Index

A

Acoustic energy, ballast treatment with, 54, 69, 88, 116-117

Adenosine triphosphate analysis, 80, 122

Anti-fouling coatings, 19-20

for ballast water treatment, 55, 70

Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, 49

recommendations for, 8, 9, 90

Asian river clam, 18

Australia, 11, 49, 77

B

Ballast

capacity, 23

definition, 23

improved ship design for, 106-108

role of, 2, 22, 24, 25

sediment formation, 16, 29, 30-31, 35-36

Ballasting operations

cleaning of tanks, 31

complexity of, 17, 18

controlling trim, 27

coordinated with cargo plans, 41, 87

diversity of, 22-24

equipment and techniques, 29-31

flow rate/velocities, 23, 35, 53-54

heavy weather conditions, 25-26

oceangoing ballast change, 2, 27, 32, 33, 36-38, 86-87, 107

options for implementation of control strategy, 53-54

record-keeping, 6, 8, 10, 33, 43-44, 79-80, 91

safe practice, 24-25

sailing with full tanks, 26-27

transverse stability considerations, 26, 27

voyage approach to biota control, 33

See also Portside ballasting;

Shipboard ballast treatment

Barnacles, 19

Baseline studies

for demonstration projects, 67

port biota. 7

port-water sampling, 77

recommendations for, 9, 91

Biocides

discharge of ballast water treated with, 71

effectiveness, 64-65, 88

monitoring of ballast treatment with, 64-65, 81

nonoxidizing, 66

oxidizing, 65-66, 68

safety, 65



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OCR for page 137
Index A Acoustic energy, ballast treatment with, 54, 69, 88, 116-117 Adenosine triphosphate analysis, 80, 122 Anti-fouling coatings, 19-20 for ballast water treatment, 55, 70 Aquatic Nuisance Species Task Force, 49 recommendations for, 8, 9, 90 Asian river clam, 18 Australia, 11, 49, 77 B Ballast capacity, 23 definition, 23 improved ship design for, 106-108 role of, 2, 22, 24, 25 sediment formation, 16, 29, 30-31, 35-36 Ballasting operations cleaning of tanks, 31 complexity of, 17, 18 controlling trim, 27 coordinated with cargo plans, 41, 87 diversity of, 22-24 equipment and techniques, 29-31 flow rate/velocities, 23, 35, 53-54 heavy weather conditions, 25-26 oceangoing ballast change, 2, 27, 32, 33, 36-38, 86-87, 107 options for implementation of control strategy, 53-54 record-keeping, 6, 8, 10, 33, 43-44, 79-80, 91 safe practice, 24-25 sailing with full tanks, 26-27 transverse stability considerations, 26, 27 voyage approach to biota control, 33 See also Portside ballasting; Shipboard ballast treatment Barnacles, 19 Baseline studies for demonstration projects, 67 port biota. 7 port-water sampling, 77 recommendations for, 9, 91 Biocides discharge of ballast water treated with, 71 effectiveness, 64-65, 88 monitoring of ballast treatment with, 64-65, 81 nonoxidizing, 66 oxidizing, 65-66, 68 safety, 65

OCR for page 137
for shipboard ballast water treatment, 54, 64-66, 68, 88 Biocontrols for shipboard ballast water, 55, 70 Black Sea, 11 C Cargo loading/unloading ballasting patterns, 28, 29 distribution of load, 28 Cargo plans, 41, 87 Chesapeake Bay, 45, 46-47 Chile, 44 Chlorination of ballast water, 54, 57, 65-66 monitoring, 82 Cleaning of ballast tanks, 31 Climate differences, 16 Coast Guard, Canadian, 38, 64 Coast Guard, U.S., 7, 45 Ballast Exchange Education Program, 43 monitoring of maritime trade by, 48 recommendations for, 8, 9, 89-90 Comb jellyfish, 11 Compliance monitoring, 5, 48 Congress, U.S., 1, 44 Control strategies challenges, 2, 18 changing ballast at sea, 2, 36-38 complexity of ballasting patterns and, 17 consideration of local conditions, 33, 35 current technology, 86 discharge of ballast on arrival, 38-40 evaluation methodology, 3-4, 55-60 flexibility, 3 intake of ballast at departure, 33-36 limitations, 3 monitoring for compliance and effectiveness, 48 monitoring of ballast, 5-7 need for, 1, 13 non-ballast vectors, 18-20 objectives, 18, 32 options, 3, 41-42 research needs, 3 risk-based approaches, 3, 48-51 training of crew for, 48 voyage approach, 33 Crew considerations cost of ballast treatment systems, 58 training, 48 D Demonstration projects recommendations for, 90 shipboard ballast treatment, 67 Deoxygenation of ballast water, 55, 70, 88 Dinoflagellates in ballast sediment, 16 Japanese, in Australia, 11, 44 thermal treatment, 82, 111 Dispersal of organisms from ballast extent, 11, 13 mechanisms, 1-2, 13 research needs, 88-89 Diversity of ballast biota, 2, 15-16 ballasting patterns leading to, 17 size range, 15 E Economic considerations cost-effectiveness of monitoring, 5-6 cost of electric pulse/pulse plasma systems, 115-116 cost of monitoring ballast, 80 cost of thermal treatment systems, 113 in risk analysis for control strategy, 49, 51 shipboard ballast treatment, 58 Electric pulse treatment of ballast water, 54, 58, 67, 68-69, 88, 113-116 Engine cooling water, 41, 66 Environmental impact of shipboard ballast treatments, 57, 66, 71-72 , 82 Equipment for ballasting, 29-30 continuous monitoring systems, 80 Evaluation of potential control strategies ballast treatment technologies, 55-60 rating criteria, 4-5 representative scenarios, 4, 56 F Filtration discharge of filtered material, 71

OCR for page 137
media filtration systems, 61-63 monitoring, 82 recommendations for research and development, 90 screening size, 63 self-cleaning strainers, 61 shipboard ballast water treatment, 54, 60-61, 63-64, 72, 88 two-stage system, 64 Flow cytometry, 123-124 Fouling organisms, 19-20 G Great Lakes ballast-mediated introductions in, 11 control strategy for Ruffe, 46, 109-110 monitoring efforts, 48, 74 regulatory effort, 38, 44, 45, 45, 47 Zebra mussel in, 11, 18 Great Lakes Ballast Water Control Guidelines, 38 H Hudson River, 44, 47 Hulls of ships as dispersal vectors, 19-20 I Immunofluorescence, 124 Implementation of control strategies identifying basis for standards , 84 in immediate future, 33 Indicator species, 80-81 Inoculation, 16 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, 44 International efforts, 42-44 coordination of, 7-8, 47, 87 guidelines for ballast management, 7 recommendations for, 8-9, 10 unilateral controls, 87 International Maritime Organization, 1, 47 guidelines for ballast management, 7, 42, 43-44, 86 operations and procedures, 42 recommendations for member states, 9, 10, 91 Israel, 44 J Japan, 44 L Lightering, 40 Lipid phosphate analysis, 124 Local conditions considered in control strategies, 33, 35 M Magnetic field treatment of ballast water, 55, 69-70, 88 Maritime industry recommendations for, 9, 90-91 use of ballast, 22 MARPOL 73/78, 7, 8, 40, 42-43, 87, 90 Monitoring of ballast operations advanced biological analysis, 81, 123-124 after treatment of ballast water, 81-82 ballast conditions and, 76, 78-79 ballast water quality, 79, 80 bioactivity in ballast water, 80-81, 122 biocidal ballast treatment, 64-65, 81 challenges, 7 cost-effectiveness, 5-6 current practice, 48, 74 examination of ships' records, 79-80 forms of, 48 importance of, 5, 48, 74-75, 89 levels of, 6, 77-81 organizational structure for, 48 port-water/sediment sampling, 77, 83 recommendations for research and development, 90 sampling and dispatch, 76-77, 89 sampling issues, 82-83 sediment accumulation, 79, 83 setting standards for, 84 system requirements, 5, 75-76 training for, 48 treatment systems, 58, 72 N Navy, U.S., 45

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Nonindigenous species definition, 11-13 fate of, 16-17 non-ballast dispersal vectors, 11-13 Nutrient assessment, 80 O Oceangoing ballast change, 2, 27, 32, 33 effectiveness, 38, 86-87 hazards of, 38 improved ship design for, 107 rationale, 36-37 techniques, 37 Oil industry, 40 Ozonation of ballast water, 54,67, 68 P Photosynthetic pigment analysis, 80 Phytoplankton, 15 immunofluorescence analysis, 124 Plants, 15 Portside ballasting on arrival, 38-40 to ballast lighters, 40 during cargo loading, 28, 29 for controlling trim, 28, 29 distribution of load and, 28 intake before departure, 33-36 local conditions, 33, 35 port-water sampling, 77 for predicted voyage conditions, 29 role of, 27 shipboard ballast water treatment options, 53-54 treatment facilities, 3, 38-40 Pulse plasma treatment of ballast, 54, 58, 67, 68-69, 113-116 R Record keeping for monitoring ballast water management, 6, 8, 33 recommendations for, 10 Record-keeping international agreements, 43-44 monitoring of, as control strategy, 79-80 recommendations for, 91 Regional efforts, 8, 45-47 limitations of, 47 Regulatory environment international conventions, 43 international coordination, 7-8, 47, 87 at national level, 44-45, 87 recommendations for, 8-9, 89-90 regarding oceangoing ballast change, 38 at regional level, 45-47 Research international coordination, 44 knowledge base for risk analysis, 49-51, 88-89 recommendations for, 9, 90 Risk assessment in current guidelines, 49 for identifying level of monitoring, 78-79 implications for control strategies, 49-51 knowledge base for, 49-51, 88-89 limitations, 3, 16, 48-49, 84 setting standards for ballast water quality, 84 RNA/DNA analysis, 123-124 Ruffe, 46, 109-110 S Safety of ballast control systems, 4 in ballasting operations, 24-25 biocidal ballast treatment systems, 65-66 of oceangoing ballast change, 38 of shipboard ballast treatment systems, 56-57 Sampling and dispatch, 76-77, 89 San Francisco Bay Asian clam in, 18 ballast-mediated introductions in, 11 Sea chests, 19, 29 Seastars, 19 Seaweed/seagrasses, 15 Sediment accumulation of, 29, 30-31, 35-36 advanced biological analysis, 81

OCR for page 137
composition, 31 diversity of biota in, 16 monitoring, 79, 83 Shipboard ballast treatment, 3 chemical residues, 57, 71 cost considerations, 58 criteria for systems evaluation, 4-5, 56-58 environment impact of discharge, 71-72, 88 inappropriate techniques, 69-70 indications for demonstration projects, 67 maintenance of systems, 58 monitoring, 6-7, 72, 74-75, 81-82 obstacles to, 3, 52-53, 87 options with limited applications, 67-69 power supply, 57 promising options, 60-67, 72, 88 ranking of, 58-60 recirculating systems, 57 safety, 57 size of systems, 58 technical evaluation, methodology for, 55-60 technologies for, 4, 53-55. See also specific technology voyage approach to control, 36 Ship design for ballasting, 29-31 for biota control, 33 cleaner ballast tanks, 107-108 for improved at-sea ballast exchange107 limiting ballast, 106-107 principles of stability, 102-105 Snails19 Starfish, 19 Storm ballast, 25-26 Survival of nonindigenous species, 16-17 T Taxonomic assessment, 81 Thermal treatment, 41 byproducts, 113 discharge of ballast water treated by, 71 effectiveness, 111-112 monitoring, 82, 113 shipboard ballast water treatment, 54, 66-67, 88 technical requirements, 112-113 Transverse stability, 26, 27, 102-105 Treatment facilities, 3 effectiveness, 36, 39 land-based, 35-36, 38-40, 87 oil refineries, 40 transport of ballast to, 40 treatment ship, 39 See also Shipboard ballast treatment Turbidity monitoring, 80, 82, 83, 89 U Ultraviolet irradiation of ballast water, 54, 69, 88 W Water characteristics, 53 advanced biological analysis, 81, 123-124 assessment parameters, 79 ballast monitoring, 79, 80 bioactivity measures, 80-81, 122 Z Zebra mussels in Great Lakes, 11, 18 thermal treatment, 111-112 Zooplankton, 15