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Appendix C—
Funded Research Activities

This appendix details the funded research activities related to English-language learners and bilingual education. It includes the following activities:

Research funded by the Department of Education, 1980-1995

National educational research and development centers

The Center for Language Education and Research (1987-1988)

Publications of the National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second-Language Learning

Research on English-language learners funded by the Office of Special Education Programs

A project of the National Science Foundation

Fiscal year 1995 grants to the National Institute for Mental Health and the Department of Health and Human Services

Projects of the other National Institutes of Health

Activities funded by foundations

Activities funded by the Spencer Foundation

Research Funded By The U.S. Department Of Education,
1980-1995

The following table lists the research activities funded by the Department of Education during 1980-1995.



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Page 433 Appendix C— Funded Research Activities This appendix details the funded research activities related to English-language learners and bilingual education. It includes the following activities: • Research funded by the Department of Education, 1980-1995 • National educational research and development centers • The Center for Language Education and Research (1987-1988) • Publications of the National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second-Language Learning • Research on English-language learners funded by the Office of Special Education Programs • A project of the National Science Foundation • Fiscal year 1995 grants to the National Institute for Mental Health and the Department of Health and Human Services • Projects of the other National Institutes of Health • Activities funded by foundations • Activities funded by the Spencer Foundation Research Funded By The U.S. Department Of Education, 1980-1995 The following table lists the research activities funded by the Department of Education during 1980-1995.

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Page 434 Name Years Funded PI/Organization (Principal Researcher) Total Amount (Dollars) Managing Office Bilingual Fellows 1988, 1991-92 Mayatech 434,712 OBEMLA Inservice Training 1981, 1983-84 ARAWAK Consulting Group 768,385 OBEMLA Benchmark Study 1995 Institute for Policy Analysis and Research 448,221 OBEMLA Field-Initiated Studiesa 1995   683,979 OBEMLA Development of Teacher Training Models 1993   500 OBEMLA An Analysis of LEP Students Grant Analysis Study 1991 Atlantic Resources Corporation 20,523 OBEMLA An Aggregation and Analysis of the Title VII Local Education Agency Database 1991 Amerind 45,873 OBEMLA Analysis and Reporting of SEA Data LEPS 1990 Atlantic Resources 258,781 OBEMLA Analysis of the Level of Demand for EACS 1988 Atlantic Resources 140,048 OBEMLA Review of ESL Literature 1984 InterAmerica Research Associates 35,000 OBEMLA Outlying Territories 1984 Development Associates 24,000 OBEMLA Recent Immigrant Study (HOPE) 1984 Hope Associates (Esperanza Medina) 164,373 OBEMLA Dean's Grant Program 1984 Carolyn W. Ebel (Carolyn W. Ebel) 10,000 OBEMLA Descrip. Anal. of Title VII SEA Activities 1983 SRA Technologies 195,433 OBEMLA Native Americans (MESA) 1983 MESA Corp. 167,143 OBEMLA Bilingual Education in Pacific Islands 1983 U.S. Human Resources 159,953 OBEMLA Educational Technology 1983 COMSIS 130,170 OBEMLA Head Start Evaluation Strategies 1981 Juarez and Associates (Regino Chavez) 49,750 OBEMLA Capacity Building Study 1981 NTS Research Corporation (Liz Reisner) 80,000 OBEMLA Projections Study (Interamerica) 1980 Interamerica Research Associates 32,640 OBEMLA Pacific Island Language Groups 1980 Interamerica Research Associates 25,000 OBEMLA A Descriptive Study of the ESEA Title VII Education Services for High School Students 1994-95 Development Technologies, Inc. 299,893 OBEMLA

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Page 435 Name Years Funded PI/Organization (Principal Researcher) Total Amount (Dollars) Managing Office Bilingual Fellows Supply and Demand 1991-92   100,720 OBEMLA Updating a Database on LEA Participation 1990-91 Amerind 180,557 OBEMLA SEA/LEA Capacity Building 1989-90 ARC and Ass. (Yungho Kim, Tamara Lucas) 411,050 OBEMLA Family English Literacy Program Evaluation 1989-90 Atlantic Resources 490,773 OBEMLA Educational Personnel Training Evaluation 1989-90 Research Triangle Institute 735,466 OBEMLA Exemplary Alternative Programs 1988-89 Southwest Educ. Development Lab (Tikunoff) 794,395 OBEMLA Definization of Letter Contract 1985-86 Novcom Systems, Inc. 205,989 OBEMLA Teacher Language Skills Survey 1980-82 InterAmerica Research Associates (Michael O'Malley) 601,962 OBEMLA Special Issues Analysis Center (SIAC) 1992-95 Development Associates 2,359,013 OBEMLA Descriptive Study of Content-ESL 1991-94 Center for Applied Linguistics (CAL) 929,338 OBEMLA Innovative Approaches Special Issues Analysis Center (SIAC) 1987-90 1985-89 Development Ass. COMSIS 2,596,378 927,482 OBEMLA OBEMLA NAS 1994-95   200,000 OBEMLA/OERI Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) 1991-95   1,505,979 OBEMLA/OERI Recent College Graduates 1985, 1987, 1990 Research Triangle Institute 128,850 OERI Schools and Staffing 1987 SRI International 98,606 OERI Causal Relationships 1983 Dept. of Psychology, Yale 45,000 OER LM&AI Instrument Validation (NCBR) 1983 National Center for Bilingual Research (Daniel Ulibarri) 59,974 OERI English Tense Marking in Vietnamese 1983 Center for Applied Linguistics 50,891 OERI Literacy in Inglewood 1981 Department of Education, UCLA (Kathleen Rockhill) 4,716 OERI Improving the Functional Writing 1981 Center for Ethnographic Research (Trueba and Moll) 125,000 OERI Improving the Functional Writing/Urban 1981 University City Science Center, Philadelphia (Morris and Louis) 136,000 OERI Hispanic and Anglo School Post Office Sy. 1981 Jennifer Greene (Jennifer Greene) 31,420 OERI

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Page 436 Name Years Funded PI/Organization (Principal Researcher) Total Amount (Dollars) Managing Office Comparison Cognitive Monitoring Skills 1981 Department of Psychology, Stanford (John Flavell) 14,776 OERI Acquisition of Literacy Skill in L1-L2 1981 Department of Education, UC Santa Barbara (Susan Goldman) 32,966 OERI Organization of Chicano Narrative Behavior 1981 Educational Testing Service (Richard Duran) 40,955 OERI Cross Language Research 1981 Department of Psychology, UC Riverside (Ovid J. Tzeng) 50,000 OERI Cognitive Flexibility and Social Skill 1981 Department of Psychology, Yale (Kenji Hakuta) 65,165 OERI Mathematics Learning Style Chinese 1981 ARC and Associates (Sau-Lim Tsang) 31,645 OERI Algebra Clinical Interview Tech. 1981 Physics and Astronomy Department, University of Mass., Amherst (Gerace and Mestre) 31,680 OERI Language Function 3rd Grade Reading Lessons 1981 ARC Associates (Larry Guthrie) 61,001 OERI Development of Writing 1981 Department of Education, Arizona State University, Tempe (Carole Edelsky) 52,318 OERI English Language Use Adolescent Vietnamese Refugees 1981 Center for Applied Linguistics (Wolfram and Christian) 64,891 OERI Lang. Behavior of Puerto Ricans in the U.S. 1981 Centro de Estudios Puerto Riquenos (Pedraza Pousada and Bennet) 62,180 OERI Development of Writing Native American 1981 Program in Lang and Lit, College of Education, Univ. of Arizona/Tuscon (Yetta Goodman) 70,000 OERI Nonverbal Factors in the 1981 Educ. of Chinese   Asian American Studies, SF State University (Malcolm Collier) 14,478 OERI Interdependence and Management in Bil C1 1981 School of Education, Stanford (Elizabeth Cohen) 51,999 OERI Nonverbal Comm. Amerind Children and Teach 1981 Native American Research Institute (Paul Greenbaum) 64,767 OERI Report Series on Local Bil. Ed. Programs 1981 E.H. White and Company (Regina Kyle) 82,893 OERI Assessment of 2nd Language Skills in Puerto Rico 1980 Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (Silvia Viera) 49,433 OERI

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Page 437   Years Funded PI/Organization (Principal Researcher) Total Amount (Dollars) Managing Office Inservice Training Needs Puerto Rico 1980 InterAmerican University (Eduardo Rivera Medina) 242,718 OERI Bilingual Inst. Pract. Non-Public Schools 1980 Educational Testing Service (Elford and Woodford) 133,000 OERI Synthesis of Results of SBIF Study 1980 E.H. White and Company (Regina Kyle) 31,000 OERI Adult Working Class Speakers 1980 The Huron Institute (Cancino and Hakuta) 15,000 OERI School Communicative Competence 1980 Graduate School of Education, Fordham (Brause and Bruno) 60,145 OERI Bilingual Education Strategies 1983-84 Ventriglia (Ventriglia) 152,180 OERI Learning English Through Bilingual Instruction 1980-81 School of Education, UC Berkeley (Lily Wong Fillmore) 436,000 OERI Language and Literacy in Bilingual Instruction 1980-81 Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (Domingo Dominguez) 538,794 OERI Social Context of Learning in Bil. Class 1980-81 Graduate School of Education, U.C. Berkeley (Donald Hansen) 402,000 OERI Language Diversity and Classroom Discourse 1980-81 Center for Applied Linguistics (Shuy and Kovac) 104,830 OERI Bil. Comm. Skills in Classroom Context Pro 1980-81 Center for Human Information (Luis Moll) 103,720 OERI Significant Instructional Features Study 1980-82 Far West Laboratory (William J. Tikunoff) 2,829,609 OERI National Assessment Educ. Progress (NAEP) 1983-87 WESTAT 818,005 OERI Small Business Innovat. Research (SBIR) 1987-93 Various 379,344 OERI National Educational Longitudinal (NELS) 1984-92 National Opinion Research 2,500,000 OERI (NELS) High School and Beyond 1981-82, 1984 National Opinion Research (S. Peng, R. Valdivieso) 890,000 OERI Secondary Students Study 1983, 1985 Naomi Gray 645,790 PES Chapter 1 LEP Students 1983, 1985-86, 1990-93 WESTAT/ABT 798,618 PES English Language Proficiency Study (ELSP) 1980, 1982-85 Decision Resources/Bureau of Census (Chester Bowie) 2,671,150 PES

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Page 438 Name Years Funded PI/Organization (Principal Researcher) Total Amount (Dollars) Managing Office Multifunctional Centers Study 1986 Policy Studies Assoc. 38,881 PES Indian Add On 1985 Development Assoc. 438,591 PES Evaluation of EDACS 1984 Pelavin Associates 104,324 PES DISTAR 1984 Pelavin Associates 83,716 PES Synthesis of Ed Research I 1984 Pelavin Associates 97,229 PES Longitudinal Analysis of the IMPA 1984 University of Oregon 82,157 PES National Long. Descriptive Phase 1983 Develop Ass./Research Triangle Institute (Mal Young) 789,000 PES Clearinghouse Evaluation 1983 Pelavin Associates 92,328 PES NonTitle VII Districts 1983 Advanced Technology 57,681 PES Bilingual Education Formula 1981 Applied Urbanetics 75,000 PES Parental Involvement in 4 Federal Ed. Pro. 1980 Systems Development Corp. (Al Robbins) 310,300 PES Training for Student Placement System Res. 1980 Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (Mashito Okada) 203,708 PES Descriptive Study of Svcs. to LEP Students 1991-92 Development Assoc. 709,000 PES National Academy Review 1990-91 National Academy of Sciences 200,000 PES Parent Attitude Study 1985-86 Educational Testing Service 694,822 PES META Analysis 1981-82 National Center for Bilingual Research 393,000 PES Study of Teaching Training (RMC) 1981-82 RMC Research Corporation (David Kaskowitz) 146,258 PES Development of Data Gathering Models 1980-81 InterAmerica Research Associates (Ray Perez) 410,000 PES Eval. of Classroom Component (CLIC) 1980-81 Development Associates (Rene Cardenas) 82,893 PES Identifying Model Strategies 1991-93 Public Studies Associates (PSA) 477,000 PES Immigrant and Refugee 1989-91 COSMOS 473,240 PES Evaluation Models Study 1985-87 SRA Technologies 940,753 PES Selection Procedures 1984-86 Pelavin Associates 431,209 PES Local Evaluation and 1989-92 Development Assoc. (Hopstock, Young, Zehler) 471,125 PES Improvement Practices         Immersion Study 1983-88, 1990 SRA Technologies/Aguirre Intl. 4,545,919 PES

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Page 439 Name Years Funded PI/Organization (Principal Researcher) Total Amount (Dollars) Managing Office National Long. Evaluation Impact Phase 1983-84, 1986, Development Assoc./Research Triangle Institute (Mal Young) 4,663,390 PES Synthesis of Ed. Sponsored Research II 1988-89 Pelavin Associates   PES NOTE: Information used to compile this table came from the U.S. Department of Education, Office of the Under Secretary. aFollowing are the projects included and total amount for each: Cambridge School System—Amigos Research Project—S118,241; Arlington Public Schools (VA)—Alternative Assessment in two-way bilingual immersion programs—S84,035; University of Chicago—Learning at Home—$108,106; George Washington University—Oasis Oral Assessment of Students in Spanish—$69,893; Arlee Montana—Writing Assessment—$45,968; Bernalillo Public Schools (NM)—Talking Life Experiences and Stories—$130,074; IDRA (San Antonio) Early Childhood Model Development—S127,662. National Educational Research And Development Centers (1990-1995) National Center on Adult Literacy Director: Daniel Wagner University of Pennsylvania 3910 Chestnut Street Philadelphia, PA 19104-3111 • The Families and Literacy Learning Project • Adult Literacy Programs for Bilingual Populations National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning Director: Barry McLaughlin University of California at Santa Cruz 141 Clark Kerr Hall Santa Cruz, CA 95064 • Matches and Mismatches in Family and School Discourse: Consequences for School Achievement in Hispanic and Anglo Children from Low-Income Families • Parent-Child Conversations and Children's Linguistic and Conceptual Development: Effects of Language and Culture

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Page 440 • Socialization of Scientific Discourse in Samoan-American Households • The Development of Effective Education in Native American Culture • Assisting the Literacy Development of Spanish-Speaking Students • Funds of Knowledge for Teaching • Korean-American Literacy Practices • Language Instruction for LEP Children • Two-Way Bilingual Education: Learning and Understanding Two Different Languages in the Same Sociocultural Context • Discourse Strategies in Cooperative Learning Settings • The Academic Consequences of Untracking Low Achieving Students • The Role of Sociocultural, Instructional, and Motivational Factors in the Development of Higher Order Cognitive Processes in Mathematics Among Language Minority Students • Integrating Language and Culture in Social Studies • Cheche Konnen: Case Studies in Scientific Sense-Making • Diagnostic and Dynamic Assessment of Comprehension and Reasoning Skills • Assessing Academic Language of Language Minority Students • Context-based and Interactive Approaches to Assessment Study Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk Co-Director: Robert E. Slavin Johns Hopkins University CSOC, 3505 North Charles Street Baltimore, MD 21219 Co-Director: A. Wade Boykin Howard University Department of Psychology Washington, D.C. 20059 • Effective Bilingual Education • Effective American Indian Education Center on Families, Communities, Schools and Children's Learning Co-Directors: Don Davies and Joyce Epstein Boston University 605 Commonwealth Avenue Boston, MA 02215 • National Support Systems: Impact on Puerto Rican Families, Communities, and Schools

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Page 441 The National Research Center on the Gifted and Talented Director: Joseph Renzulli University of Connecticut 362 Fairfield Road U-7 Storrs, CT 06269-2007 • An Investigation of Giftedness in Economically Disadvantaged and Limited-English Proficiency Students National Research Center on Literature Teaching and Learning Director: Arthur N. Applebee State University of New York at Albany School of Education 1400 Washington Avenue Albany, NY 12222 • Teaching the Process of Literary Understanding • The Role of Literature in the School Experiences of 4- to 7-Year-Old Children: A Longitudinal Study • Multicultural Awareness in Multiethnic Schools: Linking Organizational and Individual Perspectives in Literature • Cross-Cultural Responses to Literature National Center for Research in Mathematical Sciences Education Director: Thomas Romberg University of Wisconsin Wisconsin Center for Education Research 1025 West Johnson Street Madison, WI 53706 • Implementation of Reform The Policy Center of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education Director: Susan Fuhrman Rutgers University 86 Clifton Avenue New Brunswick, NJ 08901-1568 • Categorical Programs

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Page 442 National Reading Research Center Co-Directors: Donna E. Alvermann and John T. Guthrie University of Georgia 318 Aderhold Hall Athens, GA 30602-7125 • Extending the Classroom Use of Shared Reading to the Home Environment of Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Students • Literacy Behaviors in a Kindergarten Bilingual Classroom. • Portfolios Across Sites and Cultural Contexts National Center for Science Teaching and Learning Co-Directors: Arthur L. White and Michael H. Klapper Ohio State University 1929 Kenny Road Columbus, OH 43210-1015 • Japanese Sojourners' Learning Strategies • Hispanic Culture and Science Learning • Construction and Validation of an Articulated Assessment Package to Evaluate Achievement and Attitudes Related to Integrated Science and Mathematics Education for Anglo and Hispanic Elementary School Students National Center for Research on Teacher Learning Co-Directors: Robert E. Floden and G. Williamson McDiarmid Michigan State University College of Education 116 Erikson East Lansing, MI 48824-1034 • Learning About Diverse Learners National Center for the Study of Writing and Literacy Director: Sarah W. Freedman University of California at Berkeley School of Education 5513 Tolman Hall Berkeley, CA 94720 • Diversity and Literacy Development in the Early Years • The Oral and Written Language Growth on Non-English Background Secondary Students • Literacy Learning/Writing in the Multicultural Secondary Classroom • Cultural Models of Literacy: A Comparative Study

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Page 443 Center For Language Education And Research (1985-1989) Academic Knowledge Base Improving Reading Instruction and Text Comprehension for Language Minority Students. C. Valadez, (University of California, Los Angeles); A. Padilla, UCLA. Reading Achievement Among Language Minority Students. R. Duran, UC-Santa Barbara. Dialogue Journals as a Research and Pedagogical Tool with Language Minority Students. J.K. Peyton, (Center for Applied Linguistics, CAL). Improving Reasoning Skills. R. Duran, UC-Santa Barbara. Language and Problem Solving in Secondary School Science Classes. G. Spanos, CAL; J. Crandall, CAL. Processes and Significant Features of Cooperative Learning Programs. E. Jacob, CAL. The Adjunct Model of Language Instruction for Language Minority University Students. M.A. Snow, UCLA; D. Brinton, UCLA. Written and Spoken Language Differences in Bilingual Elementary School Children. V. Flashner, UCLA. Scaffolded Classroom Interaction and Its Relation to Second Language Acquisition for Language Minority Students. B. Hawkins, UCLA. Professional Development Preparation and Implementation of the Professional Development Program. C. Valadez, UCLA; J. Crandall, CAL. Developing an Information and Support Network of Educators of Language Minority Students. J. Crandall, CAL; D. Christian, CAL. Helping Pre-Service Teacher Training in Bilingual Education and ESL Credential Programs to Meet the Needs of Teachers in the Field. C. Valadez, UCLA. Improvement of Content of Materials, Curricula, and Programs Materials, Curriculum, and Programs for Language Minority Educators. C. Valadez, UCLA. Materials, Curricula, and Programs for Second Language Education. D. Christian, CAL. Linguistic and Metalinguistic Underpinnings of Academic Learning Cross Language Transfer of School Skills and Metalinguistic Skills in Bilingual Program Students. K. Hakuta, UC-Santa Cruz

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Page 456 Implicit Stanford University To improve translation services in health care settings for non-English-speaking Americans $300,868 Self Reliance Foundation, Santa Fe, NM For U.S. national Spanish-language radio programs on family planning and women's reproductive rights $13,300 Sequoia Union School District, Redwood City, CA For immigrant education program at Sequoia High School $57,014 Family and Community Enrichment Services, Belmont, CA Las Familias Unidas program for Latino youth and their families in Sequoia High School District $32,000 Hispanos Unidos, Redwood City, CA Teatro Juvenil, an after-school theater program for Latino youth $31,310 Santa Cruz Barrios Unidos, Santa Cruz, CA To prevent violence and gang involvement among Latino youth $55,000 Carnegie Corporation of New York Research Explicit Stanford University A report on federal education programs for limited-English-proficient students $165,000 over 16 months The Latino Institute, Chicago, IL Toward the Latino Urban Policy Agenda Project $225,000 over 3 years

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Page 457 Implicit Yale University To test both the Comer and Zigler methods $350,000 over 2 years Partial Research Implicit Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund, New York, NY To make high-quality education available to Puerto Ricans $450,000 over 3 years National Council of La Raza, L.A., CA For work with Hispanic school-aged children in increasing their educational success $300,000 over 2 years Big Brothers/Big Sisters of America, Philadelphia, PA To plan a national strategy to reach and serve Hispanic children and adolescents $25,000 Southwest Voter Research Institute, San Antonio, TX Toward a citizenship project for Hispanic immigrants $75,000 Nonresearch Explicit Avance, San Antonio, TX Parent-child education program, including English-language classes $350,000 over 2 years National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, Detroit, MI To offer certificates in 33 fields, including special certificates for work with limited-English-proficient children $1,000,000 Implicit Latino Issues Forum, San Francisco, CA Toward public education to encourage naturalization among legal immigrants $25,000

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Page 458 Puerto Rican Legal Defense and Education Fund, NY, NY Toward institutional strengthening in public education and media advocacy $25,000 Ford Foundation Research Explicit National Coalition of Advocates for Students $150,000 National Immigration Forum $535,000 Partial Research Explicit Multicultural Education and Training Advocacy (META) Project $160,000 Implicit Refugees International $150,000 National Community College Hispanic Council $175,000 Nonresearch Explicit Mexican American Legal Defense and Education Fund $1,425,000 American Bar Association Fund for Justice and Education $190,000 Implicit Congressional Hispanic Caucus Institute $400,000

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Page 459 Cuban American National Council $190,000 Institute for Puerto Rican Policy $230,000 Latino Institute $300,000 National Hispanic Leadership Institute $75,000 National Puerto Rican Coalition $340,000 National Puerto Rican Forum $25,000 United Latino Fund $200,000 Chicago Coalition for Immigrant and Refugee Protection $175,000 Coalition for Humane Immigrant Rights of Los Angeles $160,000 Coalition for Immigrant and Refugee Rights and Services $145,000 Haitian Refugee Center/Sant Refijie Ayisyin $250,000 Immigration and Refugee Services of America $500,000 Massachusetts Immigration and Refugee Advocacy Coalition $50,000 New York Immigration Coalition $145,000

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Page 460 Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Research Explicit Michigan State University For research on the adaptation of the children of recent immigrants $130,000 Implicit American Historical Association To create a guide to manuscript collections in U.S. repositories relating to Spanish colonial presence in the New World, 1492-1900 $125,000 Leadership Education for Asian Pacifics, Inc. For policy research on Asian Pacific immigrants $225,000 Association of Research Libraries To coordinate a North American distributed network-based system of library acquisitions and document delivery in Latin American studies $90,000 Partial Research Explicit California State University at Long Beach In support of programs on immigrant education $615,000 California Tomorrow In support of programs on immigrant education $615,000 Center for Applied Linguistics In support of programs on immigrant education $640,000 Intercultural Development Research Association In support of programs on immigrant education $506,000

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Page 461 National Coalition of Advocates for Students In support of programs on immigrant education $300,000 University of Maryland at Baltimore County In support of programs on immigratn education $433,000 Implicit University of California, Berkeley To develop a research network and linked electronic library system with five Chilean libraries $300,00 University of New Mexico To create an online database relating to Latin American and Caribbean countries $200,000 University of Texas at Austin To develop its Latin American Network Information Center $500,000 Nonresearch Explicit Brown University To support activities for school district superintendents working with limited-English-proficient populations $150,000 Implicit University of Houston To improve publishing operations and organizational capacities of Arte Publico Press $380,000 New York Community Trust To assist immigrants and related groups in New York $50,000

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Page 462 New York Immigration Coalition For its project Improving Newcomer Access to City Services $50,000 William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Nonresearch Explicit Ravenswood City School District To purchase native-language library materials $100,000 Implicit Arizona State University Foundation For the Expanding Minority Opportunities program $5,000 California Tomorrow For the Education for a Diverse Society/School Restructuring project $75,000 Center for Third World Organizing For the multicultural leadership development project $50,000

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Page 463 Summary Foundation Total Grants Education Grants Ford $285,700,000 $46,300,000 Pew 172,815,600 31,275,000 Mott 49,031,000   Lilly 98,300,000 27,500,000 Carnegie 53,152,574 22,866,0331 Packard 62,746,000   Exxon 53,759,042 23,894,8672 Russell Sage     MacArthur 735,900,000 47,800,0003 Spencer 12,990,000 12,990,0004 Mott     Mailman 967,340   Mellon 119,480,950 53,801,5505 Hewlett 39,330,008 10,713,000 McDonnell 21,791,551 6,000,9676 1Figure is for programs on children and youth. 2Breaks down into $3,504,511 for higher education, $962,989 for precollege education, and an additional $19,427,367 from the Exxon Education Foundation. 3Figures for MacArthur are for the period 1990-1994. 4It seems that all of the Spencer Foundation's grants went to education-related efforts. 5Figure is for higher education and scholarship ($45,683,700) plus literacy ($8,117,850). 6These figures may be inaccurate, since the relevant information was not clearly labeled.

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Page 464 Spencer Foundation: Small Research Grants And Fellowships Relating To Language/Literacy And Education 1992 Small Grants *Lourdes Diaz Soto, Lehigh University Bilingual Families as Educators $7,500 Dissertation-Year Fellowships Angela R. Wiley, Clark University Parental Values and the Child's Creation of a Culturally Relevant Self: Language as Mediation $15,000 1993 Small Grants *Aydin Durgunoglu and P. David Pearson, University of Illinois at Urbana Language and Literacy Development of Spanish-Speaking Students $7,500 Lucia A. French Language Demands Associated with Schooling: A Perspective From Korea $7,500 Dissertation Fellowships Margaret Bender, University of Chicago Contemporary Uses of the Cherokee Syllabary: The Meanings of Writing and of the Written Word in Cherokee $15,000 *Miguel Lopez, University of California, Berkeley English Literacy Acquisition Among Southeast Asian Children in Classroom Contexts $15,000 1994 Small Research Grants Denise A. Davidson, Loyola University of Chicago Bilingual Language Development in Young Children $9,250

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Page 465 John W. DuBois, University of California, Santa Barbara Analyzing Bilingual Children's Understanding of Reading Comprehension: Questions Involving Source of Knowledge and Perspective $5,000 William E. Nagy and Erica F. McClure, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign Linguistic Transfer and the Acquisition of English Vocabulary by Spanish-Speaking Students $8,110 Dissertation Fellowships *Thomas Mario Kalmar, Harvard University Adult Biliteracy: The Case of the Cobden Glossaries $15,000 Postdoctoral Fellowships *G.Genevieve Patthey-Chavez, Los Angeles City College School and Home Language Socialization: Understanding the Experiences of Latino Children $40,000 1995 Small Grants *Irene-Anna Diakidoy and Stella Vosniadov, University of South Dakota Lakota/Dakota Children's Knowledge Acquisition in Astronomy $12,000 Dissertation Fellowships Cynthia Brock, Michigan State University Exploring a Second-Language Learner's Opportunities for Literacy Learning in a Mainstream Classroom $15,000 Jane Herman, Harvard University Cross-Linguistic Transfer among Bilingual Kindergartners Learning to Read $15,000 *Indicates minority scholar.

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