrhoeae)

800,000

NA

1,051

Vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Mother-to-infant transmission.

Women: common. Men: uncommon.

Women: pelvic inflammatory disease, infertility, ectopic pregnancy, chronic pelvic pain. Men: epididymitis, urethral stricture. Women and men: complications of septicemia.

Infants: eye infections (conjunctivitis), blindness. Pregnant women: prematurity and other complications.

Yes

Yes (but antibioticresistant strains exist)/No

Syphilis (all stages) (Treponema pallidum)

101,000

NA

106

Vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Mother-to-infant transmission. Very rarely by direct nonsexual contact with infectious lesions. Rarely through blood transfusion if donor is in early stages of disease.

Women: common. Men: common or less common.

Women and men: cardiovascular problems, neurological disorders, damage to other organ systems, often years after the initial infection.

Infants: congenital syphilis. Pregnant women: stillborn fetus, premature delivery.

Yes

Yes/No

Human papillomavirus infection (human papillomavirus)

500,000-1,000,000

24,000,000

3,827

Vaginal, anal, and probably oral sex. Occasional mother-to-infant transmission.

Women and men: very common.

Women: genital cancer (vulvar, cervical, vaginal). Men: penile cancer. Women and men: anal cancer.

Infants: wart-like tumors of larynx.

No evidence

Yes/No

Genital herpes (herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2)

200,000-500,000

31,000,000

237

Vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Direct nonsexual contact with infectious lesions. Mother-to-infant transmission.

Women and men: common.

Women and men: recurrent lesions.

Infants: fetal malformations, severe mental retardation, brain damage. Pregnant women: spontaneous abortion, premature delivery.

Possible

No/No



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