n Women with history of STD or new or multiple sex partners. Clinicians should also consider local epidemiology. Chlamydial screen should be repeated in 3rd trimester if at continued risk.
o Women under age 25 with two or more sex partners in the last year, or whose sex partner has multiple sexual contacts; women who exchange sex for money or drugs; and women with history of repeated episodes of gonorrhea. Clinicians should also consider local epidemiology. Gonorrhea screen should be repeated in the 3rd trimester if at continued risk.
p In areas where universal screening is not performed due to low prevalence of HIV infection, pregnant women with the following individual risk factors should be screened: past or present injection drug use; women who exchange sex for money or drugs; injection drug-using, bisexual, or HIV-positive sex partner currently or in the past; blood transfusions during 1978-1985; persons seeking treatment for STDs.
q Women who are initially HBsAg negative who are at high risk due to injection drug use, suspected exposure to hepatitis B during pregnancy, multiple sex partners.
r Women who exchange sex for money or drugs, women with other STDs (including HIV), and sexual contacts of persons with active syphilis. Clinicians should also consider local epidemiology.
SOURCE: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to clinical preventive services. 2nd ed. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996.