National Medical Association, where she is chair of the Infectious Disease and AIDS Sections.

DAVID D. CELENTANO, Sc.D., M.H.S., is professor of social and behavioral sciences in the Department of Health Policy and Management at the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health. He is also professor of epidemiology and international health. Dr. Celentano is a behavioral scientist with extensive experience in leading investigations of social and behavioral epidemiology in the fields of HIV/AIDS, STDs, substance abuse, and cancer. He has been active in HIV/AIDS research since 1984, when he assisted in the development of the assessment strategy for the Multi-Center AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) of the natural history of HIV infection in gay and bisexual men. He is an active contributor in the ALIVE study, the largest longitudinal study of HIV infection in injection drug users. Since 1990, he has been conducting investigations on HIV infection in Thailand. Dr. Celentano received his B.A. in psychology, his M.H.S. in mental hygiene, and his Sc.D. in behavioral sciences from Johns Hopkins University. Dr. Celentano is a member of the International AIDS Society, the American Sexually Transmitted Disease Association, and the Society for Epidemiological Research.

PAUL D. CLEARY, Ph.D., is a professor in the Departments of Health Care Policy and Social Medicine at Harvard Medical School. He also holds appointments as lecturer and associate professor in the Department of Behavioral Sciences at the Harvard School of Public Health and as visiting associate professor in the Department of Sociomedical Sciences at the Columbia University School of Public Health. Dr. Cleary received both his B.S. in physics and his Ph.D. in sociology from the University of Wisconsin. Dr. Cleary is editor of The Milbank Quarterly and a consulting editor of the Journal of Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry. His research interests focus on health behavior, screening and risk assessment, assessment of health outcomes, and health policy. Between 1989 and 1992, Dr. Cleary was a member of the local advisory committee for the Eighth International Conference on AIDS. He is currently a member of the Data Monitoring Board for the Department of Veterans Affairs and a member of the Committee on Higher Degrees in Health Policy. Dr. Cleary is a member of many professional societies, including the American Association for the Advancement of Science and the American Association of Health Services Research, and he was elected to the IOM in 1994.

MARGARET A. HAMBURG, M.D., is commissioner of health for New York City. She received her M.D. from Harvard Medical School and completed her residency in internal medicine at the New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center. Dr. Hamburg began her service in the NYC Department of Health in June 1990 as deputy commissioner for Family Health Services. In that position she was responsible



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