Page 477

Index

A

A.L. Mailman Family Foundation, 454

Academic Excellence Program, 165-166, 196

Academic language, 36

Academic outcomes. See Educational outcomes for English-language learners

Accuracy of assessment, 115

Achievement, motivation for. See Attitude factor

Additive bilingualism. See Bilingualism

Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, 309-310, 316, 323, 347, 353, 393-394

Admissions. See Placement eligibility

Advisory Committee on Research on English-language Learners, 7-10, 330, 334-335, 355-357, 399

Advocates for specific programs

as a constituency, 7, 351

scientists cast as, 149

Affective characteristics of English-language learners, 22-23, 29

Affirmative ethnicity policy, 14

Age factor, 37-38

Age-grade norms, 13

Agenda-setting. See Research on English-language learners, priorities for

AIR. See American Institutes for Research

American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 252

American Council on Education, 407

American Institutes for Research (AIR), 140, 293, 369

Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, 401-402, 460-462

Anti-Semitism. See Intergroup relations

Argumentation, role in learning, 89-90

ASPE. See Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation

Assessment, student, 7, 44, 113-137, 151-152. See also Effective practices

of children with disabilities, 124-125

conducting in native language, 39

of English-language proficiency, 3, 17, 116-118, 128-129

innovative procedures for, 120, 130, 281

statewide, 119-120



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Page 477 Index A A.L. Mailman Family Foundation, 454 Academic Excellence Program, 165-166, 196 Academic language, 36 Academic outcomes. See Educational outcomes for English-language learners Accuracy of assessment, 115 Achievement, motivation for. See Attitude factor Additive bilingualism. See Bilingualism Administration for Children, Youth, and Families, 309-310, 316, 323, 347, 353, 393-394 Admissions. See Placement eligibility Advisory Committee on Research on English-language Learners, 7-10, 330, 334-335, 355-357, 399 Advocates for specific programs as a constituency, 7, 351 scientists cast as, 149 Affective characteristics of English-language learners, 22-23, 29 Affirmative ethnicity policy, 14 Age factor, 37-38 Age-grade norms, 13 Agenda-setting. See Research on English-language learners, priorities for AIR. See American Institutes for Research American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, 252 American Council on Education, 407 American Institutes for Research (AIR), 140, 293, 369 Andrew W. Mellon Foundation, 401-402, 460-462 Anti-Semitism. See Intergroup relations Argumentation, role in learning, 89-90 ASPE. See Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation Assessment, student, 7, 44, 113-137, 151-152. See also Effective practices of children with disabilities, 124-125 conducting in native language, 39 of English-language proficiency, 3, 17, 116-118, 128-129 innovative procedures for, 120, 130, 281 statewide, 119-120

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Page 478 of subject matter knowledge, 120-122, 129-131 to test eligibility for federal assistance, 118 of very young second-language learners, 123, 191-192 Assisted performance assessment, 122, 124 Attitude factor, 3, 39 cultural differences in, 92-93, 99-100 using high-interest reading materials, 59 B Basal reading series, 59 Bilingual education controversy over, 2, 23-24, 148-149, 191 history of, 363-373 immersion, 154-155 maintenance, 20, 24n transitional, 19-20, 139, 369 two-way, 20, 42, 94, 155-156 Bilingual Education Act, 2, 16, 286, 367, 372 Bilingualism, 30-33. See also Second-language learning additive versus subtractive, 31 simultaneous versus sequential, 31-32 Bilingual students, 3, 15-16 metacognitive capabilities of, 68-69, 75 Bilingual Syntax Measure, 43 Bureau of the Census, 289, 294 C California Case Studies, 148, 154, 165, 170-171n, 187, 189, 196 California Cross-Cultural, Language and Academic Development (CLAD) program, 263-266 Carnegie Corporation of New York, 402, 456-458 Case Studies in Bilingual Education, 165 CCSSO. See Council of Chief State School Officers Center for Applied Linguistics, 253, 316 Center for Language Education and Research (CLEAR), 318, 384-385, 443-444 Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence (CREDE), 316, 386 Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk (CRESPAR), 256-259, 268, 316, 318, 386-387, 440 Center on Families, Communities, Schools and Children's Learning, 440 Certificating graduation, 114 Charles Steward Mott Foundation, 454 Child Language Data Exchange System, 44 CIRC. See Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition Civil Rights movement, 14 CLAD. See California Cross-Cultural, Language and Academic Development (CLAD) program Classroom effectiveness. See Effective practices CLEAR. See Center for Language Education and Research Cognitive analysis, 2, 63-64. See also Content area learning; Literacy development Collaboration, 10, 157, 324-325, 330, 353. See also Effective practices Community influence on learning. See Public opinion, influence of Compendia, 315 Comprehensive Child Development Program, 394 Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills (CTBS), 22 Congress as a constituency, 7-8, 350 Constitutionality of English as U.S. official language, 14 Constructivist approach to learning, 86

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Page 479 Contact hypothesis. See Intergroup relations Content area learning, 44-45, 63-71, 73-74, 345 multiple forms of knowledge, 68-69 prior knowledge, 69-71 subject matter specificity, 65-68 Content-based ESL learning, 3, 5-6, 19-20, 139 Content bias, 115 Content standards. See Standards-based reform movement Contextual factors, 7, 16, 86-91, 100, 102-103, 172-173, 290, 303. See also Familial influence on learning; School characteristics influencing learning; Socioeconomic factor Contextual inferences, 36, 62 Control groups, 150-151, 188 Cooperation, 10. See also Effective practices Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition (CIRC), 180-182, 256-257 Cooperative learning, 95-97. See also Intergroup relations Coordination, 10, 294-295, 324-325, 327-330. See also Effective practices Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO), 120, 126, 278, 282-283, 286-287, 294-295, 324 CREDE. See Center for Research on Education, Diversity, and Excellence CRESPAR. See Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed at Risk CTBS. See Comprehensive Test of Basic Skills Cultural bias, 115 Cultural mismatches, 87, 91, 267 Cultural sensitivity, teaching, 120, 183-184. See also Effective practices Culture-fair assessment, 124 Current Population Survey, 19, 289 Curriculum interventions. See Intergroup relations D David and Lucile Packard Foundation, 402, 455-456 Decontextualized skills measurement, 118 Demographics, 289-290, 303 changing, 6, 13, 252-253, 394 Dillingham Commission, 366 Disabled English-language learners, 7, 124-125, 349 preparing teachers for, 7, 124-125, 269-270 Discourse, rules of, 56-57 Diversity in society. See Multiculturalism Drop-out rates, 92. See also English-language learners E Early childhood education and development, 7-8, 353 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, 288-289, 301 Eclectic teaching approach, 59 Economic productivity and education, 291, 304 Educational history of parents. See Familial influence on learning Educational outcomes for English-language learners, 7, 21-23, 59-60, 170, 291, 304. See also Assessment, student Educational Testing Service, 120 Education Resources Information Center (ERIC), 166n, 318 Education statistics. See National education statistics Effective Approaches to In-Service Staff Development, 377 Effective practices, 7-8, 162-249 articulation and coordination within and between schools, 175-176 balanced curriculum, 178-179 customized learning environment, 174-175, 193-194 explicit skills instruction, 179

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Page 480 home and parent involvement, 184-185, 194-195 instructional strategies that enhance understanding, 180-181 native language and culture, use of, 176-178 opportunities for practice, 181-182 school leadership, 173-174 staff development, 183-184 student assessment, systematic, 182-183 student-directed activities, opportunities for, 179-180 supportive school-wide climate, 172-173 Effective schools research design, 164, 167-168, 185-186, 189-191, 198-205 problems with, 186 Elementary and Secondary Education Act. See Hawkins-Stafford Elementary and Secondary Education Act Embedded assessment, 123 English as a second language (ESL), 14, 19-20, 139, 369-370 English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Inservice Project, 261-263, 266 English-language acquisition, 6 optimal instruction for, 72 English-language learners, 1n, 2-10, 15, 295, 373 academic achievement of, 22 with disabilities (See Disabled English-language learners) drop-out rates for, 22 effects on content area teachers, 74 evaluating work of, 119-120 excluded from federally funded research, 8, 292-293, 332-333 geographical distribution of, 18 grade levels of, 18, 192 identifying (See Assessment, student) English-language proficiency assessing (See Assessment, student)components of, 44 English-only school environment, 13 Enriched instructional context, 14 Enrollment. See Placement eligibility Entrance procedures. See Placement eligibility Epistemological differences among subject matters, 67-68, 74 Equity, advocates for, as a constituency, 7, 350-351 ERIC. See Education Resources Information Center ESL. See English as a second language ESOL. See English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) Inservice Project Ethnic background, 7 low social status accorded to certain groups, 16, 101-102 Ethnic group interrelationships. See Intergroup relations Evaluation. See Assessment, student; Programs for English-language learners, evaluation of Exit criteria, 114, 116n F Familial influence on learning, 3, 6. See also Effective practices family stress, 16 literacy practices in the home, 55, 60, 103 parental involvement in children's school learning, 99-101 parents' level of formal education, 1, 13, 19, 23 First-language. See also Native language grammar training in, 38 proficiency in, 56-57, 71-73 Ford Foundation, 367, 401, 458-459 Foreign-language advocates as a constituency, 7, 351 Funding. See Research on English-language learners, funding for

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Page 481 G GAO. See U.S. General Accounting Office Global perspective, 17 Goals 2000, 126-127, 132-133, 310, 350 Group identity, creating, 94 H Hawkins-Stafford Elementary and Secondary Education Act, 2, 23, 126-127, 292, 296, 319, 367, 388 Head Start programs, 310, 347, 353, 394 Hewlett Foundation. See William and Flora Hewlett Foundation Hierarchical linear modeling, 153 High-school completion rates. See English-language learners, drop-out rates for History learning, 66-67 Home influence. See Familial influence on learning; Socioeconomic factor I Identification procedures. See Placement eligibility Immersion programs, 13, 19-20, 32, 139, 147, 154-155 Improving America's Schools Act. See Hawkins-Stafford Elementary and Secondary Education Act Incompatibility between home and school environments, 16, 100, 102-103 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 311, 391 Infrastructure for educational research. See Research on English-language learners, infrastructure for Instructionally embedded assessment, 123 Intelligence factor, 38-39 Intergroup relations, 3, 5-6, 93-97, 346 contact hypothesis of, 94-95 curriculum interventions in, 97-99, 101 reducing race prejudice, 98 International Reading Association, 113n, 125 Internet resources, 318 Intraminority relations, 6. See also Intergroup relations J The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 400-401, 451-452 K Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 124 L Language confusion, 32-33 Language learning, individual differences in, 37-39 Language-minority/language-majority relations, 6. See also Intergroup relations Language-minority students, 3-4, 6, 14, 16. See also English-language learners Language shift phenomenon, 40-41, 45 Language transfer errors, 35 Latino Teacher Project, 259-261, 267 Lau remedies, 368-369, 371 Learning. See Content area learning; Content-based ESL learning; Language learning; Second-language learning Learning theory, 24, 34-37, 53-54, 63-64, 153-156, 165, 343-344, 371 interpretative versus analytic, 352-353 LEP. See Limited-English-proficient (LEP) students Lexical priming, 31 Libraries in classrooms, 54 Limited-English-proficient (LEP) students, 1, 13, 15. See also English-language learners Linguistic bias, 115

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Page 482 Literacy development, 6, 53-63, 71 risk factors in, 60 Local education administrators as a constituency, 7, 350 Longitudinal Study of Immersion and Dual Language Instructional Programs for Language Minority Children, 142-143, 377, 379 Low-income families. See Socioeconomic factor M MacArthur Foundation. See The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Mailman Foundation. See A.L. Mailman Family Foundation Mainstream bias, 115 Maintenance bilingual education. See Bilingual education Mathematical learning, 65-66, 69-70 testing, 121-122 Media influence, 7, 17, 350 Mellon Foundation. See Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Meta-analysis of research studies, 145-147 Minimal group paradigm, 94 Modeling, 153, 156-157, 159 Monitoring progress, 8, 114-115 Motivation. See Attitude factor Mott Foundation. See Charles Steward Mott Foundation Multiculturalism, 14, 85, 172. See also International relations Multilingual education, 368-369 Mutual adaptation, 195 N National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2, 22, 114, 120, 122, 278, 280-282, 348, 377 National Association for Bilingual Education, 253 National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification, 253 National Board for Professional Teaching Standards, 253, 404 National Center for Bilingual Research (NCBR), 383-384 National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), 8-10, 120, 252, 275-279, 289-297, 309, 315, 322-323, 327, 353-354, 357, 372, 376, 388 National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning (NCRCDSLL), 312, 316, 318, 385-386, 439-440, 444-445 National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, 318, 336 National Committee of Teachers of English, 113n National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education, 253 National Council of Teachers of English, 125 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 125 National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS), 22, 278, 289-292, 380 National Educational Research Policy and Priorities Board, 8, 310-311, 313-314, 327, 330-332, 335, 356-357, 390 National Education Association, 252 National Education Goals Panel, 277 National education statistics, 3, 8, 13, 17-25, 274-306 accuracy of, 17n, 284-288 National Forum on Education Statistics, 277-278 National Household Education Survey, 289-290 National Institute for Mental Health, 313, 317, 395, 448-450 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, 311, 314, 316-318, 353, 395 National Institute of Education (NIE), 24, 315, 372, 376-379

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Page 483 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 311, 313-314, 337, 394-395, 448-450 National Longitudinal Evaluation of Effectiveness of Services for Language Minority Limited English Proficient Students, 140-142, 377, 379 National Quality Research Centers, 394 National Science Foundation (NSF), 277, 313-314, 353, 379, 392-393, 448 Native language development, 6 instruction in, 2, 14, 20, 147, 156, 365 (See also Effective practices) proficiency, 116n Native languages spoken, 18, 170 other than Spanish, 7, 19, 348, 364-365 NCBR. See National Center for Bilingual Research NCES. See National Center for Education Statistics NCRCDSLL. See National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning Negotiation in learning, 86-91 NELS. See National Educational Longitudinal Study Networking, 10 Newcomer centers, 192-193 NIE. See National Institute of Education NIH. See National Institutes of Health Nominated schools design, 164-165, 168, 170-171, 185-187, 190, 204-217 problems with, 186-187 Nonverbal measures, 124 NSF. See National Science Foundation O OBEMLA. See Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs OCR. See Office for Civil Rights OERI. See Office of Educational Research and Improvement Office for Civil Rights (OCR), 278, 368-370 Office of Bilingual Education and Minority Languages Affairs (OBEMLA), 5, 9-10, 275-276, 289-294, 297, 311-315, 318-319, 322-329, 353-354, 357-358, 375-382, 392, 434-435 Office of Compensatory Education, 9, 278 Office of Educational Research and Improvement (OERI), 8-10, 277, 294, 310, 314, 317, 326-332, 335, 353-358, 381-388, 435-437 Office of Human Services Policy, 393 Office of Migrant Education, 390-391 Office of Policy, Budget, and Evaluation (OPBE), 372, 377-378, 381 Office of Policy and Planning (OPP), 381 Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination (ORAD), 10, 318, 334, 353-354, 382, 388-389 Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, 311, 314, 319, 322, 337 Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP), 349, 391-392, 445-447 Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation (ASPE), 393-394 Older students, needs of, 6, 37-38, 348 OPBE. See Office of Policy, Budget, and Evaluation Open-ended scoring, 122 OPP. See Office of Policy and Planning Opportunity-to-learn standards, 125-128, 131, 371 Optimal Learning Environment Project, 270 ORAD. See Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination OSEP. See Office of Special Education Programs Outcomes. See Educational outcomes for English-language learners

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Page 484 P Packard Foundation. See David and Lucile Packard Foundation Parental influence. See Familial influence on learning Part C Coordinating Committee, 330, 372, 376-378, 388-389 Performance-based measures, 122, 124 Performance standards, 125-128, 131, 371 Perkins Act, 279, 292, 296, 353 PES. See Planning and Evaluation Service Pew Charitable Trusts, 401, 455 Phoneme awareness, 55, 58, 71 Phonics-based instruction, 59 Placement eligibility, 114-115, 118, 192-193, 287 Planning and Evaluation Service (PES), 10, 309, 318, 327, 358, 378, 389-390, 437-439 Pluralistic assessment, 124 The Policy Center of the Consortium for Policy Research in Education, 441 Population coverage, 284-285, 296-297, 344 Population parameters. See National education statistics Poverty. See Socioeconomic factor Preference, 40-41, 45 Prejudice. See Intergroup relations Preschool environments, 43-44, 347. See also Familial influence on learning Preschool programs, 6 Principal's role. See Effective practices, school leadership Professional development. See Teachers serving English-language learners, development of Proficiency, 33, 117. See also Assessment, student; English-language proficiency; First-language, proficiency in Programs for English-language learners development of, 4, 150-152, 158 evaluation of, 3-4, 7, 17, 138-161 future of, 149-157 national, 140-144 need for expertise in, 10, 322, 334-335 smaller-scale, 144-147, 152-153, 158-159 politicization of, 14, 148-149, 320, 379 theory-based (See Learning theory) Project MORE, 165 Prospective case study approach, 165, 168, 187-188, 195-196, 218-225 Prospects: The Congressionally Mandated Study of Educational Growth and Opportunity, 18-21, 285, 294, 390 Psycholinguistic processes. See Reading acquisition Public opinion, influence of, 3, 6-7, 9, 17, 350 Q Quality of educational institutions and teaching, 290-291, 303 Quasi-experimental studies, 165-166, 168-169, 188-189, 226-239 R Racial group interrelationships. See Intergroup relations Readiness for school, 289, 302 Reading acquisition, 3 developmental aspects of, 60-61 initial instruction in, 57-60 prerequisites for, 54-57 psycholinguistic processes involved in, 61-63 Reading aloud, 54-55 Reading texts, 59 Reciprocal teaching, 61 Reliability issue, 115 Research agenda, identifying. See Research on English-language learners, priorities for Researchers, recruiting new, 7, 9-10, 336-337, 358, 405-407 Research on English-language learners basic versus applied, 319-321

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Page 485 building capacity for, 344-345, 352-354 developing consensus on, 9, 315-317 disseminating, 8, 315, 317-319, 335-336 expanding variables, 322-324, 332-333 funding for, 8, 15, 321-322, 325, 373-374, 433-465 categorical, 114 federal, 8, 433-439, 448-450 foundations, 339-340, 359, 451-465 national research centers, 439-447, 450 peer review process for, 8, 330-332 state, 10, 338-339, 359 implementing, 150, 158, 344, 355-359 infrastructure for, 4-5, 7, 307-341, 363-411 federal, 375-396, 414-419 foundations, 399-404 national reform networks, 404-405 open meeting participants and invitees, 468-469 state, 396-399, 419-432 technical reviewers, 470 need for disaggregation by language status, 8 origins of, 363-373 political influence on, 14, 148-149, 320, 379 priorities for, 7-11, 15, 43-45, 71-75, 101-103, 128-131, 157-159, 189-196, 266-270, 294-298, 326-340, 343-354 setting, 8, 15, 25-26, 308-313, 327 reviewing, 313-315 S Scholastic Aptitude Test (SAT), 121 School characteristics influencing learning, 3, 290-291, 303. See also Effective practices libraries in classrooms, 54 school-wide language practices, 42 underfunded schools, 16, 21-22, 195 Schools and Staffing Survey, 289-290 Science learning, 66, 89-90 Second-language learning, 3, 5-6, 15, 24, 28-51, 345-346 classroom factors in, 41-43 Sequential bilingualism. See Bilingualism Sheltered instruction, 14, 19-20 Simplified English language instruction, 14, 19-20, 194 Simultaneous bilingualism. See Bilingualism Small group instruction, 59 Social context of learning, 3, 5, 84-111, 346-347 Social identity theory, 93-94 Social support for education, 290, 303 Socioeconomic factor, 1, 7-8, 13, 18-19, 22, 373 Special Alternative Instructional Programs, 176, 370 Special services, eligibility for, 14 Speedee Xpress, 283, 295 Spencer Foundation, 403, 452-454, 464-465 Spontaneous readers, 58 Standards-based reform movement, 125-128, 131, 371 Statistics. See National education statistics Structured Alternative Instructional Program, 175 Structured immersion. See Immersion programs Student assessment. See Assessment, student Student development. See Educational outcomes for English-language learners Success for All, 168-169, 174-177, 180, 183, 189, 404 Symposia, 315, 335 T Talk, structure of, 86-88 TBE. See Bilingual education, transitional Teacher expectations, 16, 172-173

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Page 486 Teacher Language Skills Survey, 377 Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, 113n, 125, 127, 253 Teachers serving English-language learners, 7, 74, 351-352 development of, 3, 7, 250-273 (See also Effective practices) evaluating, 258 inservice, 254 of nonspecialists, 9, 156 programs for, 253-266 of specialists, 9 education of, 3, 7-9, 17, 267-269 readiness of, 21 evaluating, 268-269 shortage of, 251-253 Theory-based programs. See Learning theory Title I programs, 9, 118-119, 126-127, 133, 354 Title VII programs, 2, 9-10, 16, 23, 126-127, 134, 158, 165-166, 336, 367, 370, 372, 384, 406 Transitional bilingual education. See Bilingual education Two-way bilingual education. See Bilingual education U Underachievement, 91-92 Underfunded schools. See School characteristics influencing learning Universal Grammar framework, 35 U.S. Department of Education, 4-5, 7-10, 118-119, 140, 296, 433-439 U.S. Department of Education Organization Act, 132 U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, 24, 368 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), 294, 309, 393-395 U.S. General Accounting Office (GAO), 146-147, 252, 331n V Validity issues, 114-115, 121, 130-131, 164n, 186-188, 293 Vocabulary, 56 W Weschler Intelligence Scales for Children (WISC), 124 Whole-language instruction, 58-59 William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, 402-403, 462 WISC. See Weschler Intelligence Scales for Children Word recognition, 61-62 Y Young children, needs of, 6, 123, 191-192