Index

A

Abyssal plain, 136-137

Acceptable risk, 3, 22

Accountability, 8, 25, 63, 169

Acid leaching, 121, 127

Acoustic profiling, 9, 73-74, 77, 107, 170

Arbitration, 54

Atmospheric fallout, 15

B

Bayou Bonfouca, 106, 108, 109, 111, 116

Benchmark values, 22

Beneficial uses of sediments, 7-8, 50, 56-59, 61, 118, 171-172

Bioremediation costs, 104

    current understanding, 102-103

    ex situ, 12, 127-130, 132, 166-167

    experience with, 100-102, 103

    recommendations, 164-165, 166-167

    research needs, 130, 165

    in situ, 11, 100-104

Biosensors, 74-75

Bioslurry reactors, 127

Bioturbation, 66

Black Rock Harbor, 56

Boston Harbor, 54, 69, 134, 227-229

C

Cadmium, 25

Capping, in-place

    advantages, 95, 163-164

    conditions for, 10-11

    contained aquatic disposal and, 134

    costs, 95

    current understanding, 94

    current utilization, 94

    definition, 94

    design, 130, 164

    effectiveness, 145

    goals, 94

    indications for, 94-95

    as interim control, 90

    limitations of, 95

    materials for, 94

    monitoring, 95, 97

    opportunities for technical improvement, 97

    recommendations, 164

    regulations, 11, 95, 97, 164, 190

    strategies for augmenting, 95-97



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--> Index A Abyssal plain, 136-137 Acceptable risk, 3, 22 Accountability, 8, 25, 63, 169 Acid leaching, 121, 127 Acoustic profiling, 9, 73-74, 77, 107, 170 Arbitration, 54 Atmospheric fallout, 15 B Bayou Bonfouca, 106, 108, 109, 111, 116 Benchmark values, 22 Beneficial uses of sediments, 7-8, 50, 56-59, 61, 118, 171-172 Bioremediation costs, 104     current understanding, 102-103     ex situ, 12, 127-130, 132, 166-167     experience with, 100-102, 103     recommendations, 164-165, 166-167     research needs, 130, 165     in situ, 11, 100-104 Biosensors, 74-75 Bioslurry reactors, 127 Bioturbation, 66 Black Rock Harbor, 56 Boston Harbor, 54, 69, 134, 227-229 C Cadmium, 25 Capping, in-place     advantages, 95, 163-164     conditions for, 10-11     contained aquatic disposal and, 134     costs, 95     current understanding, 94     current utilization, 94     definition, 94     design, 130, 164     effectiveness, 145     goals, 94     indications for, 94-95     as interim control, 90     limitations of, 95     materials for, 94     monitoring, 95, 97     opportunities for technical improvement, 97     recommendations, 164     regulations, 11, 95, 97, 164, 190     strategies for augmenting, 95-97

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--> Case histories, 26, 27, 54     decision analysis test case. 263, 268, 272-283     sites selected for, 225.     See also specific site Chemical contaminants, 1     characteristics of sediments, 23, 24     chemicals of concern, 23     as long-term threat, 23     management challenges, 24     mixture, 23-24 Chemical destruction, 125-127 Chemical sensors, 9, 74-75, 77, 170 Chemical separation, 12, 121-123 Chemical treatment, in situ, 11, 97-100, 164 Chesapeake Bay, 196 Clean Water Act (CWA), 5, 8, 18, 25, 182     evaluation methodology, 5-6     interrelationship with other laws, 214-220     local/state regulations and, 209-211     practicability concept, 47 n.3     risk assessment, 47, 156     sediment placement requirements, 48, 49 n.5, 187     sediment-relevant provisions, 192-196     source control provisions, 63-64 Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), 5, 57, 182, 211-212 Collaborative problem-solving, 54 Composting, 129 Comprehensive Environmental Response, Cleanup, and Liability Act. See Superfund Confined disposal facilities (CDFs)     advantages of, 11     bioremediation in, 127-129     chemical contaminants in, 24     contaminant migration pathways, 132     costs, 132     design features, 130     disadvantages of, 11     goals, 130     for rapid response, 90     recommendations, 165     recovery/reuse, 134     research needs, 141, 165     technological augmentation, 132     treatment strategies in, 132     use of, 9 Conflict resolution, 54-55, 259 Contained aquatic disposal (CAD). 12, 134-137, 141, 166 Control of sediments     comparative analysis of technologies, 12-13, 142-147     definition, 2 n.2, 16 n.1 Cooperative research and development agreements, 58 n.8 Corps of Engineers, U S Army (USACE), 5     authority and responsibilities, 18-19, 25     beneficial uses of sediments, 57-58, 61     contained aquatic disposal guidelines, 134-136     cost-benefit analysis in, 40-41, 252-253     decision making framework, 30-32     dispute resolution policy, 55     dredged material evaluations, 48     dredged material management plans, 52     dredging permits, 184-185     local/state regulations and, 210-211, 213     recommendations for, 161, 167-168, 171, 172     WRDA provisions, 199-200, 201-202, 204-208 Cost-benefit analysis     constrained port capacity in calculations of, 252-253     current application, 4, 51, 155-156     environmental costs in, 253-255     expanded application, 4, 40-41, 42     principles of, 3-4, 240-241     process, 37-39, 241-243, 245-246     rationale for new dredging projects, 21     recommended utilization, 157, 160, 161     role of, 36-37, 39-40, 239-240, 243-244, 255     sediment disposal regulation, 6-7     types of benefits/costs, 37, 246-252 Cost effectiveness     data needs for analysis of, 140-141     definition, 3 n.3, 27 n.9

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-->           dredging, 11     management goals, 27-28     political challenges, 26-27     regulatory obstacles, 47, 60     site characterization for, 8-9, 10, 77 Cost of management     accountability of polluters, 8, 25     allocation, regulatory requirements for, 50-51, 157, 197-198     beneficial uses of sediments, 57     bioremediation, 104     chemical immobilization, 123     comparison of remediation strategies, 10, 12-13, 140, 162     confined disposal facilities, 132, 134     current estimates, 10     data needs for technology comparison, 162-163     determinants of, 10, 20     dredging costs, 105     engineering costs of cleanup, 162     ex situ bioremediation, 127     ex situ management, 116     in-place capping, 95     interim controls, 88     landfill disposal, 118, 132     metal leaching, 121     natural recovery, 92     navigational dredging, 20     new-work dredging, 50     particle separation, 140     physical separation, 120-121     rationale for navigational dredging, 20-21     separation of organic contaminants, 121-123     sharing, 8     soil washing, 134     spectrum, 27     Superfund site cleanup, 27     thermal desorption, 123     thermal destruction, 125     trade-offs, 27-28, 34-35     WRDA provisions on allocation, 197-198 CWA. See Clean Water Act CZMA See Coastal Zone Management Act D Data collection/management     for cost-effectiveness analysis, 140-141     cost information, for technology comparison, 162-163     for evaluation of site dynamics, 70-71     field surveys, 71-73, 77     goals of detailed site assessment, 33, 73     identifying goals for, 32-33     local transportation departments as sources, 70-71     monitoring in-place caps, 97     for numerical modeling of sediment transport, 76     recommendations for, 168     site history, 67-70 Decision analysis     benefits of, 260, 265     choosing parameters for, 271-272     for consensus building, 264-265     data needs, 268-271     dispute resolution and, 259-260     mechanics of modeling, 266-267     model simplicity, 264     potential applications, 4, 41, 42, 258, 261     principles of, 4, 258     recommended utilization, 160, 161     risk balancing in, 260-261     role of, 41, 54, 258     state of practice, 261-262     test case, 263, 268, 272-283 Decision making     agency frameworks for, 30-32     consensus building, 54-55, 158, 161     cost-benefit analysis for, 36-41, 239-240, 255     cost information for, 140-141     decision analysis for, 41     goals, 28     identifying decision criteria, 32     improving project implementation, 168-172     for near-term improvements in sediment management, 154     obstacles to, 25-26

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-->           obstacles to effectiveness in, 154-155     opportunities for improvement, 155     phases of stakeholder involvement, 53     political context, 7     project-specific considerations, 45, 62     recommendations for improving, 155-161     regulatory system influence, 6-7, 155-156     risk communication for, 56     selection of interim controls, 87-88     significance of regulatory framework, 45     significance of stakeholder interests, 45     site sampling design, 72     stakeholder interests, 7-8     technology assessment for, 45-46, 84     timeliness of, 5, 48-50     tools for, 2-4, 35, 257     trade-offs in, 13, 34-35, 37, 147     value-driven factors, 45 Detroit River, 73 Dioxin, 23     in Newark Bay, 25 Discharged sediments, 16 n.2 Disposal of sediments     in abyssal plain, 136-137     beneficial uses, 7-8, 50, 56-59, 61, 118, 171-172     in confined disposal facilities, 130-134     contained aquatic disposal, 134-137     cost of, 6-7     inadequate risk analysis in decision making, 156-157     inconsistent regulatory system, 6-7, 46-48     in landfills, 132, 137     permitting process, 6, 47-48     regulatory system, 25, 185-187     safety guarantees, 59     shortage of placement space, 51-52     terminology, 16 n.2 Dispute resolution, 55, 259-260 Distribution of contaminants (aquatic process), 1, 33, 64-67     bioturbation, 66     contaminant resuspension in dredging, 109-111     core sample evaluations, 72     erodibility of sediments, 66-67     evaluation of site dynamics, 70-71     field surveys, 71-73     fine-grained sediments, 65, 120     fluff layer, 65     interim control of, 89-91     mobility of sediment layers, 66     nonlinear behavior, 65     numerical modeling of processes, 75-76     organic matter degradation and, 66     particle aggregation, 65     retention sites, 71     sediment-water interface, 65, 66     site characterization, 64-67, 69     site sampling, design of, 72     understanding of marine environments, 80, 92 Dredged material management plans, 52 Dredging, environmental     cable arm clamshell dredge, 108, 114     for contained aquatic disposal, 136     contaminant release in, 109-111     contract bidding process, 104, 116     cost, 105, 140     digital system, 114-115     dry excavation for, 113     equipment for, 105-106     pneumatic barrier for, 113     precision in, 107-109, 165     recent innovations, 113-116     recommendations, 165     for removal of contaminated sediments, 104-105     research needs, 141     silt curtains for, 112     site assessment, 106, 107     site isolation for, 112     systems approach, 105     See also Dredging, navigational;     Dredging technology Dredging, navigational     applicable legislation, 18     channel maintenance, 21     cost, 10, 20, 105     cost allocation, 50-51, 63

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-->           cost-benefit analysis, 51     disposal regulation, 6-7     economic rationale, 20-21     federal oversight agencies, 5     governing legislation, 5     interagency collaboration for permitting, 49     new construction, 21, 50 n.6     regulatory system, 5, 184-187     sediment traps in, 90-91     source control strategies, 63     as source of contaminated sediment, 19     trade-offs in decision making, 34-35     volume of sediments removed, 20, 21, 187     See also Dredging, environmental;     Dredging technology Dredging technology     backhoe dredges, 106     bottom-crawling systems, 108, 114     cable arm clamshell, 108, 114     depth of cut control, 108-109     digital system, 114-115     hopper dredges, 105-106, 111     hydraulic equipment, 105, 111     mechanical equipment, 105, 111     positioning systems, 107-108     precision technologies, 11, 107-109, 140, 165     See also Dredging, environmental;     Dredging, navigational Duwamish Waterway, 134 E Ecosystem functioning, 15-16 End-points, 22, 36, 82 Endangered Species Act, 182 Energy, U.S. Department of, 263 Environmental cleanup     applicable legislation, 16-18     engineering costs, 162     extent of need for, 19     motivation for, 19     treatment strategies, 18     See also Dredging, environmental;     Superfund Environmental impact statement, 184-185 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 5, 49, 200     Assessment and Remediation of Contaminated Sediments program (ARCS), 81     decision making framework, 30-32     dispute resolution policy, 55     dredged material evaluations, 48     dredging permits, 185-186     recommendations for, 161, 167-168, 172     responsibilities, 18     risk assessment paradigm, 36 n.2     sediment quality criteria, 64     survey of sediment quality, 204-204 EPA. See Environmental Protection Agency Evaluation of technologies     comparative, 12-13, 142-147     cost-effectiveness, 140-141     methodology for, 84     performance monitoring 137-141     research needs for, 141-142 Ex situ management, 84     biological treatment, 127-130, 166-167     chemical immobilization, 123     chemical separation, 121-123     comparative analysis of remediation technologies, 12-13, 146-147     confined disposal facilities, 130-134, 165     contained aquatic disposal, 134-137, 166     containment strategies, 130, 147     cost, 116, 140     cost of biological treatment, 127     cost of chemical immobilization, 123     cost of metal leaching, 121     cost of nucleophilic substitution, 127     cost of physical separation, 120-121     cost of separating organic contaminants, 121-123     cost of thermal desorption, 123     cost of thermal destruction, 125 current status of strategies, 10, 12, 161     geotextile containers, 136

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-->           goals, 116     indications for, 116     interim storage facilities, 116- 117     landfill disposal, 137     long-term monitoring, 139     operations in, 117-118     physical separation technologies, 117, 118-121     recommendations, 165-167     research needs, 141, 166, 167     solids-water separation, 118     thermal desorption technologies, 123     thermal destruction, 123-125 F Fiber-optic sensors, 74-75 Fish/shellfish industries     interim controls on, 88-89     threat of contaminated sediments, 15-16 Fluff layer, 65 Foreign trade     significance of, in national economy, 21-22     waterborne volume, 21 Freezing, soil-water, 100 G Geological Survey, U S., 70 Geotextile containers, 136 Global positioning system, 107 Great Lakes, 81, 196 H Hamburg, Germany, 120 Harbor Maintenance Trust Fund, 21 Hart and Miller islands, 54, 56, 229-231 Health advisory, 88-89 Heavy metals. See Metals/heavy metals Hot spots, 11, 15, 28     interim technological intervention, 90     regulatory provisions, 191 Housatonic River, 103 Hudson River, 89, 103, 196 Hydrocyclones, 120 I Implementation     delays in, 25-26     recommendations, 168-172     stakeholder interests, 7-8 In situ management     biodegradation, 11, 164-165     biological treatment, 100-104     chemical immobilization, 97-99     chemical sensors for, 74-75     chemical treatment, 11, 99-100, 164     comparative analysis of technologies, 12-13, 145-146     cost, 140     disadvantages, 10, 163     freezing, 100     goals, 91     long-term monitoring, 139     natural recovery, 91-92, 94, 163     recommendations, 163     research needs, 141     treatment strategies, 97     types of, 91     utilization, 91     See also Capping, in-place Incineration, 118, 123-125, 139 Indiana Harbor, 115 Inland waterways, sediment disposal in, 25 Innovation     in dredging technologies, 114-116     impediments to, 28     recommendations for research and development, 167-168     research and development process for, 141-142     in site assessment, 73-75 Interim controls, 9, 33, 82     administrative, 88-89, 145     comparative analysis of technology     categories, 12-13, 145     compatibility with long-term strategy, 88

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-->           cost considerations, 88     definition, 87     effective use, 87     effectiveness of, 170-171     indications for, 82, 87     monitoring effectiveness of, 89-90, 139     role of, 86-87     selection of, 87-88     technology-based, 89-91, 145     types of, 87 International agreements, 47, 94 International Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes See London Convention of 1972 J James River, 88, 91, 145, 231-233 L Lake Hartwell, 91 Land placement, 25, 118     advantages/disadvantages, 137     for aerobic degradation, 127     cost allocation, 50     cost of disposal in, 132     regulation, 185     sediment handling for, 137 Laser positioning systems, 107-108 London Convention of 1972, 47, 94 Long Island Sound, 196 Long-term considerations     chemical contaminants, 23     compatibility of interim controls, 88     management of sediments, 10-12, 33-34     monitoring, 139     technology recommendations, 167-168 M Management of sediments     challenges, 1, 16, 27-28, 44     conceptual overview, 30-34     definition, 2 n.2, 16 n.1     empirical knowledge base, 81     interim controls, 9. 33, 82, 86-91, 139, 145, 170-171     long-term plans/strategies, 10-12, 33-34     obstacles to innovation, 28     opportunities for near-term improvements, 154     performance evaluation, 137-141     site characterization, 8-9     site-specific considerations, 45, 62, 82     source control, 8     systems approach, 2-3, 34     themes, 44-45     types of strategies, 2 n.2, 16 n.1.     See also specific type of strategy     understanding of marine environments, 80-81 Manistique Harbor, 90, 115, 120 Manitowoc Harbor, 99 Marathon Battery, 69, 123, 233-234 Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA), 5-6     disposal requirements, 46-47, 48, 185, 186     risk assessment, 155-156 Maritime Administration, 49 Mediation, 54 Mercury, 25 Metals/heavy metals, 56, 57     chemical immobilization, 123     chemical separation, 121, 127     thermal destruction, 125 Mitigation, off-site, 59-60 MPRSA. See Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act N National Ambient Air Quality Standards, 261, 262 National Dredging Team, 49, 52 National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 91, 182, 184 National Ocean Survey, 70 National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 5, 18

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--> National Priorities List, 19 National Weather Service, 70 Natural recovery     advantages, 10, 92, 163     applications, 91     in confined disposal facilities, 132     cost, 92     disadvantages, 10     effectiveness, 10, 145     indications for, 23, 91-92     limitations, 92     monitoring, 92     recommendations, 163     research needs, 94, 163 Negotiated rule making, 54 NEPA See National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 New Bedford Harbor, 89, 90, 95, 111, 112, 123 New York, Port of, 49 Newark Bay, 25 Nucleophilic substitution, 125-127 Numerical modeling, 75-76     of sediment resuspension in dredging, 110 O Ocean dumping     in abyssal plain, 136-137     international agreements, 47     regulatory system, 25, 185, 186-187, 199 Ocean Dumping Act. See Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act Organohalogens, 25 Oxidant injection, 99-100 P Palos Verdes slope cleanup, 114 Particle separation, 117, 118-121, 140 Permitting process     differences among agencies, 6, 47-48     disposal of sediments, 185     interagency collaboration, 49     risk assessment in, 60, 156     time delays, 49 Pesticides, 100 Petroleum products, 25, 100 Placement definition, 16 n.2     See also Disposal of sediments Pneumatic barrier, 113 Political environment     common concerns of stakeholders, 27     for effective decision making, 7     as obstacle to effective sediment management, 26-27     obstacles to decision making, 25-26     stakeholder interests, 7-8, 52 Polyaromatic hydrocarbons, 23, 99, 100, 104, 125, 129 Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 23, 88-89, 99, 100, 103-104, 111, 112, 120, 123, 125, 127-19, 196, 254, 263, 268 Post-project evaluations, 82, 139 Practicability, 47 n.3 Public awareness/perception of aquatic processes, 26-27     citizen stakeholders, 52-53     effectiveness of health advisories, 89 Pyrolysis, 125 Q Quantity of contaminated sediments, 1 R RCRA. See Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Regulatory system     barriers to capping, 11     on beneficial uses of sediment, 56, 58, 61     bioremediation issues, 129-130     cost allocation in, 50-51, 60, 157     determinants of applicability, 24, 183-184     for disposal of sediments, 25, 156-157

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-->           dispute resolution policy, 55     for environmental cleanup, 16-18     evaluation of placement alternatives, requirements for, 46-48     foreign-flag dredges, 113     gaps in, 220-221     government role in developing placement space, 51-52     hot spot management, 191     in-place capping, 95, 164     inconsistency in, 5-7, 25-26, 155-157     interpretation of legislative intent, 49-50, 60     legislative/agency interrelationships, 214-220     natural resource damage claims, 190-191     navigation-related, 184-187     obstacles to effective remediation in, 154-156     opportunities for improvement, 5-7, 48, 60-61, 156-157     potential reforms, 221-224     recommendations for improving, 155-157     reform initiatives, 49     relevant federal agencies, 5, 18     relevant legislation, 5, 183     scope of, 181-182     shortcomings of, 5, 24, 25-26, 46, 48, 60     significance of, for management of sediments, 44, 45     site cleanup legislation/oversight, 187-191     source control through, 63-64     state programs, 208-214     timeliness of decision making in, 48-50     water resource public works projects, 197     See also Permitting process Remediation     comparative analysis of technology categories, 12-13, 142-147     conceptual management approach, 84     conceptual model, 82     cost-effectiveness analysis, 140     current utilization, 84, 161     definition, 2 n.2, 16 n.1     determinants of strategy selection, 16     empirical knowledge base, 81     evaluation of technologies,     methodology for, 84     goals, 82     importance of source control in, 63     legal obstacles to effectiveness in, 154-155     long term controls, 10     recommendations for technologies, 161-168     research needs, 141-142     state of the technology considerations in decision making, 45-46     subsystem components/structure, 82, 84     See also specific component Replacement habitat, 59-60 Research needs     beneficial uses of sediments, 58-59     bioremediation, 130, 165     chemical treatment in situ, 164     confined disposal facilities, 165     contained aquatic disposal, 166     in-place capping, 97     natural recovery, 94, 163     numerical modeling of sediment transport, 76     recommendations, 167-168     remediation methods, 141-142 Residual risks, 34, 35 Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), 5, 18     sediment placement requirements, 48 Risk analysis     activities of, 3, 35     current application, 3, 35     expanded application, 3     opportunities for improvement, 36, 42     recommended utilization, 159 Risk assessment     cost-benefit analysis and, 36-37     current application, 3, 35     EPA paradigm, 36 n.2     goals, 3, 22, 35     in management strategy planning, 33

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-->           methodological differences among agencies, 6, 155-156     recommended utilization. 156-157, 159     residual risks, 34, 35     technical limitations, 36 Risk communication     definition. 35, 55     role of, 3, 56     stakeholder involvement, 55-56 Risk management, 3     definition, 22     process, 22-23     regulatory system shortcomings, 48 Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 (RHA), 5, 18, 48, 184 S Saginaw Bay/River, 92, 120 Screening, particle, 120 Sediment quality criteria, 64 Sediment removal and transport, 82-84     comparative analysis of remediation technologies, 12-13, 146     contaminant loss during, 109-112     cost, 10, 105, 140, 162     for environmental cleanup, 18-19     environmental dredging, 104-105     equipment selection for, 105-109     as interim control, 90     for ocean dumping, 25     on-site controls, 112-113     recent dredging innovations, 113-116     storage facilities for, 106     See also Dredging, environmental, Dredging, navigational, Dredging technology Sediment traps, 90-91 Separation technologies See Chemical separation;     Particle separation Sewage sludge, 57 Sheboygan River, 127-129, 132 Silt curtains, 112 Site assessment     acoustic profiling for, 9, 73-74, 77     aquatic dynamics, 70-71     chemical sensors for, 9, 74-75, 77     cleanup legislation/oversight, 187-191     contaminant distribution processes, 64-67     core sample evaluations, 72     cost effectiveness, 77     cost of, 9     detailed, 33, 73     for environmental dredging, 106, 107     field surveys, 71-73, 77     goals, 33, 67     identifying decision criteria, 32     for natural recovery, 163     numerical simulations, 75-76     opportunities for improvement, 77, 170     post-project, 82, 139     preliminary, 32     protocol, 67     recent innovations, 73-75     recommendations, 172     remediation costs and, 8-9, 10     sampling design, 72     significance of, for management of     sediments, 45, 62, 77, 169-170     use of historical data, 67-70 Soil washing techniques, 118-121, 134 Solids-water separation, 118 Source of contamination     control challenges, 63, 77     control strategies, 8     goals for control, 62-63     navigational dredging and, 63     obstacles to identifying, 25     regulatory control strategies, 63-64, 77     responsibility, 169     types of, 15 Stakeholder interests, 7-8     beneficial uses of sediments, 57-59     common concerns, 27, 55     consensus building, 54-55, 60-61, 158, 161     consideration of, in project planning, 32     fragmented regulatory system and, 25-26     off-site mitigation to satisfy, 59-60     phases of involvement, 53     range of, 52-53

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-->           recommendations for outreach, 158, 161     risk communication among, 55-56     significance of, for management of sediments, 44, 45, 52     threshold issues, 54-55, 259 Sulfide treatment, 99 Superfund, 2, 5, 16-18, 32     cleanup costs, 27, 63     evaluation methodology, 6     in-place capping provisions, 95-97     natural resource damage claims in, 190-191     placement decisions, 47     remedy selection criteria, 188-189     risk assessment, 156     sediment disposal regulations, 25     site inventory, 19, 188     in situ management, 11 Surfactants, 120 Systems engineering/analysis     in environmental dredging, 105     goals, 2-3, 34, 158     methods, 34     recommendations for, 158     risk-based management, 34 T Tacoma, Port of, 49, 53, 54, 56, 57, 234-236 Temporary interventions. See Interim controls Thermal desorption, 12, 123 Thermal destruction, 123-125, 146 Times Beach, New York, 56-57 Total maximum daily loads, 64, 77, 192-193 Treatment of sediments     in confined disposal facilities, 132     cost of, 10     current state of, 12, 162     definition, 2 n.2, 16 n.1     ex situ, 12, 117-118     in situ, 11     in situ biological, 100-104     in situ chemical, 97-100 U Utility theory, 266-267 V Vitrification, 100 W Water Resources Development Act (WRDA)     of 1986, 7, 19, 50, 56, 59 n.9, 63, 157, 197-201     of 1988, 201-202     of 1992, 203-208 Waukegan Harbor, 59, 82, 123, 236-238 Wetlands, 56 WRDA. See Water Resources Development Act of 1986 Z Zeebrugge Harbor, 127 Zero risk, 59