Index

(Page numbers in italics refer to text in sidebars.)

A

Active learning

effective teaching styles for, 40

in large classes, 10-11

in lecture setting, 5

ongoing assessment, 24

providing context for exploration, 24

scientific research model, 23

student transition to, 10-11

American Association of Physics Teachers, 13, 63

American Chemical Society, 13, 66

Animal behavior, 17

Arizona State University, 11

Arrowsmith, Ramon, 11

Assessment and evaluation of students, 34-35

in active learning, 24

attitudes toward math and science, 58

laboratory reports, 19

students' prior knowledge, 33-34

See also Grading;

Testing

Assessment of teaching

characteristics of effective teachers, 33

by classroom videotape, 36-37

ongoing, 35

peer evaluation for, 37

by portfolio, 36

by self-evaluation, 36-37

by student opinion, 35-36, 37-38

B

Biological sciences, 10, 13

C

Class size. See Large classes

Collaboration

in syllabus design, 4

for teacher evaluation, 37

Collaborative learning, 15-16

peer instruction, 22

Community of learners, 4

scientific research model, 23

Concept maps, 30

Conceptual understanding, 4

advanced by class discussion, 14

obstacles to teaching for, 5

proposing explanations, 25

reading and writing assignments to enhance, 25

student misconceptions as obstacles to, 27

Content

courses for nonscience majors, 3-4, 5, 6

in instructor-centered teaching, 3

in student-centered teaching, 3

student' s advancement in field and, 3

teaching style driven by, 2-3

See also Course design

Cooperative learning, 15-16

in laboratory work, 18

Course design

collaborative syllabus design, 4

consideration of student learning styles, 6, 22-23

goal identification for, 5-6

for nonscience majors, 3-4, 5, 6

selection of instructional materials, 47, 48

syllabus planning, 5-6

textbook selection, 49-50

See also Content

D

Demonstrations, 13-14

Dickinson College, 41

Discipline-centered teaching, 2-3

application, 4

circumstances leading to adoption of, 5

information overload in, 4

Discussions

applications, 14

benefits of, 14

guiding, 15

handling student questions, 12-13

planning, 15

sociocultural sensitivity in, 14-15

student engagement, 15

student preparation for, 14

teacher skills for, 14

Diversity, 58, 60



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Index (Page numbers in italics refer to text in sidebars.) A Active learning effective teaching styles for, 40 in large classes, 10-11 in lecture setting, 5 ongoing assessment, 24 providing context for exploration, 24 scientific research model, 23 student transition to, 10-11 American Association of Physics Teachers, 13, 63 American Chemical Society, 13, 66 Animal behavior, 17 Arizona State University, 11 Arrowsmith, Ramon, 11 Assessment and evaluation of students, 34-35 in active learning, 24 attitudes toward math and science, 58 laboratory reports, 19 students' prior knowledge, 33-34 See also Grading; Testing Assessment of teaching characteristics of effective teachers, 33 by classroom videotape, 36-37 ongoing, 35 peer evaluation for, 37 by portfolio, 36 by self-evaluation, 36-37 by student opinion, 35-36, 37-38 B Biological sciences, 10, 13 C Class size. See Large classes Collaboration in syllabus design, 4 for teacher evaluation, 37 Collaborative learning, 15-16 peer instruction, 22 Community of learners, 4 scientific research model, 23 Concept maps, 30 Conceptual understanding, 4 advanced by class discussion, 14 obstacles to teaching for, 5 proposing explanations, 25 reading and writing assignments to enhance, 25 student misconceptions as obstacles to, 27 Content courses for nonscience majors, 3-4, 5, 6 in instructor-centered teaching, 3 in student-centered teaching, 3 student' s advancement in field and, 3 teaching style driven by, 2-3 See also Course design Cooperative learning, 15-16 in laboratory work, 18 Course design collaborative syllabus design, 4 consideration of student learning styles, 6, 22-23 goal identification for, 5-6 for nonscience majors, 3-4, 5, 6 selection of instructional materials, 47, 48 syllabus planning, 5-6 textbook selection, 49-50 See also Content D Demonstrations, 13-14 Dickinson College, 41 Discipline-centered teaching, 2-3 application, 4 circumstances leading to adoption of, 5 information overload in, 4 Discussions applications, 14 benefits of, 14 guiding, 15 handling student questions, 12-13 planning, 15 sociocultural sensitivity in, 14-15 student engagement, 15 student preparation for, 14 teacher skills for, 14 Diversity, 58, 60

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E E-mail, 52-53, 56 Education of future teachers conceptual approaches, 7 importance of, 7 G Gender differences, 58, 60-61 Genetics, 13 Geology, 11 Goals as component in syllabus planning, 5-6 for discussion sessions, 15 for laboratory work, 16-17 for nonscience majors, 3-4 student diversity, 3 student testing, 41 student's understanding of science as multi-disciplinary,7 for teaching, 9 Gould, James L., 17 Grading bonus points, 45 criterion-referenced systems, 44 on a curve, 44 of homework assignments, 39, 40-41 inherent subjectivity in, 45 norm-referenced systems, 44-45 teacher attitudes, 39, 44 test goals and, 39, 45 See also Assessment and evaluation of students; Testing Grant, Rosemary, 6 Group work collaborative learning, 15-16 context for exploration, 24 disadvantages, 16 discussion sessions, 14-15 grading, 40 H Handouts, laboratory work, 18 Harvard University, 22 Homework grading, 40-41 take-home tests, 42 I Information overload problems of discipline-centered approach, 4 in instructional resources, 47 Information technology educational resources, 47, 51-54 interactive software, 53 Internet, 51 in laboratory work, 18 software selection, 53 teaching resources, 52 World Wide Web, 52 Inquiry, 23 Inquiry-based labs, 73-74 Interdisciplinary courses, 5, 6, 7 Internet, 51 Introductory courses, 4 alternatives/enhancements to lecturing, 10-11 grading policy, 44 J Jones, Maitland, 6 L Laboratory work computer use, 18 context for exploration, 24 cooperative learning in, 18 grading, 39-40 handling student questions, 12-13 improving effectiveness of, 16-19 inquiry-based, resources for, 73-74 planning considerations, 18-19 resources for planning, 17-18 safety, publications on, 75 significance of, for science, 16 student reports, 19, 25 teaching assistants in, 19-20 teaching goals, 16-17 teaching technique, 18 use of handouts, 18 Large classes alternatives to lecturing, 10-11 demonstration projects for, 14 discussion sections, 14 Learning allowing time for reflection, 24 best methods for, 4 collaborative/cooperative, 15-16 current conceptualization, 21-22 from exams, 44 fundamental misconceptions as obstacles to, 27, 28-29 overcoming misconceptions, 24 process conceptualizations, research on, 26 relationship with teaching, 2 responsibility for, 55 student evaluations of teachers and, 38 student-teacher relations and, 55-56 styles of, 22-23 teacher's goals for students, 3 traditional conceptualizations of, 21 See also Active learning Lecturing active learning in, 5 alternatives, 10-11 with discussion sections, 14 handling student questions, 12-13 limitations of, 9 opportunities for improving, 11-12 use of demonstration projects, 13-14 Long, Sharon, 10, 13 M Mazur, Eric, 22 Mentoring, 60-61 Minority students, 59, 60-61 Misconceptions as challenges to learning, 27, 28-29 examples, 29, 30 helping students confront, 29-30 helping students overcome, 30-31 identifying, 29 as impediment to learning, 24 resources for dealing with, 32 science fear and math anxiety, 57-58 teaching strategies for dealing with, 29 types of, 27-28 Molecular biology, 13 Multimedia presentations, 11

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N Nonscience majors course design for, 3-4, 5, 6 grading considerations, 44 laboratory course, 18 O Office hours, 53, 56 Oral presentations, 40 P Peer evaluation, 37 Peer instruction, 22 Perlmutter, Daniel D., 5 Physical resources determinants of teaching style, 4-5 for inquiry-based labs, 73-74 professional publications, 69-72 selection of instructional materials, 47, 48 textbook use, 48-51 Physics, 22 Planning demonstrations, 13-14 discussions, 15 laboratory work, 16-18, 18-19 selection of instructional materials, 47, 48 syllabus, 5-6 tests, 42 See also Course design Princeton University, 6, 17 Q Questioning effective use of, 12-13 study questions with reading assignments, 24, 25 R Reading assignments, 24, 25 Recruitment of science students, 60 Reflection, 24 by writing, 25 Religious beliefs, scientific misconceptions in, 28 S Scientific method proposing explanations, 25 teacher education model, 7 teaching/learning model, 23 in textbook presentations, 49 Social sciences, 5 Sociocultural sensitivity conceptual thinking, 59 in discussion sessions, 14-15 motivations of students, 59 social attitudes toward science, 61 teaching practice, 59-61 Special services for students, 56-57 Stanford University, 10, 13 Student-centered teaching, 3, 4 discussion sections in, 14 instructional resources, 47 Student-teacher relations accommodating student differences, 59-61 electronic communications technology for, 53 helping students succeed, 56-57 importance of, 55 learning and, 55-56 learning students' names, 56 mentoring relationships, 60-61 office hours, 53, 56 Students cultural motivations, 59 determinants of syllabus design, 6 determinants of teaching style, 4 English as second language for, 59 gender differences in classroom behavior, 60 names of, 56 older, 58 overcoming science fear and math anxiety, 57-58 participation in design of lecture format, 12 participation in discussions, 15 perception of good teaching, 2 questions of, teaching opportunities in, 12-13 responses to poor teaching, 2 ridiculing of science by, 61 teacher evaluation by, 35-36, 37-38 teacher's goals for, 3 textbook use, 50, 51 transition to active learning, 10-11 use of electronic communications technologies, 53 Subject matter expertise for instructor-centered teaching style, 3 teaching and, 1 Suggestion boxes, 53 Syllabus. See Course design T Teacher-student relations. See Student-teacher relations Teachers education of future, 7 Teaching collaborative syllabus design, 4 continuum of activities in, 2 conveying science as human endeavor, 61 dealing with student misconceptions, 28-32 demonstration projects, 13-14 education and training of teachers, 7, 19-20 effective assessment practices, 33 engaging students, 23-24 experimentation with, 1 gender bias, 60 goals, 9 handling student questions, 12-13 helping students prepare for tests, 43 information technologies for, 51-54 knowledge requirements for, 3 methods, 9. See also specific method rapid delivery of information, 47 relationship to learning, 2 resources for improving, 1-2 student learning styles and, 6, 22-23 student perception of, 2 subject matter expertise and, 1 textbook use, 48-51 See also Assessment of teaching; Teaching style(s) Teaching assistants, 19-20

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Teaching load assessment activities and, 33 as determinant of teaching style, 4 Teaching style(s) for active learning, 4 common features, 3, 9 considerations in selection of, 4-5 development of, 2, 3-5 discipline-centered, 2-3, 4 instructor-centered, 3, 4, 14, 47 integrative approach, 3, 5 student-centered, 3, 4 teaching goals and, 3 types of, 2 See also Teaching Testing assessment alternatives, 34-35 electronic communications technology for, 53 essay questions, 42 frequency of, 43 goals, 41 of group work, 40 helping students learn from exams, 44 helping students prepare for, 43 of laboratory activities, 39-40 multiple choice questions, 41, 42 open-book tests, 43 oral presentations for, 40 problem solving questions, 42 reporting results to students, 43-44 short answer questions, 41-42 student perceptions of, 39 take-home tests, 42 test formats, 41-42 written work for, 40, 41 See also Assessment and evaluation of students; Grading Textbooks ancillary products, 50 customized, 50-51 effectiveness of, 49 good qualities, 48 helping students use, 50, 51 historical development, 48-49 limitations, 48 selection, 49-50 text presentation, 49 Thinking aloud pair problem solving, 24 Tilghman, Shirley, 6 Tutoring, 56-57 U University of Pennsylvania, 5 V Videotape, for analysis of teaching practice, 36-37 W Wilkinson, David, 6 World Wide Web, 52 Writing assignments draft reports, 40 essay questions on tests, 42 grading, 40, 41 learning to write research papers, 25 for understanding, 25