Appendix E Summary of Empirical Studies of HIV Prevention Mass Media Campaigns



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--> Appendix E Summary of Empirical Studies of HIV Prevention Mass Media Campaigns

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--> SUMMARY OF EMPIRICAL STUDIES OF HIV PREVENTION MASS MEDIA CAMPAIGNS         Outcome Measureb     Country Study Populationa Primary Channel Knowledge Attitude Behavior Other U.S. Woods et al., 1991 General TV, radio       Dollar value of donated airtime   Keiser, 1991 General TV, radio       Media Coverage   Gerbert and Maguire, 1989 General Mailing       Recall of exposure to ANM   Snyder, 1991 General Mailing +/o o o Perceived risk   Caron et al., 1992 College students TV, radio   + +     Gentry and Jorgensen, 1991 General TV, radio       Dollar value of donated airtime   Bryce et al., 1990 General, Injecting drug users Mass media     + Seek information, obtain services Australia Rigby et al., 1989 General TV o o       Bray et al., 1991 General TV o o   Anxiety   Ross et al., 1990 General TV   +       Ross and Carson, 988 General Mass media   +     Brazil Fox and Cortes, 1992 Urban adults   +     Awareness, concern, perceived risk

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--> Bulgaria Chileva and Metodieff, 1994 General Print       Media coverage France Moatti et al., 1992 General adults General media + +/o + Perceived risk The Gambia Sekou et al., 1989 General General media     +   Italy Bortolotti et al., 1992 Drug users Print     + HIV seroconversion Japan Maeda et al., 1994 Young adults Mass media + + +   Mexico Izazola et al., 1988         +     Helguera et al., 1990 General Multiple       Social response   Sepulveda et al., 1989 General Press, mass media + + o   Philippines Margo et al., 1991 General Multiple + +   Perceived risk Switzerland Wasserfallen et al., 1993 General TV, print     +     Dubois-Arber et al., 1992 General General media     +     Stutz Steiger et al., 1992 Clients of prostitutes Print     o     Lehmann et al., 1987 General Print +         Hausser et al., 1988 General TV, print     +  

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-->         Outcome Measureb     Country Study Populationa Primary Channel Knowledge Attitude Behavior Other U.K. Beck et al., 1990 General TV, print     +     Weller et al., 1984 Men TV, print       Decrease in gonorrhea rate   Wober, 1988 General TV, print, radio +         Mills et al., 1986 General Print, TV p   +     Sherr, 1987 General   o     Anxiety Zaire Kaseka et al., 1992 General TV, radio +   +/o HIV seroincidence   Rukarangira et al., 1990 General Mass media +         Kyungu et al., 1990 General TV +       a Reach of program is national unless otherwise specified. b A "+" indicates a favorable outcome, while an "o" indicates no effect. SOURCES: Beck EJ, Donegan C, Kenny C, Cohen CS, Moss V, Teny P, et al. An update on HIV testing at a London sexually transmitted diseases clinic: long-term impact of the AIDS media campaigns. Genitourin Med 1990;66:142-7. Bortolotti F, Stivanello A, Noventa F, Forza G, Pavanello N, Bertolini A. Sustained AIDS education campaigns and behavioral changes in Italian drug abusers. Eur J Epidemiol 1992;8:264-7. Bray F, Chapman S. Community knowledge, attitudes and media recall about AIDS, Sydney 1988 and 1989. Austr J Public Health 1991;15:107-13. Bryce J, Pope RS, Ruff JA. The impact of the Michigan mass media campaign on hotline calls, knowledge levels, and requests for HIV counseling and testing. Sixth International Conference on AIDS, June 19-24, 1990, San Francisco [abstract no. F.D. 848]. Caron SL, Davis CM, Wynn RL, Roberts LW. "America Responds to AIDS," but did college students? Differences between March, 1987, and September, 1988. AIDS Educ Prev 1992;4:18-28.

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--> Chileva A, Metodieff M. The mass media response to a national AIDS campaign. Tenth International Conference on AIDS, August 7-12, 1994, Yokohama [abstract no. PDO606]. Dubois-Arber F, Jeannin A, Zeugin P. Evaluation of AIDS prevention in Switzerland: behavioral change in the general population. Eighth International Conference on AIDS, July 19-24, 1992, Amsterdam [abstract no. PoD 5410]. Fox MP, Cortes E. The current relevance of mass media advertising in Brazilian AIDS prevention campaigns. Eighth International Conference on AIDS, July 19-24, 1992, Amsterdam [abstract no. PoD 5806]. Gentry EM, Jorgensen CM. Monitoring the exposure of "America Responds to AIDS" PSA campaign. Public Health Rep 1991;106:651-5. Gerbert B, Maguire B.Public acceptance of the Surgeon General's brochure on AIDS. Public Health Rep 1989;104:130-3. Hausser D, Lehmann P, Dubois-Arber F, Gutzwiller F. Evaluation of nationwide campaigns against AIDS in Switzerland. Fourth International Conference on AIDS, June 12-16, 1988, Stockholm [abstract no. 9553]. Helguera G, Acuna ML, Chavez-Peon F, Sepulveda J. Social mobilization in the prevention of AIDS. Sixth International Conference on AIDS, June 19-24, 1990, San Francisco [abstract no. F.C. 850]. Izazola JA, Vaidespino JL, Sepulveda J. Indicators of behavior modification due to the campaign for the prevention of AIDS in Mexico. Fourth International Conference on AIDS, June 12-16, 1988, Stockholm [abstract no. 9551]. Kaseka N, Jones D, Kalambay K, Walombua M, Doppagne A, Reyward W, et al. Contribution of a public mass-media and AIDS information campaign in AIDS knowledge, condom use and HIV seroincidence among employees of a large business in Kinshasa, Zaire. Eighth International Conference on AIDS, July 19-24, 1992, Amsterdam [abstract no. PoD 5546]. Keiser NH. Strategies of media marketing for "America Responds to AIDS" and applying lessons learned. Public Health Rep 1991;106:623-7. Kyungu M, Eiger R, Kaombo K, Kambamba SA, Convisser J. The impact of an AIDS television campaign on an urban experience. Sixth International Conference on AIDS, June 19-24, 1990, San Francisco [abstract no. F.D. 846]. Lehmann P, Hausser D, Somaini B, Gutzwiller F. Campaign against AIDS in Switzerland: evaluation of a nationwide educational programme. Br Med J 1987;295:1118-20. Maeda M, Inagaki T, Ishii A, Ashizawa M, Minamitani M. The effects of education campaign for AIDS/HIV through mass medias from 1992 to 1994. Tenth International Conference on AIDS, August 7-12, 1994, Yokohama [abstract no. 568D]. Margo G, MacDonald G, Schneider A, Dayrit M, Abad M, Consunjui B. The importance of social marketing techniques in creating effective media campaigns on AIDS. Seventh International Conference on AIDS, June 16-21, 1991, Florence [abstract no. W.D. 4273]. Mills S, Campbell MJ, Waters WE. Public knowledge of AIDS and the DHSS advertisement campaign. Br Med J 1986;293:1089-90. Moatti JP, Dab W, Loundou H, Quenel P, Beltzer N, Anes A, et al. Impact on the general public of media campaigns against AIDS: a French evaluation. Health Policy 1992;21:233-47. Rigby K, Brown M, Anagnostou P, Ross MW. Shock tactics to counter AIDS: the Australian experience. Psychol Health 1989;3:145-59. Ross MW, Carson JA. Effectiveness of distribution of information on AIDS: a national study of six media in Australia. New York State J Med 1988;88:239-41. Ross MW, Rigby K, Rosser BR, Anagnostou P, Brown M. The effect of a national campaign on attitudes toward AIDS. AIDS Care 1990;2:339-46.

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--> Rukarangira NW, Ngirabakunzi K, Bihimi Y, Kitembo M. Evaluation of the AIDS information program, using mass media campaign, in Lumumbashi-Zaire. Sixth International Conference on AIDS, June 19-24, 1990, San Francisco [abstract no. F.D. 844]. Sekou D, Saihou C, Amie C, Theophilus G. A multidimensional approach to promote awareness of AIDS in the Gambia. Fifth International Conference on AIDS, June 4-9, 1989, Montreal [abstract no. W.E.P. 8]. Sepulveda J, Izazola JA, Valdespino JL, Mondragon M, Townsend J. Massive campaign for AIDS education, achievements and problems. Fifth International Conference on AIDS, June 4-9, 1989, Montreal [abstract no. T.G.O. 9]. Sherr L. An evaluation of the UK government health education campaign on AIDS. Psychol Health 1987;1:61-72. Snyder LB. The impact of the Surgeon General's "Understanding AIDS" pamphlet in Connecticut. Health Commun 1991;3:37-57. Stutz Steiger T, Wasserfallen F, Landert C, Dubois-Arber F, Obrist B, Somaini B. A media campaign in Switzerland targeted at the clients of prostitutes. Eighth International Conference on AIDS, July 19-24, 1992, Amsterdam [abstract no. PoD 5659]. Wasserfallen F, Stutz ST, Summermatter D, Hausermann M, Dubois-Arber F. Six years of promotion of condom use in the framework of the National Stop AIDS Campaign: experiences and results in Switzerland. Ninth International Conference on AIDS, June 6-11, 1993, Berlin [abstract no. WS-D27-3]. Weller IVD, Hindley DJ, Adler DW, Meldrum JT. Gonorrhea in homosexual men and media coverage of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome in London 1982-3. Br Med J Clin Res Educ 1984;289:1041. Wober JM. Informing the British public about AIDS. Health Educ Res 1988;3:19-24. Woods DR, Davis D, Westover BJ. "America Responds to AIDS": its content, development process, and outcome. Public Health Rep 1991;106:616-22. REPRINTED FROM: Flora JA, Miabach EW, Holtgrave D. Communication campaigns for HIV prevention: using mass media in the next decade. In: IOM. Assessing the social and behavioral science base for HIV/AIDs prevention and intervention. Background papers. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press, 1995:129-54.