Index

A

Activated alumina systems, 5, 97-99, 117, 119

testing, 140

Activated carbon use, 5, 58, 85-87, 117, 119, 123

sandwich filter, 111

testing, 139-140

Adsorption systems, 84-87, 128

testing, 139-140

Aeration systems, 4, 71-72, 89-93, 117

mechanisms for, 90

pretreatment required, 90, 92

testing, 138

Air stripping. See Aeration systems

Aldehydes, 68

Algae, 76, 100-101, 105, 107, 110, 133

testing for removal of, 142

Allocation decisions, delays in, 27

Alumina. See Activated alumina systems

American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 135-136

American Water Works Association (AWWA), 10, 16-17, 127, 150, 155, 188, 190-191, 203

Ammonia use, 68-69

Amphoteric properties, 97

Anion exchange. See Ion exchange systems

ANSI. See American National Standards Institute (ANSI)

Antiscalant chemical use, 77, 84

Appraisals. See Performance appraisals

Arizona (Tucson), 99

Army Corps of Engineers, 127

Arsenic, 38, 87, 98

Association of State Drinking Water Administrators (ASDWA), 19, 189 -190

Atrazine, 32

Automatic monitoring devices, 68

Availability. See Water sources

AWWA. See American Water Works Association (AWWA)

B

Backsiphonage of contaminants, 27, 40

Back-up provisions. See Small water supply systems, emergency back-up provisions

Backwashing, 77, 80, 86, 102, 106

Bacteria, 63, 66, 76, 80, 90, 101, 107, 112

See also Coliform bacteria

Bag filter systems, 5, 112-114

changing filter bags, 113-114

for pretreatment, 76

testing, 145

Barium, 96



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--> Index A Activated alumina systems, 5, 97-99, 117, 119 testing, 140 Activated carbon use, 5, 58, 85-87, 117, 119, 123 sandwich filter, 111 testing, 139-140 Adsorption systems, 84-87, 128 testing, 139-140 Aeration systems, 4, 71-72, 89-93, 117 mechanisms for, 90 pretreatment required, 90, 92 testing, 138 Air stripping. See Aeration systems Aldehydes, 68 Algae, 76, 100-101, 105, 107, 110, 133 testing for removal of, 142 Allocation decisions, delays in, 27 Alumina. See Activated alumina systems American National Standards Institute (ANSI), 135-136 American Water Works Association (AWWA), 10, 16-17, 127, 150, 155, 188, 190-191, 203 Ammonia use, 68-69 Amphoteric properties, 97 Anion exchange. See Ion exchange systems ANSI. See American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Antiscalant chemical use, 77, 84 Appraisals. See Performance appraisals Arizona (Tucson), 99 Army Corps of Engineers, 127 Arsenic, 38, 87, 98 Association of State Drinking Water Administrators (ASDWA), 19, 189 -190 Atrazine, 32 Automatic monitoring devices, 68 Availability. See Water sources AWWA. See American Water Works Association (AWWA) B Backsiphonage of contaminants, 27, 40 Back-up provisions. See Small water supply systems, emergency back-up provisions Backwashing, 77, 80, 86, 102, 106 Bacteria, 63, 66, 76, 80, 90, 101, 107, 112 See also Coliform bacteria Bag filter systems, 5, 112-114 changing filter bags, 113-114 for pretreatment, 76 testing, 145 Barium, 96

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--> Bench-scale testing, 5, 136 Biological filtration, 66, 85, 109-110 Biological instability of water, 66 Boiling water, 28, 42 Bottled water, 125-127, 129 Bromate, 68 C Cadmium, 96 Calcium, 95, 97 Calcium carbonate, 71-73, 77, 87, 93 California, Desert Center, 98 California Department of Health Services (DHS), 122-123, 139 Canada, Montreal, 41 Capital requirements funding improvements, 2-3, 167-168 varying with technology used, 60-62 Carbon dioxide (CO2), 71, 73, 89, 93 Carbonate, 95 Carcinogens, 32 Cartridge filter systems, 5, 112-114 changing filter cartridges, 113-114 for pretreatment, 76, 82 testing, 145 Cash reserves, 165 Cation exchange. See Ion exchange systems Cellulose acetate membranes, 73 Centers for Disease Control, 35-37, 40 Centralized operation, 114-116 alternatives to, 6, 116-127 remote monitoring and control, 114-116 Chemical contaminants. See Contaminants Chemical disinfection. See Disinfection systems Chemical feeders, 72 Chemical poisoning, acute, 38-40 Chloramine treatment, 63, 66, 69, 71, 128 Chlorate, 68 Chlorine dioxide treatment 63, 66, 69 Chlorine treatment, 63, 66, 69, 71, 90, 94-95, 128 Chromate, 95 See also Dichromate Chromium, trivalent, 96 Coagulation/filtration systems, 5, 100-103. See also Dissolved air flotation (DAF) systems shutdown precautions required, 102 testing, 140-144 Coliform bacteria, 30-31, 112 Color, testing for removal of, 142 Colorado, Blue Mountain Subdivision, 93, 97 Committee on Small Water Supply Systems, 2, 13, 201 Communications format, standardizing, 116 Community Involvement Opportunities in Water-Wastewater Services, 180 Community water systems. See Small water supply systems; Water supply systems Competitive adsorption, 86 of ions, 5 Computer-based training, 202 Concentrate disposal. See Disposal Consolidating small water systems, 14-15, 18, 43-44, 166-167 Contaminants. See also Turbidity chemical, 31-35 lists of, 20-21, 33-34 microbiological, 28-31, 49, 99, 128 number regulated, 15-18 underestimated, 30 Contract services, 177-179 Copper, 38, 71-72 Copper sulfate use, 90 Corrosion control systems, 6, 58, 71-73 testing, 147 Corrosivity of water, 40, 58 Cross-connections, preventing, 40, 117 Cryptosporidium, 29-30, 42, 63, 76, 99-101, 105-107, 111-115, 144-145 CT values (concentration x time), 67, 69, 76, 111, 146-147 Cyanogen chloride, 68 Cysts. See Giardia D DAF. See Dissolved air flotation (DAF) systems Data collection, 137 centralizing, 148-149 D/DBP. See Disinfection/Disinfectant Byproducts (D/DBP) Rule DE. See Diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration systems Deep-bed filtration, 100, 102 Department of Interior, 127 Desalination, 73, 81-84 Desorption, 86 Developer cost-cutting, 25, 43 DHS. See California Department of Health Services (DHS)

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--> Diarrhea, 35, 40-41 Diatomaceous earth (DE) filtration systems, 5, 106-109 cleaning filter leaves, 107-108 testing, 144 Dichromate, 95 Direct filtration, 140-141. See also Coagulation/filtration systems Disease. See Waterborne disease Disinfectant residual, maintaining, 66-67, 89 Disinfection, natural, 89 Disinfection systems, 5-6, 19, 48, 58, 63, 66-71, 128. See also Electrolytic generation of mixed disinfectants dispersal requirements, 69-70 testing, 146-147 Disinfection/Disinfectant Byproducts (D/DBP) Rule, 67-68 Disposal, 77-78, 81, 97-98 Dissolved air flotation (DAF) systems, 103-106 excessive turbulence in, 106 Distillation systems, 123 standards for, 135 Distribution system residual. See Disinfectant residual, maintaining Drinking water safety. See Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) E Economies of scale, 2. See also Consolidating small water systems ED/EDR. See Electrodialysis (ED) & electrodialysis reversal (EDR) systems Education for water system operators See Operator training Electric Power Research Institute, 180 Electrochemical separation. See Electrodialysis (ED)/electrodialysis reversal (EDR) systems Electrodialysis (ED)/electrodialysis reversal (EDR) systems, 81-84 energy requirements, 84 pretreatment required, 82 Electrolytic generation of mixed disinfectants, 66 Electrostatic attraction, 95 Emergencies, provision for. See Small water supply systems, emergency back-up provisions Emergency reserve fund, 165 Emergency Water Supply Plan, 127 Endemic disease, underreported, 40-41 England and Wales, 14-15 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2, 6, 10, 12-14, 22, 30, 35 -37, 40, 48, 66-67, 122, 127, 136, 148-150, 201-204 surveys conducted by, 16, 41 Environmental Technology Verification Program, 135 Epidemiologic investigations, 35-38 Equalization tank use, 70 Equipment testing protocols. See Testing protocols F FDA. See Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Federal funding programs, 168 Federal Reporting Data System, 187 Fees. See Rate structure Filter cartridges, variability in pore size, 112 Filtration. See Coagulation/filtration systems; Membrane filtration systems Financial viability of communities, 24-28, 164-166 borrowing ability, 25 community income levels, 24-25, 154 unemployment rates, 25 Flocculation, 100-101, 104, 106 Florida, 81 Fluoride, 32, 38, 89, 95, 98, 128 Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 127 Formazin turbidity unit (FTU), 111-112 G GAC (granular activated carbon). See Activated carbon use Gas-permeable membrane systems, 90, 92 Giardia, 30, 41-42, 63, 69, 76, 87, 99-101, 107, 110-115, 139, 144 -146 Gray water, 86 Ground water. See also Water sources, surface versus ground sources of contamination, 89 Ground Water Disinfection Rule (GWDR), 88

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--> H Haloacetic acids (HAAs), 68 Health protection. See Public health, protecting Hepatitis A, 35 Heterotrophic plate count level, 89 Hydrated lime, 87 I Illinois Village of Aroma Park, 26 Wenona, 81 Internet, exchanging information on, 6 Interstate Quarantine Act of 1893, 16 Ion exchange systems, 5, 95-97, 117, 119, 123 ion breakthrough, 97 regenerating exchange resins, 95, 119 standards for, 135 testing, 140 Iron, 42, 71-72, 93 oxidized, 87 Irradiation. See Ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection J Joint operating agreements, 179 L Laboratory analyses, 86, 146 Lead, 19, 71-72, 96 Lead and Copper Rule, 72, 147 Leadership, need for, 183 Lime softening systems, 5, 87-88 testing, 145-146 Limestone contractors. See Calcium carbonate Log credits, 99, 139 M Magnesium, 87, 95, 97 Maintenance costs, funding, 169 Manganese, 42, 87, 93, 95 Maximum containment levels (MCLs), 16-21, 29-32, 121-122, 161 determined, 32 violations of, 31, 33-34 Median household income (MHHI), 166 Membrane filtration systems, 4-5, 73-78, 88, 123 fouling of, 4, 76, 78 gas-permeable, 90, 92 membrane construction, 74-75 membrane replacement, 77 pretreatment required, 76 selective membrane use. See Electrodialysis (ED)/electrodialysis reversal (EDR) systems semipermeable membrane use. See Reverse osmosis systems testing, 138-139 MHHI. See Median household income (MHHI) Microbiological contaminants. See Contaminants Microfiltration, 138. See also Membrane filtration systems Mixed disinfectants. See Electrolytic generation of mixed disinfectants Molecular weight cutoff (MWCO), 73, 76-77 Monitoring, remote. See Remote monitoring Monitoring requirements, 29, 30, 64-68, 72, 77, 80, 84-88, 92, 95-98, 101-102, 105-108, 113-114, 119-123 Multiple barrier approach, 41 Multiple disinfectants. See Electrolytic generation of mixed disinfectants MWCO. See Molecular weight cutoff (MWCO) N Nanofiltration. See Membrane filtration systems National Contingency Plan, 127 National Drinking Water Clearinghouse (NDWC), 4, 6, 148, 150-151 National Environmental Training Center for Small Communities (NETCSC) , 10, 192, 202-204 National Research Council (NRC), 2, 12-13, 16 National Rural Electrification Cooperative Association (NRECA), 180 National Rural Utilities Cooperative Finance Corporation, 180 National Rural Water Association, 10, 190-191 National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International, 3-4, 6, 123, 135-136, 150 National Training Coalition (NTC), 10, 192, 202-204

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--> NDWC. See National Drinking Water Clearinghouse (NDWC) NETCSC. See National Environmental Training Center for Small Communities (NETCSC) Nevada, Las Vegas, 30 Nitrate, 32, 38, 40, 89, 95, 115, 128 Nonproliferation, encouraging. See Consolidating small water systems NRC. See National Research Council (NRC) NRECA. See National Rural Electrification Cooperative Association (NRECA) NSF. See National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) International NTC. See National Training Coalition (NTC) Nuisance chemicals, 48-49, 58 O Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, 150 Oocysts. See Cryptosporidium Operating costs, 64-65 funding, 169 Operating data, relaying. See Remote monitoring Operating requirements, 68-72, 77, 80, 84-88, 92, 95-98, 101-102, 105-108, 113-114 records of, 162-163 Operator certification requirements, 189-190 Operator skill levels required, 59, 64-65, 128, 147-148, 193-201 Operator training, 9-10, 187-204 model program for, 199-201 Organic contaminants, 5 causing oxidant demand, 94 removal by adsorption, 58, 85-86 removal efficiencies, 77, 80 volatile, 16-17, 89, 128 Orthophosphate use, 71-72 Oxidation/filtration systems, 93-95 Ozone treatment, 63, 66, 68-69, 94, 128 small package systems, 70-71 P PAC (powdered activated carbon). See Activated carbon use Package water treatment plants, 3, 6, 58, 103, 132 third party certification of, 3-4, 123, 133-136, 149 Parasites, 17, 30. See also Cryptosporidium;Giardia Pathogenic organisms underestimated, 30 unknown, 38 Pennsylvania, Village of Onnalinda, 28 Performance appraisals, 7-9, 158-166, 185 model for, 160 pH control, 71-72, 87 pH meters, 148 calibrating, 88 Pilot testing, site-specific, 3-4, 6, 133-134, 138, 149 streamlining for package water treatment plants, 12-13 Pink water, 95 Planning. See Small water supply systems, comprehensive planning for Plate count level, 89 POE. See Point-of-entry (POE) devices Point-of-entry (POE) devices, 3, 6, 116-117, 119-125, 128, 135 Point-of-use (POU) devices, 3, 6, 116-125, 128-129, 135 Polarity reversal, 82 Poliovirus, 101 Political considerations, 182-184 Polymer membranes, 73 Polyphosphate use, 71-72 Population, changes in, 154-155 Posttreating water, 80 Potassium permanganate treatment, 94-95 POU. See Point-of-use (POU) devices Powdered activated carbon (PAC). See Activated carbon use Power utilities involvement, 180 Preengineered process equipment. See Package water treatment plants Pressure-driven membrane filtration systems, 73, 76-77, 107. See also Reverse osmosis systems Pretreating water, 76, 82, 101, 104 Proliferation of small water systems, 27. See also Consolidating small water systems Protozoa, 66, 76. See also Cryptosporidium; Giardia Public health, protecting, 7, 160-166 Public Health Service, 16, 23

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--> Public water supply systems. See Water supply systems Public-private partnerships, 176 R Radiation. See Ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection Radionuclides, 96-97 Radium, 81, 87, 96, 117, 119 Radon gas, 89, 93, 117 Rapid-rate filtration, 100 Rate structure, 7, 165-166 Raw water. See Water sources Receivership, 176-177 Recommendations, 150-152, 185-186, 204 Recordkeeping, 7, 121 Red water, 71 Regional planning, 14, 156-158, 180-181 Registry of Equipment Suppliers of Treatment Technologies for Small Systems (RESULTS) database, 4, 6, 148, 151 Regulations. See Water supply regulations Remote monitoring, 103, 114-115 Replacement schedules, 120 Resanding, 111 Residuals. See Disinfectant residual, maintaining Resin beads. See Ion exchange systems Restructuring arrangements, 8-9, 154, 169, 175-183 agents involved, 179-181 barriers to, 181-183 RESULTS. See Registry of Equipment Suppliers of Treatment Technologies for Small Systems (RESULTS) database Revenues, operating, 2, 7, 165 Reverse osmosis systems, 78-81, 88, 117, 119, 123, 128 fouling of, 80 membrane replacement, 80 posttreatment required, 80 shutdown precautions required, 80-81 standards for, 135 testing, 139 Risk assessment, 32 Roughing filter processes, 101, 103 Rural Community Assistance Program, 10 S Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), 2-4, 7-12, 16-19, 22, 48, 58, 82, 116, 127-128, 132, 152, 164, 187, 201 compliance with, 28-32, 35, 158 contaminants regulated under, 20-21 exceeding requirements of, 132-133 Safe Drinking Water Hotline, 150 Saltwater intrusion, 89 Sampling representative households, 121-122 Sandwich filter, 111 Sanitary surveys, 8 SCADA. See Supervisory control and automatic data acquisition (SCADA) Scaling, 4, 58, 87, 138. See also Antiscalant chemical use Schmutzdecke buildup, 109 SDWA. See Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) Sedimentation, 100-101 alternative to, 104 Selenium species, 95, 98 Service contracts, rapid-response, 148 Site-specific testing. See Pilot testing, site-specific Skill levels required. See Operator skill levels required Slow sand filtration systems, 5, 109-112, 128 testing, 144-145 Small Community Environmental Training: Trends-Issues, 192 Small System Hotline, 150 Small water supply systems. See also Technologies for small water supply systems adequacy of, 41-44 comprehensive planning for, 161-164 defining, 13 determining value of, 175-176 emergency back-up provisions, 163-164 federal funding programs for, 168 higher costs of, 26 maintenance of, 42. See also Operating requirements methods suited to, 78, 81, 84, 87, 95, 98-99, 108, 112, 114, 124-125 numbers of, 12-15 state funding programs for, 170-174 status of, 2, 10-13, 24-47

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--> sustaining, 7-9, 153-186 training operators for, 9-10, 187-204. See also Operator skill levels required upgrading, 44 Soda ash use, 87, 146 Sodium chloride generating chlorine from, 66 removal. See Desalination Sodium hydroxide, 98 Softening membranes, 76 Spectrophotometry, 67 SRF. See State revolving fund (SRF) awards Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 137 State funding programs, 170-174 State regulatory agencies, 2, 6-7, 27-29, 133-136, 151-152, 166-167. See also California Department of Health Services (DHS) reluctance to use data from other states, 134, 149 State revolving fund (SRF) awards, 9, 159, 168, 182-183 Statewide planning, 156-158 Storage requirements, 109-110 Streaming current detectors, 148 Supervisory control and automatic data acquisition (SCADA), 115 Surface water, 99. See also Water sources, surface versus ground Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR), 99-101, 109, 111, 128, 134 Sustainability. See Small water supply systems, sustaining SWTR. See Surface Water Treatment Rule (SWTR) System sustainability. See Small water supply systems, sustaining T Task Force on Drinking Water Construction Funding and Regionalization, 13 Tax incentives, 9 Technologies for small water supply systems, 3-7, 48-131 alternatives to, 3, 128 changing, 58-59 evaluating, 132-152 list of, by contaminant type, 50-57 operational considerations, 64-65. See also Operating requirements Telemetry devices. See Remote monitoring Temperature effects, 67, 73, 101, 137 Test kits, 67 Testing protocols, 4, 6, 136-137, 151-152 Texas City of San Antonio, 155 Spicewood, 97 THMs. See Trihalomethanes (THMs) Total water management, 155 Trihalomethanes (THMs), 19, 68 Turbidimeters, continuous, 102, 148 Turbidity, 49, 72, 82, 88, 99-102, 105, 133. See also Formazin turbidity unit (FTU) testing for removal of, 142 U Ultrafiltration. See Membrane filtration systems Ultraviolet (UV) light disinfection, 63, 68, 70, 119, 123 life span of lamps, 119 standards for, 135 Uranium, 97 V Vacuum filters, 107 Video training, 202 Violations of water quality standards, 7, 187 Viruses, 17, 30, 63, 66, 76, 80, 99-101, 112-114, 139 Vomiting, 38 W Waivers, temporary, 9 Wales. See England and Wales Washington, Kitsap County, 26-27 Waste disposal. See Disposal Water pressure, low, 27 Water quality declining, 41 failures of, 28 sampling for, 143 Water Quality Association (WQA), 123

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--> Water sources, 162 availability of, 155 surface versus ground, 3, 48-49, 64-65, 68, 87-89, 99 Water supply regulations. See also Environmental Protection Agency (EPA); Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA); State regulatory agencies increasing numbers of, 15-18 Water supply systems, 14-16 classes of, 14 communities lacking, 26-27 failures of, 28 sustaining. See Small water supply systems, sustaining Waterborne disease outbreaks, 1, 8, 12, 27-28, 30, 35-41, 103 problems interpreting data about, 40 underreported, 40-41 use of bottled water during, 127 Western States Protocol, 134 Wisconsin, Milwaukee, 29-30 WQA. See Water Quality Association (WQA) Wyoming, 19, 42