for shipboard ballast water treatment, 54, 64-66, 68, 88

Biocontrols for shipboard ballast water, 55, 70

Black Sea, 11

C

Cargo loading/unloading

ballasting patterns, 28, 29

distribution of load, 28

Cargo plans, 41, 87

Chesapeake Bay, 45, 46-47

Chile, 44

Chlorination of ballast water, 54, 57, 65-66

monitoring, 82

Cleaning of ballast tanks, 31

Climate differences, 16

Coast Guard, Canadian, 38, 64

Coast Guard, U.S., 7, 45

Ballast Exchange Education Program, 43

monitoring of maritime trade by, 48

recommendations for, 8, 9, 89-90

Comb jellyfish, 11

Compliance monitoring, 5, 48

Congress, U.S., 1, 44

Control strategies

challenges, 2, 18

changing ballast at sea, 2, 36-38

complexity of ballasting patterns and, 17

consideration of local conditions, 33, 35

current technology, 86

discharge of ballast on arrival, 38-40

evaluation methodology, 3-4, 55-60

flexibility, 3

intake of ballast at departure, 33-36

limitations, 3

monitoring for compliance and effectiveness, 48

monitoring of ballast, 5-7

need for, 1, 13

non-ballast vectors, 18-20

objectives, 18, 32

options, 3, 41-42

research needs, 3

risk-based approaches, 3, 48-51

training of crew for, 48

voyage approach, 33

Crew considerations

cost of ballast treatment systems, 58

training, 48

D

Demonstration projects

recommendations for, 90

shipboard ballast treatment, 67

Deoxygenation of ballast water, 55, 70, 88

Dinoflagellates

in ballast sediment, 16

Japanese, in Australia, 11, 44

thermal treatment, 82, 111

Dispersal of organisms from ballast

extent, 11, 13

mechanisms, 1-2, 13

research needs, 88-89

Diversity of ballast biota, 2, 15-16

ballasting patterns leading to, 17

size range, 15

E

Economic considerations

cost-effectiveness of monitoring, 5-6

cost of electric pulse/pulse plasma systems, 115-116

cost of monitoring ballast, 80

cost of thermal treatment systems, 113

in risk analysis for control strategy, 49, 51

shipboard ballast treatment, 58

Electric pulse treatment of ballast water, 54, 58, 67, 68-69, 88, 113-116

Engine cooling water, 41, 66

Environmental impact of shipboard ballast treatments, 57, 66, 71-72 , 82

Equipment for ballasting, 29-30

continuous monitoring systems, 80

Evaluation of potential control strategies

ballast treatment technologies, 55-60

rating criteria, 4-5

representative scenarios, 4, 56

F

Filtration

discharge of filtered material, 71



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