health policies, programs, and institutions, with emphasis on issues that affect the access of low-income people to health care. His most recent research has focused on health insurance coverage and the effects of lack of coverage and other factors on access to health services. He served as a senior consultant to the President's Task Force on National Health Care Reform, for which he worked full time for several months in early 1993. Dr. Brown has developed bills in the California legislature and in the U.S. Senate, where he has served as health policy advisor to two senators. He has presented invited testimony to numerous committees in both houses of the U.S. Congress and in the California legislature and has provided consultation to private, local, state, federal, and international agencies.

WILLIAM T. BUTLER, M.D., is chancellor of Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, having served previously as president from 1979 to 1996. He is a professor of internal medicine and of microbiology and immunology. Dr. Butler received his B.A. from Oberlin College and his M.D. from Western Reserve University in Cleveland. After residency training in internal medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, he completed a research fellowship in bacteriology and immunology at Harvard Medical School. Before joining the Baylor faculty in 1966, Dr. Butler served as chief clinical associate in the Laboratory of Clinical Investigation at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). In 1991, he served as chairman of the Association of American Medical Colleges. He was elected to the IOM in 1990 and is also a member of many professional organizations, including the American Association of Immunologists, the American Society for Clinical Investigation, and the Infectious Diseases Society of America. He has authored more than 140 scientific publications in the fields of immunology and infectious diseases.

VIRGINIA A. CAINE, M.D., is director of the Marion County Health Department in Indianapolis, Indiana. She is also associate professor of medicine in the Division of Infectious Diseases at the Indiana University School of Medicine. Dr. Caine received her M.D. from the State University of New York, Upstate Medical School, in Syracuse. She completed her residency in internal medicine at the University of Cincinnati Medical School and a fellowship in infectious diseases at the University of Washington Medical School in Seattle. Between 1981 and 1984, Dr. Caine was assistant professor of medicine in the Divisions of Infectious Diseases and Obstetrics and Gynecology at the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. During that time, she also served as associate medical director in the Clinic for Sexually Transmitted Diseases of the Baltimore City Health Department. Dr. Caine has served as a member and expert panelist on many national, state, and regional committees, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) expert panel on Sexually Transmitted Diseases Guidelines and the CDC's Healthy People 2000 Progress Review for Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Dr. Caine is a member of numerous professional societies, including the



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